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 Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs)

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carla comoda

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PostSubject: MIS 2 :: Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Mar 03, 2010 8:52 pm

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan? Note: you are required to interview an IS professional/s for your answer ... (at least 3000 words)



The adopted company we have been interviewed is the Rhine Marketing. During the interview our group discover that the RMC-CD branch in Davao City has adopted an in-house programmer. The Rhine System, (name of their IS) was developed by their self-employed personnel. We interviewed Mr. Cris, the MIS head of RMC-CD and fortunately he gives us information about their company and the causes of frustration of the IS professional.
Rhine - A Filipino Success Story

People from all walks of life have associated Rhine Marketing Corporation with sewing machines. Rhine started its operation in Cebu by selling sewing machines on the installment plans. Today, there are more than 64,000 homes in the country with a Rhine sewing machine. Rhine, known for its low cost appliance installment schemes, has been improving the quality of life for thousands of Filipinos by making available all types of appliances, computers and small industrial equipment: sewing machines, TV's, refrigerators, pianos, sing-along systems, stereos, VCD & DVD players and components, electric fans, furniture, spring beds, gas ranges, washing machines, and many more consumer items, on affordable terms.

PROGRESSIVE

Rhine has been actively involved in various socio-economic and civic projects of such institution as the Boy Scouts of the Philippines and the Philippine Business for Social Progress. Personal involvement of the Chairman of the Board Mrs. Isabel Caro Wilson and Mr. Hernando Streegan ensure the company's support and active participation in worthwhile community undertakings.

In 1980 Rhine started granting college scholarships under the Claude M. Wilson Scholarship Program. An average of eight deserving students is selected per year. At present, there are now 80 students who have fully availed of the program.

Internally, Rhine's close to 1,000 employees throughout the country enjoy substantial social benefits: a company retirement plan, group hospitalization, plan emergency loan plan, group life insurance and employees discount/terms on appliance purchases.

For 39 years, the company has served more than 700,000 families by granting them credit through installment sales of more than 1.1 billion pesos. Rhine also gives P30,000.00 death cash benefit to the beneficiary of any Rhine customer who at the time of death due to an accident still has an up to date account of Rhine Marketing Corporation. Consequently, the remaining balance shall be waived and the unit purchased by the deceased customer shall be considered fully paid.

Rhine Marketing Corporation also honors the people who for a number of years have rendered their loyal and faithful service to the company. The company believes that to these individuals, recognition for their hardwork is what they all truly deserve. Every year, service awards are given to its employees who have reached five, ten, fifteen, twenty and twenty five years in the company. Awardees are distinctively awarded with plaques and cash incentives for their respective number of years.

STRATEGIES

Inspite of adversities faced by the appliance retailing industry in the form of stiff competition and government regulations. Rhine has devised innovative schemes and incentive programs to boost the company's installment sales and capture a large segment of the market.

These efforts have resulted in high efficiency ratings, and improved net earnings vis-a-vis owner's equity. The company's credit lines, while available, are used minimally, a good standard achievement since Rhine finances its installment sales.

SALES TOOL

Through the years, Rhine has consistently identified itself with low installment plans. White other appliance firms accept installment sales, few concentrate on it as much as Rhine, which gears its entire marketing stategy to the cultivation of long-term customers who are possible sources of repeat sales. Supporting this strategy are carefully calibrated ranges of installment terms among which a customer is sure to find one perfectly suited for his earning power and budget priorities. Other companies treat installments as subsidiary sales mechanisms: for Rhine, it is a major sales tool.

Rhine is a self-financing installment house. Unlike other appliance outlets, Rhine does not channel receivables to independent finance companies whose collectors and agents deal directly with the customer. At Rhine, the company maintains and trains in-house personnel to adequately service a customer's account. This set up is advantageous to the customer as well as to the company since it helps establish rapport and trust which consequently improves collections and after-sales service.

Before i’ve been tackle the different frustration of the said company i will define first what is Frustration???
PROVIDING CUSTOMER SUPPORT
• On-Site Servicing. Rhine professionalism is extended to help you maintain your computer system right in your home of office. This process gets rid of the hassles of bringing your PC's to service centers.


• Repair and Maintenance Center. Apart from the warehouse that promises ready inventory, the RMA team at the Plant Site caters to PC problems that may not be solved at the Service Center level. Thus, this fully guarantees customers a continued servicing of their PCs.


• Nationwide Network of Sales and Service Center. To provide you with utmost service satisfaction, Rhine has extended its reach and set up a total of 19 Branches and Sub-branches nationwide, making it one of the largest distributor of computer products and peripherals.


• Business Areas. Personal Computer manufacturing * Systems Integration (provides local area networking) * PC consultancy and business solutions * Service and Maintenance.

 Frustration

Frustration is a common emotional response to opposition. Related to anger and disappointment, it arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of individual will. The greater the obstruction, and the greater the will, the more the frustration is likely to be. Causes of frustration may be internal or external. In people, internal frustration may arise from challenges in fulfilling personal goals and desires, instinctual drives and needs, or dealing with perceived deficiencies, such as a lack of confidence or fear of social situations. Conflict can also be an internal source of frustration; when one has competing goals that interfere with one another, it can create cognitive dissonance. External causes of frustration involve conditions outside an individual, such as a blocked road or a difficult task. While coping with frustration, some individuals may engage in passive-aggressive behavior, making it difficult to identify the original cause(s) of their frustration, as the responses are indirect. A more direct, and common response, is a propensity towards aggression.

Different frustrations that he encountered in working with the Information System Plan:

1. Cost – see to that the system costing would depend on the quality of a project. Making a system is impossible without financial support. From the hardware to software, all of this has a cost. That's the reason why a company must have good financial capacity to cater expense of systems.

2. Mood- it refers to the behavioral condition of a programmer. Moods might influence the quality and performance of programmers while programming. It is evident from literature that positive and negative moods influence divergent thinking, quantity/quality of ideas and creative problem solving. The programmers' performance and the quality of their work could be affected by their moods when they develop or test an application.

3 Limitation (restriction) – it refers to the time allocated for the system to be finished.

4. System flow or manual procedure- see to it that whatever the customer wants, it is pertinent that he/she must prepare the important things or data needed in a particular project. For an instance, customer wishes for a quality and easy system, it is important to consider the following like manual procedure had been set, there is legal contract between you (programmer) and customer and finalize first the data and reports needed.

A process for developing a strategy and plans for aligning information systems with the
business strategies of an organization.

Characteristics:
-*Timely. The ISP must be timely. An ISP that is created long after it is needed is
useless. In almost all cases, it makes no sense to take longer to plan work
than to perform the work planned.

-*Useable. The ISP must be useable. It must be so for all the projects as well as for
each project. The ISP should exist in sections that once adopted can be
parceled out to project managers and immediately started.
-*Maintainable. The ISP should be maintainable. New business opportunities, new
computers, business mergers, etc. all affect the ISP. The ISP must support
quick changes to the estimates, technologies employed, and possibly even
to the fundamental project sequences. Once these changes are
accomplished, the new ISP should be just a few computer program
executions away.
-*Quality. While the ISP must be a quality product, no ISP is ever perfect on the first


References:
http://www.rhine.com.ph/about-us/rhine-computer-division.html
Wikipedia.com bounce bounce bounce

my blog

<quinkaye.blogspot.com>


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Mar 07, 2010 11:51 pm

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?

So before I answer the question I will just share some ideas about what are those common frustrations of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan.

Use of technology often has unpleasant side effects, which may include strong, negative emotional states that arise during interaction with computers. Frustration, confusion, anger, anxiety and similar emotional states can affect not only the interaction itself, but also productivity, learning, social relationships, and overall well-being. This paper suggests a new solution to this problem: designing human–computer interaction systems to actively support users in their ability to manage and recover from negative emotional states. An interactive affect–support agent was designed and built to test the proposed solution in a situation where users were feeling frustration.

The agent, which used only text and buttons in a graphical user interface for its interaction, demonstrated components of active listening, empathy, and sympathy in an effort to support users in their ability to recover from frustration. The agent's effectiveness was evaluated against two control conditions, which were also text-based interactions:

1. Users’ emotions were ignored,
2. Users were able to report problems and ‘vent’ their feelings and concerns to the computer

Behavioral results showed that users chose to continue to interact with the system that had caused their frustration significantly longer after interacting with the affect–support agent, in comparison with the two controls.

These results support the prediction that the computer can undo some of the negative feelings it causes by helping a user manage his or her emotional state. Some problems stem from the users’ lack of knowledge, poor training, or unwillingness to read instructions or take tutorials. Often frustration results that from flaws in the computer hardware, software, networking, troubling interactions among components supplied by diverse manufacturers, or the result of malicious actions by other users.

A number of preliminary research steps are necessary to guide developers who are working on the goal of making computer usage less frustrating for users. A first step is to gain a better understanding of what frustrates users of computers. Then taxonomies of frustrating experiences can be developed and means to measure their severity and frequency can be identified. These three steps should lead to solutions with enough supporting evidence so that requests for improvements will be well received by all parties involved. Computers can be valuable tools, and networked resources via the Internet can be beneficial to many different populations and communities.

Many e-commerce and e-business firms today are turning to systems planning and systems analysis. Such analysis provides a broader view of organization catering to system development. System development activity aids in producing information systems solutions and provides a platform for resolving organizational problems using information systems. The paper puts light on objectives, management challenges faced by an organization, and road map indicating direction of systems development.

Another thing working on information systems plan takes patience and perseverance. In order to have a good outcome, IS professionals should do profound analysis and must consider a variety of factors. Without a thorough understanding of the problem and organization’s need the IS plan is intended to solve, and without knowledge of the best practices for organizing the required data, the implemented IS plan becomes an unwieldy beast that requires constant attention. Developing an IS plan is never an easy task. That is why there are methods that IS professionals try to follow and standards they try to thrash out. IS plan should serve the company and the users the way it is expected. Learning from my experience from the previous semester, IS professionals’ task does not end with a scrutiny of the information systems. Indeed, they must evaluate the entire message in terms of coherence, the quality of hanging together in the IS plan. To achieve its purpose, statements must be organized appropriately. They must be ordered in a logical manner and should support the business plan of the organization so that the transition between each one contributes to the overall objective of the plan. After answering the first question, my next purpose is to respond to the next question, “What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?”

According to Freud, it is not simply the nature of the frustrating incident that determines how people will react to it. Rather, there is interplay between the situation and the psychological characteristics of individuals. The level of maturity of the individual also plays a part in the reactions to frustration (Barker, Dembo, & Lewin, 1965). With maturity, there is an increase in the variety of responses to a situation employed by individuals, in the control of the environment, and in their ability to employ problem-solving behavior and plan steps to obtain the goal. It would appear that learning, which is culturally determined, is a major factor in developing socially acceptable responses to frustration.

Frustration occurs when there is a condition, which interferes with or stops the realization of a goal. It makes us feel useless or worthless. Any interruption to our action or task can be very frustrating. Level of frustration experienced by an individual clearly can differ depending on the circumstances surrounding the frustrating experience and on the individuals themselves. There could be so many causes that lead an IS professional to frustration. Same thing happened to me. I made a list of my goals, when and how to attain those goals. I made my own schedule to help me budget my time and succeed in attaining the goals. But then the outcome was in contrast to what I had expected. I thought if I took those actions then all things would go right. This time, I should say that I am not a good planner but I will still keep on trying. I made a realization that the failure was not because I failed to plan and not because I planned to fail but there was something missing and I have to find out what it was. I learned from that experience and I should do the right thing next time.

Going back to the question, I need to identify the causes of frustrations not the frustrations itself. Similar to my experience, IS professionals fail to have a good plan. It might be because they are only focusing on one factor and others are taken for granted. Since we are dealing with information systems, that is why IS planning requires profound analysis and should consider all factors and all the necessary things that would contribute to the improvement. IS professionals may get tired of the unending revisions of IS plan, they should never ignore themselves be dominated by the feeling instead they should keep on working and let the perseverance power over.

My second idea on frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan is the lack of support from the management or from the personnel. Without the support, the IS professionals efforts would end up in frustration.

New technologies are emerging and old ones are outdated. Many major technologies can have a life expectancy of less than five years. These pressures have resulted in a drive for new approaches to planning and managing information technology (IT) services. That is why many of the organizations right now are having a greater investment in IT and information systems (IS). This is now the moment that organizations would try to hire IS professionals to have analysis and improvement on their information systems to help them compete in the market.

Design systems by IS professionals could also frustrate users in the workplace. Users find it hard to understand and use the implemented system. This frustration can affect workplace productivity, user mood, and users’ interactions with other co-workers. It also can affect their emotional state. These frustrating experiences also harm organizations by undermining productivity, lowering quality, and raising stress levels. Improving user interface design is one clear opportunity and it would benefit many users. To build better interfaces, more user involvement is needed in the interface design process. Designers should follow the interface guidelines that exist. User training will also help, especially if it addresses problem solving strategies that will help build self-efficacy. Even small changes in the interface can make a big impact on user satisfaction. IS professionals should also be better situated as the intermediary and be able to get better information between users and vendors when understanding frustration in the workplace.

Frustration is a natural feeling after all. Even none IS professionals experience being frustrated. It happens all the time when we fail to take the action and/or fail to attain our goals. Our response to it should be adaptive. Adaptive responses are constructive and are implemented to solve the problem that is blocking goal attainment. They may include preemptive efforts to avoid the problem, or once the problem is encountered, problem solving strategies to overcome or circumvent the problem.

And also strategic planning must be inclined with the business plan. Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people. Various business analysis techniques can be used in strategic planning, including SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) and PEST analysis (Political, Economic, Social, and Technological analysis) or STEER analysis involving Socio-cultural, Technological, Economic, Ecological, and Regulatory factors. According to other source, strategic plan is a document used by an organization to align its organization and budget structure with organizational priorities, missions, and objectives. It is also a process of comprehensive, integrative program planning that considers, at a minimum, the future of current decisions, overall policy, organizational development, and links to operational plans. And according to the project management club, strategic planning is a basic document for planning of different projects and their sub-projects. It is based on the content of the Financing Memorandum (FM) and the Monitoring and Evaluation Matrix attached to the Financing Proposal and translates the two documents into detailed operational terms. A satisfactory strategic plan must be realistic and attainable so as to allow managers and entrepreneurs to think strategically and act operationally. In align with that, strategic plan must be reliable and suitable for the need of the company.

In doing a strategic plan, it is not really known to everyone that there are frustrations that may trigger. Frustrations in a way that it may cause depression and stress to the professionals and users that are doing it. In doing an Information Strategic plan, it is really a must that the user and the professionals doing it must first determine the company’s background and other facts and information that can help and then again be a useful tool for the planning.

Computing systems this era raises high in a short period of time. Though our country is a 5 year behind than those countries abroad, still using internet is a common tool for someone like in communications. And more likely in a business, it is also a trend of using internet and intranet in their operations since it can help progress their company. Now a day, an even small scale business also acquires using internet and computers for their daily routine. That is because it can help them improve their skills and at the same time it can lessen the work load since using computers doesn’t requires much time. Relatively, why I’m discussing those computer trend marketing in such a way, since that industry now a days is a computer based industry, lot of professionals and users must be aware of using computer in such a way that it is one of the basic tools for doing the planning.

As what I have stated in the first question of this slide, during our Management Information Systems 1, we did a strategic planning in one of the pronounce company in the city today. Not only here in Davao this company well known, also to the other sites of the city. During our discussions with the group, we have decided to have each an individual task. From that then, we can focus on our topic. But that was one of the problems we have encountered.

Misunderstanding between tow parties is also one of the frustrations that IS professionals encounter. That is one of the frustrations we have. We didn’t know what to do and on the other side we don’t know the topics of our other group. At the end of the compilation, the report of one is not related to the report of the other one, and in vice versa. We then realize our mistake after we have compiled the technical paper. So how can we let ourselves give the technical paper to the company we have if there and else we don’t understand what we did, how much more to them. If such case, we are then called to be the professionals who done lousy approach to the planning for the company we are required to have the plan. Then the user also, such a way that there were the people involved in that strategic plan, are then also approach us lousy for the mistake of some persons. Like what I said above, strategic plan must be reliable so that the company must excel in accordance to era.

Another frustration that may trigger in the planning of this IS plan is the time. Time problem is not only for this kind of situation. Even in our other subjects, we do have difficulty in time management. Stress may occur if we hear the word “deadline”. That can cause cramming that can cause also mistakes. Time management may not be a frustration if and when it was been managed accordingly. But also time management requires more budget than of any other. Since this planning is suitable and a provider for the company, there is also a satisfaction that it can really cost big. Like our technical paper before. By committing mistakes, another big cost is at stake.

That frustrations I have stated is only my point of view. Since I have encountered strategic planning before, I have then encountered such frustration things like that. And that frustration I have encountered might then encountered by those professionals.

These are all my opinion about the question so let’s discuss about what I have interviewed which is the Davao Light and Power Company, as what we have interviewed he told us that frustrations based on his experience is that communication, if there is no proper communication its hard to make an IS plan. If no good communication between the management and the IS professional its hard to make a good IS plan. He also told that budget is also a factor if no budget allocation it’s hard to make an IS plan. Time is also a frustration as what he told us that time is gold indeed. So basically, those were the frustrations that he identified and discussed.


References:
Wikipedia.org
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frustration

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Mar 10, 2010 11:51 am

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals
and users while working on an IS plan? Note: you are required to interview an IS
professional/s for your answer ...


frustrations of the IT professionals according to them are usual..
like us, yhough we were just only a student are experiencing frustrations specificaly
on the projects that are given at the same time and will be passed on the same week too.

as we are tasked by our instructor to interview an IT professional to be questioned in what
are the two most frequently experienced causes of their frustrations usually in developing Information Systems Plan..
our group decided to adopt a company which is the Rhine Marketing corporation...
before i start to enumerate the two most common experienced frustration and give the company
overview Rhine, I should give first the definition of FRUSTRATIONS and Information Systems PLAN.


Some sources have identified the reasons of an individual being resistant to changes – organizational and technological change. These include the following:

• THE RISK OF CHANGE IS SEEN AS GREATER THAN THE RISK OF STANDING STILL. Making a change requires a kind of leap of faith: you decide to move in the direction of the unknown on the promise that something will be better for you. But you have no proof. Taking that leap of faith is risky, and people will only take active steps toward the unknown if they genuinely believe – and perhaps more importantly, feel – that the risks of standing still are greater than those of moving forward in a new direction. Making a change is all about managing risk. If you are making the case for change, be sure to set out in stark, truthful terms why you believe the risk situation favors change. Use numbers whenever you can, because we in the West pay attention to numbers. At the very least, they get our attention, and then when the rational mind is engaged, the emotional mind (which is typically most decisive) can begin to grapple with the prospect of change. But if you only sell your idea of change based on idealistic, unseen promises of reward, you won’t be nearly as effective in moving people to action

• PEOPLE HAVE NO ROLE MODELS FOR THE NEW ACTIVITY. Never underestimate the power of observational learning. If you see yourself as a change agent, you probably are something of a dreamer, someone who uses the imagination to create new possibilities that do not currently exist. Well, most people don’t operate that way. It’s great to be a visionary, but communicating a vision is not enough. Get some people on board with your idea, so that you or they can demonstrate how the new way can work. Operationally, this can mean setting up effective pilot programs that model a change and work out the kinks before taking your innovation “on the road.” For most people, seeing is believing. Less rhetoric and more demonstration can go a long way toward overcoming resistance, changing people’s objections from the “It can’t be done!” variety to the “How can we get it done?” category.

• PEOPLE FEAR THEY LACK THE COMPETENCE TO CHANGE. This is a fear people will seldom admit. But sometimes, change in organizations necessitates changes in skills, and some people will feel that they won’t be able to make the transition very well. They don’t think they, as individuals, can do it. The hard part is that some of them may be right. But in many cases, their fears will be unfounded, and that’s why part of moving people toward change requires you to be an effective motivator. Even more, a successful change campaign includes effective new training programs, typically staged from the broad to the specific. By this I mean that initial events should be town-hall type information events, presenting the rationale and plan for change, specifying the next steps, outlining future communications channels for questions, etc., and specifying how people will learn the specifics of what will be required of them, from whom, and when. Then, training programs must be implemented and evaluated over time. In this way, you can minimize the initial fear of a lack of personal competence for change by showing how people will be brought to competence throughout the change process. Then you have to deliver.

• PEOPLE HAVE A HEALTHY SKEPTICISM AND WANT TO BE SURE NEW IDEAS ARE SOUND. It’s important to remember that few worthwhile changes are conceived in their final, best form at the outset. Healthy skeptics perform an important social function: to vet the change idea or process so that it can be improved upon along the road to becoming reality. So listen to your skeptics, and pay attention, because some percentage of what they have to say will prompt genuine improvements to your change idea (even if some of the criticism you will hear will be based more on fear and anger than substance).

• PEOPLE FEAR HIDDEN AGENDAS AMONG WOULD-BE REFORMERS. Let’s face it, reformers can be a motley lot. Not all are to be trusted. Perhaps even more frightening, some of the worst atrocities modern history has known were begun by earnest people who really believed they knew what was best for everyone else. Reformers, as a group, share a blemished past . . . And so, you can hardly blame those you might seek to move toward change for mistrusting your motives, or for thinking you have another agenda to follow shortly. If you seek to promote change in an organization, not only can you expect to encounter resentment for upsetting the established order and for thinking you know better than everyone else, but you may also be suspected of wanted to increase your own power, or even eliminate potential opposition through later stages of change.

• PEOPLE FEEL THE PROPOSED CHANGE THREATENS THEIR NOTIONS OF THEMSELVES. Sometimes change on the job gets right to a person’s sense of identity. When a factory worker begins to do less with her hands and more with the monitoring of automated instruments, she may lose her sense of herself as a craftsperson, and may genuinely feel that the very things that attracted her to the work in the first place have been lost. I saw this among many medical people and psychologists during my graduate training, as the structures of medical reimbursement in this country changed in favor of the insurance companies, HMO’s and managed care organizations. Medical professionals felt they had less say in the treatment of their patients, and felt answerable to less well trained people in the insurance companies to approve treatments the doctors felt were necessary. And so, the doctors felt they had lost control of their profession, and lost the ability to do what they thought best for patients.

Now, in any Information System Planning, support of both parties (developer and the client) is very vital on the process of the planning. A developer cannot pursue with his/her goals when the client is not doing his/her part in the planning. If there is planning, these two components is interdependent with each other. Support is essential to a successful project. Projects can fail because of lack of support, because some people in an organization hasn't actively involved key decision makers in determining project strategy and direction. Anybody who is within the organization should keep support throughout the lifecycle of their project and improving project quality down the line. IS professionals often faced with the challenge of dealing to people who are very resistant to organizational change. We all know that we are in fast-paced environment and so changes should be expected and in turn we should have to deal these changes accordingly. However, not all people in an organization is flexible enough to adapt the change, that’s why IS professional should have the ability to effectively influence others, and it is often the solution to achieve desired results. This skill is used daily in meetings and business discussions and when constructing and communicating the business case for a new initiative.

There are six externalities that bring about change. They are regulation, capital markets, competition, technology, globalization and customers. When any of these external contexts changes radically and the company is either unable or unwilling to change, it often results in failure. Company success is very much like human behavior—a result of nature and nurture. But managers refuse to say that they were blessed from above, and so they take all the credit for themselves. They succeed as long as the environment doesn’t change. The underlying theory is that many people in business succeed by accident and not by plan. But, unfortunately, people end up believing what they will succeed forever, and they become resistant to change. They get locked into one paradigm or one way of life. Or in other words, people tend to forget that the environment they are in is changing, that’s why these people never think of facing the change for they got so used to something being a certain way in their lives that they don't want it to change and if they will do will affect their lives as they believed.

Building consensus, properly managing others’ expectations, and translating a concept or initiative into a range of viable options for achieving organizational goals are all critical competencies for today's IS professional. Certainly there are many great managers who take the time and invest themselves in helping their employees understand the changes and how they affect them. Here are some of the things they do:

1. Stop periodically and take a step back to regroup. Sometimes leaders get out in front of the rest of the group and they lose people. This feels like resistance, but it is often simply confusion and a lack of understanding. Each person will "get it" and buy in at different points in the process. Telltale signs are blank stares, input that is off the mark or questions about the purpose of the changes. When it comes to explaining the WHY behind any change, repetition is the key. People will only be ready to hear it and understand it when they are personally ready--in their own time.
2. Make sure people understand that they weren't doing it "wrong" the old way. Sometimes people are hurt or insulted by changes because no one took the time to explain that. Their credibility is at stake, so they fight a personal battle against the new way.
3. Show people how the changes support the mission, vision and strategy of the organization. If they don't see how the change will be good for anything--other than more work (or even losing their job)--they aren't going to get behind it. Too often, senior managers are the only people who sit in a room and discuss the strategic reasons behind a change. Then they wonder why everyone is so "resistant." The best strategy here is to communicate the changes at every opportunity, so that people understand how the changes tie into the big picture. All the senior and middle managers need to participate in one-on-one meetings, small group sessions, round-table discussions and company-wide meetings. These should be done often and with a format that allows for maximum interaction.
4. Help each person see how the changes impact them. Discuss what's in it for them and what they can do to help make the changes in their jobs. Take it down to the details and the specifics so that people can see clearly what the change means and what their part in it is.



Frustration

Frustration is a common emotional response to opposition. Related to anger and disappointment, it arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of individual will. The greater the obstruction, and the greater the will, the more the frustration is likely to be. Causes of frustration may be internal or external. In people, internal frustration may arise from challenges in fulfilling personal goals and desires, instinctual drives and needs, or dealing with perceived deficiencies, such as a lack of confidence or fear of social situations. Conflict can also be an internal source of frustration; when one has competing goals that interfere with one another, it can create cognitive dissonance. External causes of frustration involve conditions outside an individual, such as a blocked road or a difficult task. While coping with frustration, some individuals may engage in passive-aggressive behavior, making it difficult to identify the original cause(s) of their frustration, as the responses are indirect. A more direct, and common response, is a propensity towards aggression.

Causes

To the individual experiencing frustration, the emotion is usually attributed to external factors which are beyond their control. Although mild frustration due to internal factors (e.g. laziness, lack of effort) is often a positive force (inspiring motivation), it is more often than not a perceived uncontrolled problem that instigates more severe, and perhaps pathological, frustration. An individual suffering from pathological frustration will often feel powerless to change the situation they are in, leading to frustration and, if left uncontrolled, further anger.

Frustration can be a result of blocking motivated behavior. An individual may react in several different ways. He may respond with rational problem-solving methods to overcome the barrier. Failing in this, he may become frustrated and behave irrationally. An example of blockage of motivational energy would be the case of the worker who wants time off to go fishing but is denied permission by his supervisor. Another example would be the executive who wants a promotion but finds he lacks certain qualifications. If, in these cases, an appeal to reason does not succeed in reducing the barrier or in developing some reasonable alternative approach, the frustrated individual may resort to less adaptive methods of trying to reach his goal. He may, for example, attack the barrier physically or verbally or both.

Rhine Marketing Corporation


People from all walks of life have associated Rhine Marketing Corporation with sewing
machines. Rhine started its operation in Cebu by selling sewing machines on the
installment plans. Today, there are more than 64,000 homes in the country with a Rhine
sewing machine. Rhine, known for its low cost appliance installment schemes, has been
improving the quality of life for thousands of Filipinos by making available all types
of appliances, computers and small industrial equipment: sewing machines, TV's,
refrigerators, pianos, sing-along systems, stereos, VCD & DVD players and components,
electric fans, furniture, spring beds, gas ranges, washing machines, and many more
consumer items, on affordable terms.


RHINE COMPUTER DIVISION - A CORPORATE OVERVIEW

Rhine Marketing Corporation - Computer Division (RMC-CD) is a leading manufacturer of
personal computers, and distributor of a complete line of pheripherals and other
computer-related services.

Established in February 1992, when Rhine Marketing Corporation's interest has evolved
from home appliance business has achieved a good reputation immediately. We not only
provide expertise to meet the increasingly sophisticated needs of our clients, but also
offer solutions that set new standards for quality performance and value.



Information systems Plan

A process for developing a strategy and plans for aligning information systems with the
business strategies of an organization.

characteristics:
♥️ Timely. The ISP must be timely. An ISP that is created long after it is needed is
useless. In almost all cases, it makes no sense to take longer to plan work
than to perform the work planned.

♥️Useable. The ISP must be useable. It must be so for all the projects as well as for
each project. The ISP should exist in sections that once adopted can be
parceled out to project managers and immediately started.
♥️Maintainable. The ISP should be maintainable. New business opportunities, new
computers, business mergers, etc. all affect the ISP. The ISP must support
quick changes to the estimates, technologies employed, and possibly even
to the fundamental project sequences. Once these changes are
accomplished, the new ISP should be just a few computer program
executions away.
♥️Quality. While the ISP must be a quality product, no ISP is ever perfect on the first
.try. As the ISP is executed, the metrics employed to derive the individual
project estimates become refined as a consequence of new hardware
technologies, code generators, techniques, or faster working staff. As
these changes occur, their effects should be installable into the data that
supports ISP computation. In short, the ISP is a living document. It should
be updated with every technology event, and certainly no less often than
quarterly.
♥️Reproducible. The ISP must be reproducible. That is, when its development activities are
performed by any other staff, the ISP produced should essentially be the
same. The ISP should not significantly vary by staff assigned.



in Rhine Marketing, we have interviewed MR. Cris Abella a IT personnel on the Davao branch
which is located at the Gestuvo Bldg., San Pedro St., Davao City.
as we asked him on what are the common experienced causes of frustrations in developing Is
plan, he gave us four answers and these are:



System flow or manual procedure
each of the company has its own system flow and manual procedure, so the company should
first identify what are their systems flow so that the IT professional will be able
aware on what he was going to do.

Limitation (restriction)
since all company has its own privacy, the company should identify and will clearly state
what are the do's and dont's in their company. in what phases do the IT professional
can enter.

Cost-
of course after the overview of each of the restrictions and systems flow, the company and
IT professionals should agree in terms of the cost of the project.

MOOD-
it is the most importnat factor that an IT professional should consider since
not all of us are always in the mood to make a project.


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ailaine adaptar

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PostSubject: >> frustrations...   Wed Mar 10, 2010 12:50 pm


What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan? Note: you are required to interview an IS professional/s for your answer ...(at least 3000 words)


Review:

Information System Planning, as for any other system, begins with the identification of needs. In order to be effective, development of any type of computer-based system should be a response to need--whether at the transaction processing level or at the more complex information and support systems levels. Such planning for information systems is much like strategic planning in management. Objectives, priorities, and authorization for information systems projects need to be formalized. The systems development plan should identify specific projects slated for the future, priorities for each project and for resources, general procedures, and constraints for each application area. The plan must be specific enough to enable understanding of each application and to know where it stands in the order of development. Also the plan should be flexible so that priorities can be adjusted if necessary.

The task of strategic information systems planning is difficult and often time organizations do not know how to do it. Strategic information systems planning is a major change for organizations, from planning for information systems based on users’ demands to those based on business strategy? Also, a strategic information system planning changes the planning characteristics in major ways. For example, the time horizon for planning changes from 1 year to 3 years or more and development plans are driven by current and future business needs rather than incremental user needs. Increase in the time horizon is a factor which results in poor response from the top management to the strategic information systems planning process as it is difficult to hold their attention for such a long period. Other questions associated with strategic information systems planning are related to the scope of the planning study, the focus of the planning exercise – corporate organization vs. strategic business unit, number of studies and their sequence, choosing a strategic information systems planning methodology or developing one if none is suitable, targets of planning process and deliverables. Because of the complexity of the strategic information systems planning process and uniqueness of each organization, there is no one best way to tackle it.

A conceptual framework for Information System Plan is necessary both from a theory building perspective as also providing a basis for undertaking ISP. The latter is expected to answer the following questions frequently encountered by the practitioners in this area:

• What is involved in ISP and how to go about doing it?
• How to link the products of ISP to systems analysis, design and implementation in a timely manner?
• Is one SISP methodology more suitable than another in a given context?
• How to evaluate alternative information systems plans?

The theory building perspective of ISP is expected to contribute to research in this area, which, being in its infancy has been largely anecdotal. Based on the literature in this area and a careful study of the current methodologies, certain generic steps in a typical SISP formulation can be identified. These are:

• Study Internal Business Environment. This is a prerequisite to determining the business IS needs. The internal business environment is comprised of mission of the organization, its objectives, strategies and plans, business activities, the organizational environment, core competencies, its critical success factors and the internal value chain.

• Study external business environment. This helps an organization focus attention on the forces and pressure groups it encounters. These external forces exert a very strong influence on the business strategy of an organization. Factors to be considered here are the industry that the organization is in and that industry’s critical success factors, competitive position of the organization in the industry, relationship with major buyers and suppliers.

• Study internal IS/IT environment. This is mainly comprised of the current and planned applications portfolio that supports the business. Other aspects to be considered here are the present
IS organization, skills and attitudes of people in the organization, IT environment and the IS/IT budgets.

It is also hypothesized that the above model will provide an organization a third alternative to develop applications based on either a comprehensive systems development life cycle or rapid prototyping. Either after the completion of the top level model or even during its completion, some critical vertical flows can be identified - for example those based on the critical success factors, or some competitive advantage/threat. Applications can then quickly be developed, tested and implemented along those critical/competitive flows. The rest of the model can await completion and subsequent implementation while the organizational resources are concentrated on developing applications demanded by the exigencies of the current situation.

Considerations that causes frustration:

These are some factors or barriers that make IS professionals suffer from frustration while working on the Information System Plan. It is considerable that not all IS professionals encounter this but the majority.

Organizational Culture Barriers
Culture of physical/paper records
Their workflow is designed for paper.
Paper provides them a sense of security.
Paper provides proof of action.

Paper is readily available (cheap) .
Culture of organization type
The company is a construction industry and most of its data is on paper .
Staff education lacks priority in organizational plans
because they focus on the fields (sites) .

Technology and Standards Barriers
There is a technical challenge to assure user authentication and successful use of system. The interface for retrieving records would have to be standardized so that providers would not be trying to learn each individual system . There are far more users of information system than there are technical assistants
available to address technical issues .
According to them, technical documentation for information system is usually long and not user friendly .Staff maynot receive proper training in user authentication and system use .

Organizationslack adequate infrastructure and role delineation for the development and
enforcement of security, privacy, and information management policies and
procedures
No IT personnel .

In-house Resources for Information Management Barriers
There are variations between shifts in both practices and available resources
Shift variation in practice is related to the educational barrier listed previously

. All staff needs to be educated on appropriateness of information, procedures for access and security of the
records .


There is massive data that must be considered .

There is a lack of ways to share IT
educational materials
Some IT educational materials may be proprietary .
There are ways of sharing educational material, but a lack of information/leadership to
execute …
There are insufficient resources for language diversity to assure provision of
information, and comprehension of information given
The personal record needs to be accessible to everyone in order to be successful …

Again,the company is a construction company which means that some of their staff is not
that good in understanding the system technically .
There are variations in resource availability from organization to organization
Providers without the appropriate resources will not be able to participate in the shared
record. These resources could be defined as monetary or technical .
There is a lack of funds and/or resources in some branches .

Resources are limited in rural areas where the project sites are located .
Resources are limited in poor communities where some project sites are located .
There are variations in information technology development from organization to
organization

Som organizations do not have any form of electronic data in which to interface .Most organizations do not have a full EMR implemented yet.

There is a lack of funds for across the board information technology development .
Some organizations lack the ability to attract professional resources due to
geographic

Privacy and Security Leadership Development Barriers
Organizations have dual functions in legal counsel and privacy officer, which spreads staff too thin for effectiveness
Appropriate policies and procedures for privacy and security may not get created or adhered to without proper attention . This could lead to security breaches or inappropriate access .

Organizations exclude privacy experts in information technology solutions up front, and instead include them in the back end of the solutions process. It is always more effective to build privacy and security into a solution than to
tack it on after implementation. These implementations often have other flaws that cannot be addressed after the implementation has been completed .

There is a lack of awareness of who are the privacy experts i.e. HIM Professionals, other .
There is a general lack of security officers for information technology.
The expertise in IT security is essential to performing risk analysis and mitigation . This is a rapidly evolving field that requires people with a detailed knowledge of information security . The potential for security breaches will increase substantially without oversight from these types of professionals .

The security officers’ concept/position is still evolving .
There is a lack of centralized authority or organization for the privacy and security of
construction information.
The policy decisions concerning security protocols around a combined record need to be centralized so that the associated risks can be properly identified and managed . It would cause conflicts to have a violation in one county be allowable in another for example .


Privacy and security are still legal matters and very complex .

Laws are constantly changing .
There is a lack of organizational infrastructure for information edit checks, audits, and general quality assurance of construction information. There would need to be some type of random audit checking to determine if access to a record was appropriate . Providers would need to have a construction need to
view information or there would be violations from the curious to the criminal
. How many people would access the records of a VIP if they were available
electronically?

There are multiple construction information quality assurance systems .
There are multiple people involved in the development of quality assurance of construction information .

Key players are often missing in the planning strategy for quality assurance of construction information .
Legal expertise resides in organizations outside of construction information management staff

Provider staff need education on the operational privacy and security procedures that directly affect them . They will be making the daily decisions that affect the privacy and security of construction information . These decisions may not be appropriate or in line with policies and procedures if the expertise is not available to them .

Construction information management staff often times do not have direct access to the legal expertise .

Construction information management may have to go through two or more persons to access legal expertise .

Legal expertise costs money and is expensive .

The Interview:

In God’s grace, we were able to interview the EMCOR’s current Information Systems Analyst together with their current Manager. Through our course of discussion, we are able to visualize what are those two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan. These are explained and discussed further by the following:
1. Beginning in organizational change
The world is rapidly changing into something too hard to easily predict, with a hundred opportunities and pitfalls passing by every moment. To add to this confusion, there are hundreds, if not thousands of techniques, solutions and methods that claim to help business improve productivity, quality and customer satisfaction. A company President, CEO or business owner has so many choices in these buzzwords, whether they be called Total Quality Management, Customer Satisfaction, Re-engineering or Teambuilding. They are like new shoppers in a giant grocery store: They are hungry, but there are so many brands, sizes and varieties you don’t know what to buy.
In response to this confusion, many do nothing, often afraid of making the wrong choices. Others change the techniques they use every few months, using the “program du’jeur” method of organizational change, otherwise known as MBS (Management by Best Seller). Neither of these responses help the organization in the long run. Changing nothing will produce nothing. Implementing a different buzzword (Total Quality, Just in Time, Re-engineering, etc.) every few months often creates a “whipsaw” effect that causes mass confusion among your employees. These buzzwords are often a hammer in search of a nail, techniques applied with no clear focus as to the why, expected results or return on investment.

One of the organizations we consulted with started on this path. Senior management proclaimed in a memo that Total Quality should be a way of life. One senior vice president declared that he wanted 25% of his organization using Total Quality tools within a year. This caused tremendous excitement in the organization, However, the follow-through was delayed, occasionally inappropriate and sometimes not there. Many employee became discouraged with the process and considered it just another management fad. With the next business downturn, virtually all training had stopped and little enthusiasm was left.
Other organizations clearly focus on technical problems and on improving what they had. They are initially successful, but become victims of their own success. I call this an improved, planned incremental approach. Their initial quality improvement teams may be so successful they rapidly create more teams, without the qualitative organization-wide changes (re-engineering) necessary to sustain a permanent effort.
One organization we worked with had over 70 quality improvement teams in a plan with only 300 employees. They had shown little results after their first successes, and asked us what their next steps should be. We suggested the union’s leadership in their efforts, look at restructuring their organization along more product-focused lines, and possibly start profit sharing. They were not interested in taking any of these actions. A few months later, its parent company shut down the site, partly because of its poor productivity.
Organizations need to move beyond the buzzwords into deciding what actions they need to perform that will help them grow and develop. In response to this problem, this article will provide you a framework for coping with organizational change independent of buzzwords or the latest management fad. Organizations must first decide on the framework their organizational change long before they choose a buzzword to implement.
2. The major decisions
Instead of grasping for the latest technique, I suggest instead that organizations should go through a formal decision-making process that has four major components:



  • Levels, goals and strategies
  • Measurement system
  • Sequence of steps
  • Implementation and organizational change

The levels of organizational change
Perhaps the most difficult decision to make is at what "level" to start. There are four levels of organizational change:


  • shaping and anticipating the future (level 1)
  • defining what business(es) to be in and their "core competencies” (level 2)
  • reengineering processes (level 3)
  • incrementally improving processes (level 4)

First let's describe these levels, and then under what circumstances a business should use them.

Level 1- shaping and anticipating the future
At this level, organizations start out with few assumptions about the business itself, what it is "good" at, and what the future will be like.
Management generates alternate "scenarios" of the future, defines opportunities based on these possible futures, assesses its strengths and weaknesses in these scenarios changes its mission, measurement system etc. More information on this is in the next article, "Moving from the Future to your Strategy."

Level 2 - defining what business(es) to be in and their "Core Competencies
Many attempts at strategic planning start at this level, either assuming that 1) the future will be like the past or at least predictable; 2) the future is embodied in the CEO's "vision for the future"; or 3) management doesn't know where else to start; 4) management is too afraid to start at level 1 because of the changes needed to really meet future requirements; or 5) the only mandate they have is to refine what mission already exists.
After a mission has been defined and a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis is completed, an organization can then define its measures, goals, strategies, etc. More information on this is in the next article, "Moving from the Future to your Strategy."

Level 3 - Reengineering (Structurally Changing) Your Processes
Either as an aftermath or consequence of level one or two work or as an independent action, level three work focuses on fundamentally changing how work is accomplished. Rather than focus on modest improvements, reengineering focuses on making major structural changes to everyday with the goal of substantially improving productivity, efficiency, quality or customer satisfaction. To read more about level 3 organizational changes, please see "A Tale of Three Villages."
Level 4 - Incrementally Changing your Processes
Level 4 organizational changes are focusing in making many small changes to existing work processes. Oftentimes organizations put in considerable effort into getting every employee focused on making these small changes, often with considerable effect. Unfortunately, making improvements on how a buggy whip for horse-drawn carriages is made will rarely come up with the idea that buggy whips are no longer necessary because cars have been invented. To read more about level 4 organizational changes and how it compares to level 3, please see "A Tale of Three Villages."

One organization we consulted with has had a more positive experience with the incremental approach. We trained an internal facilitator, helped them deliver training in a just-in-time fashion, and had them focus on specific technical problems. The teams management formed reduced initial quality defects by 48%.
The disadvantages of such an incremental approach include avoiding structural, system-wide problems, and assume existing processes need modest improvement. In addition, using incremental approaches can be frustrating to employees and management if (pick a buzzword) does not catch on in the organization. As a result of these disadvantages, many organizations experience a high risk of failure in the long run.

These frustrations are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan. These may be common while working plan, yet the concerned and involved human resource must be prepared.

http://www.organizedchange.com/decide.htm
http://www.crfonline.org/orc/pdf/ref4.pdf
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PostSubject: frequent causes of frustrations...   Sat Mar 13, 2010 5:37 pm


IS people deal with various challenges especially when things are not going as they are planned to be. For how many times we have been stressing that a strategic plan is essential to the success of any business. Implementing it will determine how successful business can be – and this is through having clear vision, clear objectives and how to get them, and of course, clear communication tactics.

In the making and working of an information system plan, there are a lot of scenario where IS professionals find trouble in dealing not with the subject of matter but the people who are actually working with the planning process. Some superiors and subordinates and colleagues provide valid reasons why they are also treated as causes of frustrations. Frustration is an emotion that occurs in situations where a person is blocked from reaching a desired outcome. Frustration is experienced whenever the results (goals) you are expecting do not seem to fit the effort and action you are applying. Frustration will occur whenever your actions are producing less and fewer results than you think they should. Common responses to frustrations include anger, giving up, stress, depression, and other reactions. Although this is one psychological aspect, this will surely have an effect especially in doing something of high value and complexity like information systems planning. If this would not be further addressed appropriately, chances are harmonious relationships and working conditions with the human resources (these are most likely be affected), would result in failed information system plans.

When we had our industry visit last January 8, 2010 at the EMCOR Inc., Bajada, Davao City, we were given the chance to discuss with the Management Information System (MIS) Department Manager and Assistant Manager, several points regarding strategic information system planning. According to them, well, in their case, the common causes of frustration of IS professionals and users are the following: resistance to change, and the unfair treatment of employer to employees (and/or vice versa) or shall I say, underestimation of workers.

Change is inevitable. As they say, nothing is permanent in this world except change. True enough, in the corporate world, business can not survive for long without progress if the management does not learn how to embrace change in the organization. In these cases of unforeseen patterns of diversion, management must know how to make strategic decisions which can make benefits for the company in spite of slight and considerable modifications in long or short term plans being arranged. Strategic information system (IS) plans do represent a big role in this. It is significantly made for the organization to develop approaches and manage decisions necessary for the firm.

However, in the event of organizational changes there are also ups and downs. The purpose of operating new concepts and plans may be to venture into another level or scope of business, but this could be a major factor why systems fail. And one of the common reasons is, because the employees of your company are resistant to changes.

Resistance, as viewed by Folger & Skarlicki (1999), is an "employee behavior that seeks to challenge, disrupt, or invert prevailing assumptions, discourses, and power relations". Resistance to change is the action taken by individuals and groups when they perceive that a change that is occurring as a threat to them. Key words here are 'perceive' and 'threat'. The threat need not be real or large for resistance to occur. In its usual description it refers to change within organizations, although it also is found elsewhere in other forms. Resistance is the equivalent of objections in sales and disagreement in general discussions. Resistance may take many forms, including active or passive, overt or covert, individual or organized, aggressive or timid (changingminds.org).

Our interviewees cited an experience when their company fell short because of the workers’ resistance to change. They mentioned that they had two pilot stores in which its operations failed due to the aforementioned reason. “When you do something new, it should be beneficial…” (The bosses did not mention the details of the unsuccessful incident and I dared not to ask them anything about it thinking it could be something confidential…^_^)

Reflecting on their case, I can barely say that this major factor although passively being regarded by many firms can seriously take down a company indirectly. EMCOR actually introduced a new strategy into their two pilot stores and yet the benefits are just overruled by workers who thought they could not get the full advantage of it. So to say, when there is something new, it should be studied well and have to make sure that it would both benefit the customers, the company, as well as the workforce.

Vadim Kotelnikov, founder and author of Ten3 Business eCoach from which I gathered some helpful facts about change management, enumerated the following main reasons in resistance to change in the workplace:

Fear of the unknown. Workers may feel hesitant of the new change that will happen for they do not know what may take place next. Sometimes, refusing to go along with it will reduce anxiety.

Fear of failure. In the current situation, employees may have already found or developed the skills and abilities their work required. But thinking about the change, they might be afraid to accept it for fear that it may call for new skills and abilities that they may not be able to give.

Disagreement with the need for change. This is true in the case of managers and associates. They may argue with each other that the new direction is a wrong direction.

Losing something of value. Workers sometimes determine how they would become in the future when the change will be implemented. They tend to weigh down things circumstances and as to how they will be affected. If they think they will end up losing, they will resist the change.

Leaving a comfort zone. A lot of times we tend to be scared of what awaits us in the upcoming times especially if a change requires us to leave our comfort zones. Maybe in the future if the changes will take effect it would force us to take risks.

False beliefs. Employees sometimes tend to believe into false beliefs that someday everything will work out fine that is why they avoid taking the risks that may be brought by the change and continue working their easy way.

Misunderstanding and lack of trust. In this case, the employer-employee relationship takes deep concern. When workers do not fully know and understand the proposition of the change, they may perceive that it will cost them more than they can gain. This is also true if workers do not have enough trust with their employer or the one initiating the change.

Moreover, there are some key points and common things people tell themselves justifying their actions in resisting change. Most people want to stay where they are because they think their needs are already met in the workplace or the situation where they are currently in; that they have invested heavily there, and/or they think they are in the middle of something important. A lot of times employees do not want to change because they think the destination looks worse than where they currently are; there is nothing that attracts them forward; they do not know which way to move; the journey looks painful or somehow bad or wrong; and they do not trust those who are asking them to change. People also tend to refuse to change and say to themselves that they are not going to change because they think they are able to ignore the change and have the power to obstruct it.

There are early signs of resistance one might find out especially when a change is being introduced. You would probably hear some gossips and grumbling or complaints which may be on the way to attempts for organizing resistance. They could also test the management on what happens when they resist change like not turning up to a meeting or openly challenge a decision.

Resistance may also be in cases of individual or collective action. Individually, people who have lower or lesser power can take passive refusals or action while those with more power could challenge and even criticize.

The visibility of resistance may be covert or overt. Covert resistance is being done in a manner as if workers are not resisting while overt resistance does not try to hide so they could take forms as open argument, refusal or attack.

Activity of resistance may also take in passive or active form. Passive resistance occurs where people do not take specific actions like sitting in the meeting and may appear to agree with the change. On the other hand, active resistance occurs where people are taking specific and deliberate action to resist the change. It may be overt, with such as public statements and acts of resistance, and it may be covert, such as mobilizing others to create an underground resistance movement.

Resistance should at least be addressed so not to make frustrations on the persons involved. There are various ways in which resistance can be dealt with. Changingminds.org has identified these several steps to handle resistance:

Facilitation. Basically, this approach is the safe way to deal with your resisting workers, I could say. In this type of handling resistance, the management is making steps to work with the workers in such a way that the employees feel that they are achieving their goals that somehow also reach the goals of the project. As we know, unwilling or opposing workers think that they are exerting much effort just to adjust with the new project and this might change the usual and comfortable way they are working in the environment they have used to. Collaborating with them might help a lot since when workers feel that you are working with them, they will be happy to be working with you.

Education. Well, workers sometimes react violently (or less) when they think of something else as a consequence of the sudden change that you will impose. But they may end up supporting or coming around if they have a good knowledge and clear understanding why there is a need for a change. They might also realize the urgency of the change if they know what is that for and what is needed of them. Typically, educating them will help in eliminating doubts and fears that people have at the back of their minds.

Involvement. In whichever job you will be doing, it could best be done if your heart is at it. Similarly, workers need to feel the sense of being engaged in their work not just physically and mentally or intellectually but also emotionally. It is difficult for people to persuade them to get to work if they do not do it heartily. Getting them involved is one of the best methods to bring them in. somehow they need to justify their involvement to themselves and convince themselves that it is the best thing to do.

Negotiation. Well, this kind of dealing with resistance is something which can be done by the management when the other persons are hard to be convinced or persuaded. This may be made by sitting with the unwilling party, talk with them, and ask them what they really are looking for. Management should find out what they want and what they will never accept. Perhaps, after determining these, you can work out a possible solution which is agreed mutually, of course, and works just for them and just for you.

Manipulation. This may be a harsher kind of pace in coping with resistance. Manipulation is controlling a person’s environment such that they are shaped by what is around them. This can only be a considerable thing to do when it is necessary to change in the short term and you have tried all other possible solutions. Manipulation approach is morally questionable and might lead to a dangerous backslash if the workers sense what you are doing. Better think before acting.

Coercion. An even more intense approach than manipulation, coercion (overt) forces the opposing workers to give in. An example is that, when you sit them down and make overt (or publicly open) threats, such as if they do not abide by or conform to what they should do they will lose their jobs, possibly in a humiliating and public sacking. However, this approach should only be done when speed is of the essence or when the persons themselves have taken to public and damaging actions.

***

Another major cause of frustration that our interviewers identified is more on the employer - employee relationship. They said that employees are also highly aware of how they are being treated by their bosses. Definitely, workers do not like that they are being treated small even by their co-workers.

There are cases when employees have nothing to do in particular at some point in time in the office. But even if they are just sitting and appear like doing nothing, they are being paid because they are working. It does not necessarily mean that if they are not doing any work they should be treated like they are not useful. There may be times when a pilot store needs somebody in a particular job and it happens that no one in the office is available for that job, the store can request for assistance from other branches that has a worker who is available to get the job done. So we can see here that a certain employee has significance. Every person’s job has a purpose.

In view of this, our interviewee mentioned the three (3) A’s of social needs of human. (Actually when I researched about it there were five, but I assume our interviewee had just pointed out three applicable aspects: achievement, acceptance, and affection. (The other A’s I have searched and are not mentioned are attention, appreciation, and allowing.) In the company, employees feel good when they are being recognized in their accomplishments. No matter how small or insignificant may it be to the one who said it, but oftentimes words or acts of salute can give heartwarming effects to the workers. Humans feel the need for acknowledgment of their achievements. People also need to be accepted in all their efforts. Acceptance is vital in that, workers would feel disappointed or rejected if their efforts are not accepted in a way by their boss or their co-employees. Affection also plays a great part. Harmonious relationships with the team leaders, supervisors, and co-workers would help make a better environment thus reinforcing the production. Friendliness and fondness of your colleagues would make you happy, right? It would make you feel at ease and comfortable in the office that you are liked by other people.

Employees in our interviewed company also had some share of experiences regarding this. There are some workers who felt bad because they thought their other officemates were paid with higher salary rate. They also felt unhappy when they receive no employee incentives and get jealous on those which are provided with incentives. Actually, workers are not that so hard to please. Even key chains or small tokens given or rewarded as gifts would make them any better. It would make them think that they are special and that their presence and/or efforts, no matter how big or small, are being valued. The company also holds trips which may be avenues for the employees to get along together, have bonding, and be with other colleagues in other places out from the workplace. This will promote a congenial affiliation and camaraderie between associates.

I have researched on the internet about certain things regarding employer – employee relationships. This also includes the concerns of the employees’ self-worth in the company on their jobs. Actually, the employees do not want to be looked down hence, superior – subordinate relationships should be well taken care of especially by the management. This is where we can measure also the interpersonal bonds of the workers. As there are individual differences among workers, management should also anticipate different reactions whenever cases like this (when workers react to the way they are being treated or looked down) happen.

***

Here is an interesting piece from a column I found in a blog… In strategic planning, a very crucial phase is the implementation of the overall strategy of the business, bringing the vision to reality. And one of the keys is to communicate with the plan to the entire organization. E-myth Business Coach says, “If an objective is to be reached and the strategic plan carried out for reaching that objective, then someone has to ‘be in charge’ and everyone needs to know the ‘game plan’.” The bulk of the leadership role in many small businesses falls upon the owner or owners. The bottom line, whether it is the owner, a manager, or a key employee, is this: someone must take the reins for seeing the strategic plan through to completion. And a large part of the accountability for that leader is implementing and orchestrating effective communications with everyone involved. Having a communications strategy is essential for the successful implementation of a strategic plan and the subsequent tactical plans.

A lot of times that information systems strategic planning do not fall into its excellent accomplishment because of some problems in miscommunication between bosses and workers and/or employers to employees relationships. Leadership and communication plays a substantial role in this part. As stated, a successful organization is one characterized by effective teamwork, and leadership rather than management.

In this scenario, the common causes as being pointed out in our industrial analysis are most likely focused on the human resources side particularly with regards to communication and relationships in work. Organizations are realizing the importance of developing teams that can work in coordinated and efficient manner in which they are also capable being involved with IS planning and laying out the plot for a more successful strategic plan for the business.

study study study
My acknowledgment to the following resources for my references: study study study

Frustration is an Outcome Of Persistent Emotional Imbalance
www.charminghealth.com/applicability/frustration.htm

Dr. Vince Berger. Frustration Psychologist: Personalized Therapy, Counseling and Coaching
http://www.psychologistanywhereanytime.com/emotional_problems_psychologist/pyschologist_frustration.htm

Resistance To Change: Understanding and Overcoming Human and Organizational Barriers
[url=http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/change_resistance.html ]http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/change_resistance.html [/url]

Albert F. Bolognese, Ed. D. 2002. Employee Resistance to Organizational Change, Winthrop University
http://www.newfoundations.com/OrgTheory/Bolognese721.html

Signs of Resistance, Changing Minds.org
http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/resistance_change/sign_resistance.htm

Dealing With Resistance, Changing Minds.org
[url=http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/resistance_change/dealing_resistance.htm ]http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/resistance_change/dealing_resistance.htm [/url]

Rationale For Resistance, Changing Minds.org
http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/resistance_change/rationale_resistance.htm

Resistance To Change, Changing Minds.org
[url=http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/resistance_change/resistance_change.htm ]http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/resistance_change/resistance_change.htm [/url]

Nicolai Group, P.C. Employer-Employee Relationships, Starting Your Business: Legal Considerations
http://www.niclawgrp.com/SpecialReports/Relationships.html

Miles, S. & Bennett, N. The Changing Employer-Employee Relationship. Businessweek
[url=http://www.businessweek.com/managing/content/mar2009/ca20090331_755178.htm http://www.businessweek.com/managing/content/mar2009/ca20090331_755178.htm]http://www.businessweek.com/managing/content/mar2009/ca20090331_755178.htm [/url]

Managing Your Boss. timesjobs.com
http://www.timesjobs.com/candidate/careerresources/htmls/ManagingYourBoss.jsp

Feel free to drop your comments at my blog a soul's reflections lol! lol! lol! http://charmainespeaksup.blogspot.com/2010/03/frequent-frustrations-of-is.html
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Mar 22, 2010 10:20 am

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan? note: you are required to interview an IS professional/s for your answer ...(at least 3000 words)


Frustration come from a a latin word frustratus plural form of frustrari means to deceive, disappoint, frustrate has a come to meaning with all the fields of any professionals can experience.

Frustration towards work cannot be avoided. It's part of man's challenges to face, in order to adopt his fast changing environment. It is a feeling of disappointment and discomfort aroused in the mind of human beings only when something has went wrong with them or they are not able to achieve the goals that they had set for themselves.

In today’s competitive scenario every person has his targets that he wanted to achieve timely and if he is not able to achieve his targets he is frustrated. This frustration can affect the mind in negative way in which person’s thinking power gets slowed down. Frustration led a person a take wrong decisions and as a result of which he is not able to come with innovative ideas.

in the competitive world of information technology, IT professionals has a lot of frustration which includes frustration towards work, human relations and even self-frustration.

in this assignment, we were ask to interview any IT professionals on what his views about work frustration.

Sir Cris from Rhine Marketing Computer Division of Davao City has enumerated some frustration towards IT professions.

Sir Cris is expert in database management and has develop more than 10 systems not mentioned his other works as a system developer.

Below is our interview with him:

1. What does frustration means when pertaining to IT?

For me, frustration means the feeling when you are not satisfied with your work and the user of your system is not satisfied with what they had seen in your develop system. IT professionals like me are frustrated with how are we going to come up with a good and user-friendly system that our client will like.

This frustration can sometimes affect us but we have to face it because its a part of our work.


2. What are those frustration that you have encounter in your field?


There are a lot of frustration in our field. Motly this frustration are destructive to us. When we develop our system who have to deal with this frustration.

a. Frustration towards deadline - we got frustrated when we are only given short period of time to develop a big system. This may sometimes leads to overtime but it can be handle when you know how to plan your work.

b. Frustration towards clients - some clients are not open-minded with the trends of technology now a days. People are so frustrated with computers that products and services that make things simpler and more reliable have a huge market. When some hear about computer, they always said that it is a machine of possibility. When errors occur during their usage they got disappointed and directly address their blame to the developer of the system.

c. Frustration towards work environment - Some of our biggest frustrations in life can come from our work environment. It might be work that is unfulfilling, co-workers that we have difficulty getting along with, or demanding organizational structures that seem to strip us of our time and suffocate our passion and creativity. We so often refer to this complex and stressful situation with a blanket term like "career burnout."

d. Frustratioon towards work competition - IT is very stressful career than it seems from outside. Peer Competition and stiff deadlines means long working hours. Some clients wanted an IT professional with low work cost. Someone they can afford to hire. But some low work cost developer are fresh IT graduates. We have to deal with it. Its part of the competition.

e. Frustration towards proving yourself among everyone - Firstly the feeling of frustration is aroused in human beings when they are not able to achieve the targets that they had set for themselves. Secondly the feeling of frustration is aroused when they compare themselves with others and find that they are lacking behind while others had made a rapid progress but they had remained where they were earlier. This causes frustration in them. When the people misinterpret their capabilities and set those targets which are far away from their potentials. They just compare themselves with those who are more educated or are equipped with high potential or more resources and then set their target up to those levels where they factually could never reach. And then when they are not able to meet their targets they get frustrated.

f. Frustration towards fast pace technology - the technology of today rapidly changes. As a IT professionals, we have to be updated with the latest programming trends and latest tools to boost our knowledge. It can equip us to be competitive with our chosen careers. It can be an advantage when you have more knowledge that you can apply with any systems you will develop. Without updates, you cannot call yourself an IT professional because it talks about Information. Information nowadays are very essential with all transactions we do everyday. You have to be very careful and equip with how you handle information.


g. frustration towards failed system or project - some got frustrated when during the date of deployment of the system, there are some circumstances that the system fail to run. It is very to stressful to prove your eligibility towards your work when the system you have develop for months can be failed easily.


HOW TO DEAL WITH FRUSTRATION?


Sir Cris told us that work without frustration if impossible. Being inline with all kinds of work has frustration. So be very open-minded in dealing with it.

Here are some tips how to deal with frustration towards work:

a. NEVER QUIT OUT OF FRUSTRATION

Quitting" is another form of giving in to frustration. Appreciate that this is a tough world and we have to be persistent in order to accomplish. Never turn back in midstream. Follow it through to the end.

Consider how many projects you began -- and then gave up -- because you became frustrated and lost patience. Make a list of things you started and quit because they seemed too difficult. Now calculate the disappointment and loss you suffered by not accepting the frustration.

How do we repair this fault? Look at the list of things you've quit. Choose one and resolve to see it through. And for the rest of your life, once you undertake something, resolve never to quit. (Unless you are objectively sure that it's "not worth it" -- i.e. you initially misjudged the amount of effort required relative to the final payoff.)

Every night before going to sleep, check yourself: Where did I gain and where did I lose?

b. MEDITATE


Meditate. Don't meditate on what is bothering you, but the traditional form of meditation. The clearing of your thoughts, your slow breathing and the quiet atmosphere around you. After 10 minutes or longer you'll find that what is really bothering you is
1)Not situation that brought you to this point in the first place or
2)Blown way out of proportion.

c. MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS


You always have options. You just need to brainstorm and figure them out. Tell yourself you need to come up with 8 possible options to what you’re dealing with. Just knowing that you have lots of options will help to make you feel better. You won’t feel like you are trapped in one negative situation. From your list, figure out the best direction and go for it.

d. TAKE ACTIONS

When you get into serious frustration with a problem, you tend not to want to work on it anymore. It’s hard, it’s frustrating, and you’re not getting anywhere. So, anything to avoid having to be in that situation may be far more attractive. Procrastination may start to set in. If you can keep taking steps forwards, you will probably make it past this temporary hump. As Thomas Edison said, “Many of life's failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up” and “Surprises and reverses can serve as an incentive for great accomplishment.”

The other thing that can happen is that you start to spend a lot of time worrying. Worrying is a definite way of energy and does not move you in a forwards direction. Only taking action will. Once you start moving forwards again, you will most likely find that you worried for no reason.

e. KEEP AN ACCOMPLISHMENTS LOG

Write down everything you accomplish in a log. If you do it in a monthly format you will be able to see all that you have accomplished in just one month. You may be surprised by how much you have done. If you realize there’s not much on the list, it may open your eyes to the fact that you may be procrastinating more than working or that you are using too much of your energy going in too many directions and that you need to focus more. Hopefully, you will have lots of items on your list then you can see that even though it may not feel like it, you are moving forwards. The log will also help to highlight where you were the most effective and where you need to work harder.

F. FOCUS ON WHAT YOU WANT TO HAPPEN

Go back to the big picture. What is the desired outcome? Sometimes, we get so wrapped up in one problem and trying to solve it that we forget what we were originally trying to accomplish. Try not to ask yourself, “Why did this happen?” Asking questions like that will keep you rooted in the past. It doesn’t offer a solution to the problem. The important thing is knowing the answer to the following two questions:

- What do you want to happen differently this time?”

- What do you need to do in order to get there?



CONCLUSION:

As a IT professional, Sir Cris mentioned that frustration could be destructive or constructive. It depends on how you deal with it. Work frustration is always present. It cannot be taken for granted. You have to deal it with confidence so that it can help you to be optimist. Take work seriously but take frustration as a challenge. Make it as your tool towards self-enhancement.

Be responsible all the time. In IT era, all are expected to be competitive and adaptive towards the fast changing environment. To be part of the growing family of information handler, we must be ready to face challenge that comes our ways.

In school, our lesson teach us on how to be a good planner, a system analyst and a problem solver.

To be an effective IT professionals, be effective, put in four years at a college (or more at a graduate school). This will give you access to some jobs that require credentials, and it will give you a deeper understanding of the field, but if you don't enjoy school, you can (with some dedication) get similar experience on the job. In any case, book learning alone won't be enough. "Computer science education cannot make anybody an expert programmer any more than studying brushes and pigment can make somebody an expert painter" says Eric Raymond, author of The New Hacker's Dictionary. One of the best programmers I ever hired had only a High School degree; he's produced a lot of great software, has his own news group, and through stock options is no doubt much richer than I'll ever be.

To be a problem solver, each must be equip with problem solving techniques:

Faust distills Lyles' method for success at problem solving as follows:

1. Define the problem.
Identify what is wrong by including both a cause and an effect in the definition.

Questions to answer:
* What is really wrong?

* What is happening, or what isn't?

* What do we find unacceptable?

2. Define the objective(s).
What is the outcome you want to achieve as a result of solving the problem? This is your objective.


3. Generate alternatives.
This is where solutions lie, so be creative in this step.

How many alternatives can you generate? Don't try to judge them until you have come up with as many alternatives as possible.


4. Develop an action plan.
Use detail. Most action plans for tough problems involve taking several steps over a period of time.

Questions to answer:
* Who will do what?

* By what date(s)?

* How will this be accomplished?


5. Troubleshoot.
Don't get so carried away about your solution that you avoid this step.

Questions to answer:
* What could go wrong here?

* What could be the side effects?

* How can we ensure this plan will work?

Answer these questions before you proceed.


6. Communicate.
Getting information to the right people is key for getting the buy-in to make it a success.

Questions to answer:
* Which individuals or groups might affect the success of your action plan?

* Who will be impacted by it, and therefore who needs to be informed about it?

* Who will communicate with affected parties?


7. Implement.
Carry out the plan and monitor its implementation.

Questions to answer:
o Who will monitor the plan?
o Who is accountable for each part of the solution?
o What will be the consequences for failure to meet the plan?


Problem Solving vs. Decision Making
When you are using a systematic approach to sort out issues facing your company, problem solving and decision making can follow nearly the same process.

"In problem solving, the first step is to define the problem. The second step is to set the objectives or define desired outcomes," explains Faust.

"In decision making, the first step is to identify the desired outcomes. A systematic decision-making process is pretty much the same as a systematic problem-solving method."

But TEC speaker Mike Murray reminds us that -- in his view -- they are not the same thing, and should be approached separately.

"The mental processing to create the diversity needed for problem-solving is different from 'deciding,'" he says. "The word 'decide' comes from a root word that means 'to kill.' What you don't want to do is mix problem solving -- which is creating alternatives -- with decision making, which is killing alternatives."

REFERENCES:

http://www.aish.com/sp/48w/48956756.html

http://www.ehow.com/how_2202773_deal-frustration-overwhelming-fear-failure.html

http://www.life-with-confidence.com/frustration.html

http://igotgas.blogspot.com/2007/10/seven-steps-to-successful-problem.html



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Mar 26, 2010 11:12 pm

flower What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan? note: you are required to interview an IS professional/s for your answer ...(at least 3000 words)flower


flower On this matter we interviewed Mr. Nilo Ricafort, MIS Manager in EMCOR Davao, Bajada Branch. He gave brief but precise answers. He said that these two would definitely be misconceptions about IS effects in the users’ point of view and misunderstanding between the users’ needs and the developers’ knowledge on how things must be done in standard.

Moreover, I'll discuss the two causes of frustrations:


Misconceptions about IS effects

Misconceptions arise in the part of the users because unlike the developers usually users do not have enough knowledge about how these systems are developed and what are its possible effects. And because of these misconceptions, users tend to expect more from the system and later on they will be frustrated if the effects that the system cause where less than what they have expected. On the other hand, if the systems effect will also be too good, the users will also be overwhelmed and will be start to be conscious about their capabilities to support and use a very good system which may also lead to poor performance in their case. There a re a lot of misconceptions about IS and these are some of them:

Arrow Implementation of IS will speed up the process

A lot of people think that if we speak of IS implementation or improvement it means a lot of process will speed up instantly. But if we come to think of it, definitely the positive effects of the said actions will not be seen or felt in an instant. And there are a lot of possible reasons behind the delay of the effects that an IS may bring upon a company. And I found this article that gave some of the examples and also discuss some ways to give it some remedy.
IT professionals face unique challenges when it comes to managing their problems. They know that when hardware/software/client interface produces problems, dynamics are set in motion that can quickly cascade into nightmare proportions:
• Pressure to immediately reestablish service to the customer
• An already existing backlog of trouble tickets
• A relentless daily flow of in-coming trouble tickets
• A reality that sees a problem quickly affect thousands of clients

Arrow Users are not involved in IS development

Unlike what they think, users need to be involved in the process of IS development. The IS that will be done must be incorporated with what the users are complaining about there previous system or process. With the help of the users negative or positive feedback about there experience in using their previous system, the developers will be aware on what to areas change or to improve. Moreover, I found an article discussing how the users take a vital role in IS development.
The importance of involving users of enabling technology in all phases of the development and provision of these aids has gradually been focused, and eventually become established, during the last few years. It is, however, far from self evident how to make these ideas and ambitions really come true in the hectic daily activities of Research and Resource Centre, especially when it comes to more profoundly and multiply impaired users. Thus a very small number of such users are actually involved in any long term perspective. Apart from the lingering lack of awareness of needs and possibilities several other factors can be identified, such as:
• A lack of suitable organizational and work settings, flexible enough to offer realistic conditions for multiply disabled to participate and develop together with professionals in this field.
• Lacking working life experience, social networks and self confidence, and a related need for continuous educational programs, among the potential interested users.

:arrow:IS improvement means job loss

There a re a lot of people who thinks that a conversion from an old system to a more IT involved system would definitely mean job loss. This may be true on some cases but this happens rarely. But because of this misconception, users tend to be passive and will not likely give their full support on the development of the new IS. They tend to hinder the developers from crucial information that would build up the success of the new system. They are thinking that if the new system fails then the old system will be retained and they will still have their jobs. They do not realize that IS development does not always mean job loss. This is because it is more convenient for most of the companies to train their old employees for the new system rather than hire new ones. The reason behind this is that companies will not take the risk in giving up on their trusted and proven employees for the sake of hiring new ones that may have the qualities for the new system. Training the present employees will also be less expensive than hiring new ones. If the companies opted to hire new employees they will face the burdens of advertising, interviews and other personality checks and backfires that the new employees may bring because of their need to adopt in the working environment.

Misunderstanding between the users’ needs and the developers’ knowledge on how things must be done in standard
This problem depends on the type of software development that developers choose. I’ll give some examples about the different ways of software development and on what strategies this problem can be seen.

Arrow Interactive and Incremental Development

The basic idea behind iterative enhancement is to develop a software system incrementally, allowing the developer to take advantage of what was being learned during the development of earlier, incremental, deliverable versions of the system. Learning comes from both the development and use of the system, where possible key steps in the process are to start with a simple implementation of a subset of the software requirements and iteratively enhance the evolving sequence of versions until the full system is implemented. At each iteration, design modifications are made and new functional capabilities are added.

The procedure itself consists of the initialization step, the iteration step, and the Project Control List. The initialization step creates a base version of the system. The goal for this initial implementation is to create a product to which the user can react. It should offer a sampling of the key aspects of the problem and provide a solution that is simple enough to understand and implement easily. To guide the iteration process, a project control list is created that contains a record of all tasks that need to be performed. It includes such items as new features to be implemented and areas of redesign of the existing solution. The control list is constantly being revised as a result of the analysis phase.

The iteration involves the redesign and implementation of a task from the project control list, and the analysis of the current version of the system. The goal for the design and implementation of any iteration is to be simple, straightforward, and modular, supporting redesign at that stage or as a task added to the project control list. The level of design detail is not dictated by the interactive approach. In a light-weight iterative project the code may represent the major source of documentation of the system; however, in a mission-critical iterative project a forma lSoftware Design Document may be used. The analysis of iteration is based upon user feedback, and the program analysis facilities available. It involves analysis of the structure, modularity, usability, reliability, efficiency, & achievement of goals. The project control list is modified in light of the analysis results.
This method of software development also provides the user the opportunity to participate in the evaluation of the system. But then again, the process is very time consuming because of a lot of iterations and would cause backfires due to the delay in the making of the system.

Arrow Adaptive Software Development

Adaptive Software Development is a software development process that grew out of rapid application development work by Jim Highsmith and Sam Bayer. ASD embodies the principle that continuous adaptation of the process to the work at hand is the normal state of affairs.
ASD replaces the traditional waterfall cycle with a repeating series of speculate, collaborate, and learn cycles. This dynamic cycle provides for continuous learning and adaptation to the emergent state of the project. The characteristics of an ASD life cycle are that it is mission focused, feature based, iterative, time boxed, risk driven, and change tolerant.

The word “speculate” refers to the paradox of planning – it is more likely to assume that all stakeholders are comparably wrong for certain aspects of the project’s mission, while trying to define it. Collaboration refers to the efforts for balancing the work based on predictable parts of the environment (planning and guiding them) and adapting to the uncertain surrounding mix of changes caused by various factors – technology, requirements, stakeholders, software vendors, etc. The learning cycles, challenging all stakeholders, are based on the short iterations with design, build and testing. During these iterations the knowledge is gathered by making small mistakes based on false assumptions and correcting those mistakes, thus leading to greater experience and eventually mastery in the problem domain.

This type of software development is very good in having the users cooperate with the development process. This is because the development process will adopt on what the situation is. The users may also be a factor on these situations; thus the system development will also adapt to what the users want.

Overall this frustration depends on the method that the developer will use in software development. It is up to the developers correct planning and assessment on the companies’ situation to ensure that the product system will comply on the standards that the users and the company want.


References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptive_Software_Development
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iterative_and_incremental_development
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Mar 28, 2010 4:14 am

For this assignment we interviewed MR. Cris Abella a IT personnel on the Davao branch of Rhine Marketing which is located at the Gestuvo Bldg., San Pedro St., Davao City.
Rhine Marketing Corporation - Computer Division (RMC-CD) is a leading manufacturer of personal computers, and distributor of a complete line of peripherals and other computer-related services.
Established in February 1992, when Rhine Marketing Corporation's interest has evolved from home appliance business has achieved a good reputation immediately. We not only provide expertise to meet the increasingly sophisticated needs of our clients, but also offer solutions that set new standards for quality performance and value.

Due to our expansion in 1996, Rhine bought a multi - million computer manufacturing plant in Cebu to meet the growing needs of its existing clientele in Cebu, Cagayan de Oro, Davao, Gen. Santos, and Iloilo, but also to guarantee the timely delivery of high-quality and cost-effective products.

During the first quarter of 1997, the Division has experienced a phenomenal growth. This has impelled the management to open the doors for its rapid expansion. Committing itself to its customers, Rhine extended its reach and set up additional branches in Tacloban, Makati and 12 other sub-branches throughout the Visayas and Mindanao.

QUALITY CONTROL

As part of our assurance to you, experienced Rhine engineers tested all Rhine computer systems and components for 72 hours, to guarantee their full functionality and compatibility.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Our Research and Development (R&D) give continuous emphasis on product evaluation. They see to it that the product designs fully support the latest operating systems and can be easily upgraded to run the new generation of applications. The team also gives the customers an added assurance that every component inside a Rhine PC has been tested to run along with international I.T. standards.

PROVIDING CUSTOMER SUPPORT

On-Site Servicing. Rhine professionalism is extended to help you maintain your computer system right in your home of office. This process gets rid of the hassles of bringing your PC's to service centers.

Repair and Maintenance Center. Apart from the warehouse that promises ready inventory, the RMA team at the Plant Site caters to PC problems that may not be solved at the Service Center level. Thus, this fully guarantees customers a continued servicing of their PCs.

Nationwide Network of Sales and Service Center. To provide you with utmost service satisfaction, Rhine has extended its reach and set up a total of 19 Branches and Sub-branches nationwide, making it one of the largest distributor of computer products and peripherals.

Business Areas. Personal Computer manufacturing * Systems Integration (provides local area networking) * PC consultancy and business solutions * Service and Maintenance.

What are those frustration that you have encounter in your field?

There are a lot of frustration in our field. Motly this frustration are destructive to us. When we develop our system who have to deal with this frustration.

a. Frustration towards deadline - we got frustrated when we are only given short period of time to develop a big system. This may sometimes leads to overtime but it can be handle when you know how to plan your work.

b. Frustration towards clients - some clients are not open-minded with the trends of technology now a days. People are so frustrated with computers that products and services that make things simpler and more reliable have a huge market. When some hear about computer, they always said that it is a machine of possibility. When errors occur during their usage they got disappointed and directly address their blame to the developer of the system.

c. Frustration towards work environment - Some of our biggest frustrations in life can come from our work environment. It might be work that is unfulfilling, co-workers that we have difficulty getting along with, or demanding organizational structures that seem to strip us of our time and suffocate our passion and creativity. We so often refer to this complex and stressful situation with a blanket term like "career burnout."

d. Frustration towards work competition - IT is very stressful career than it seems from outside. Peer Competition and stiff deadlines means long working hours. Some clients wanted an IT professional with low work cost. Someone they can afford to hire. But some low work cost developer are fresh IT graduates. We have to deal with it. Its part of the competition.

e. Frustration towards proving yourself among everyone - Firstly the feeling of frustration is aroused in human beings when they are not able to achieve the targets that they had set for themselves. Secondly the feeling of frustration is aroused when they compare themselves with others and find that they are lacking behind while others had made a rapid progress but they had remained where they were earlier. This causes frustration in them. When the people misinterpret their capabilities and set those targets which are far away from their potentials. They just compare themselves with those who are more educated or are equipped with high potential or more resources and then set their target up to those levels where they factually could never reach. And then when they are not able to meet their targets they get frustrated.

f. Frustration towards fast pace technology - the technology of today rapidly changes. As a IT professionals, we have to be updated with the latest programming trends and latest tools to boost our knowledge. It can equip us to be competitive with our chosen careers. It can be an advantage when you have more knowledge that you can apply with any systems you will develop. Without updates, you cannot call yourself an IT professional because it talks about Information. Information nowadays are very essential with all transactions we do everyday. You have to be very careful and equip with how you handle information.


g. frustration towards failed system or project - some got frustrated when during the date of deployment of the system, there are some circumstances that the system fail to run. It is very to stressful to prove your eligibility towards your work when the system you have develop for months can be failed easily.

How Frustrations Can Be Valuable Tools

In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity. - Albert Einstein

Frustrations can be valuable tools It was a long, tense boardroom meeting. The team from Finance wanted to scrap the whole project due to budget concerns while the Marketing group felt it would be worth the extra cost. Both sides raised valid points. In the end though, everyone was just frustrated. They had no idea how to move forward with this issue. It was beginning to look like the only answer was to ask a director to make the final decision.

It was Suzanne from Marketing who suddenly made the brilliant comment of, “what is the end result we’re trying to achieve here?”
And that is the answer to how to deal with frustrations. Let me explain.

Our initial reaction when hitting a setback or a "roadblock”, whether it be during an important project or even just trying to finish a task, is usually one of frustration or thoughts along the lines of:
• “Why does this always happen to me?”
• ”Why doesn’t anything ever work for me?”
• ”Well, I guess that’s the end of that idea. Back to the drawing board.”

It doesn’t have to be this way though. By simply changing how you view the situation you can dramatically alter the ending. So, how can those frustrating moments be valuable? Here’s how:

Frustrations can indicate that you need to take a step back

You’ve heard of people not being able to see the trees for the forest, well you can get so caught up in wanting to accomplish a particular task that you forget the reason why you started in the first place. Stop and take a step back to look at the big picture. As Suzanne asked, “What is the end result you’re trying to achieve?” Take the time to re-affirm the original goal and see if you’re still on the right path. You may discover that you’ve somehow started down a road you never really intended to travel. It’s easy to get so caught up in dealing with the day to day issues that you don’t realize that you’re now way off course. Take the time to re-focus on exactly what it is that you want to accomplish and you may find that you’ve just saved yourself a lot of time, effort, and money on something you didn’t want to be involved with anyway.


Roadblocks can be an excellent opportunity to brainstorm

Sometimes when a plan is created, all of the potential options aren’t considered. You just immediately think of a solution and go for it. When you run into a frustration, it could be an excellent opportunity to brainstorm. You may discover far more efficient or cost effective opportunities available just by taking the time to do some research.

Here’s an example: say you decide to publish a “How To” book. You get it all set up and then find out that the printing costs are just too high. You could give up on the idea or you could brainstorm.

During a brainstorming session, you could consider:


- could you create an e-book instead which would save the printed production costs?

- could you print and bind it yourself with the tools that are now available for just this purpose?

- could you alter certain areas to make it cheaper (ie. use less colour photos, use only 2 colours, etc.)?

- is there a technical college available which may be willing to do the work cheaper as a learning tool for their students?

- would it be more effective as a web site?


The benefit of brainstorming is that you may discover a far better idea than the original plan. You may end up really glad that you didn’t go with the original direction. My web site, Life With Confidence is actually an example of how a roadblock for me ended up being a complete turning point to a much better destination (you can read the full story at: about Life With Confidence.)
Problems can be a sign that you need a break

Your first reaction when running into a roadblock may be that you absolutely have to solve the issue no matter what. Just like whenever Superman saw some dastardly deed being done, he had to rush in to save the day. The problem with this is that you become focused on the feeling that the problem must be solved right now. It’s how people start to make huge mountains out of anthills. It can also cause you such stress that you just can’t come up with the answer. If you can take a break and come back to look at the situation from a fresh viewpoint, you may find that the issue wasn’t really as big of a deal as you initially thought.


Also, after you’ve had a chance to re-charge your batteries and regain your enthusiasm, the roadblocks may just disappear on their own with a solution suddenly seeming so very obvious. You just couldn’t see it before because you were only concentrating on solving an issue that seemed huge at the time when it really wasn’t.


Tools for Success

If you can think of your frustrations as opportunities then you will be far ahead of those that simply give up whenever problems occur. Think of roadblocks as “silver linings” for your goals and you’ll be amazed at what solutions suddenly appear. Your confidence to achieve your ultimate desires will increase as you now know you have incredible power. Your goals may suddenly become much closer than you thought and be even greater achievements and all because you knew frustrations are really valuable tools. You just needed to know how to use them.


"Problems often act as stones that wear away the rough edges of your plan rather than as roadblocks" from Seize the Day by Danny Cox and John Hoover


REFERENCES: http://www.rhine.com.ph/rhine-personal-computers.html
http://www.ehow.com/how_2202773_deal-frustration-overwhelming-fear-failure.html
http://www.learningtree.com/pmpitfalls/support.htm

visit my blog @ http://florenzie-palma.blogspot.com
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Dolorosa G. Mancera

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PostSubject: Assignment 3   Sun Mar 28, 2010 6:02 pm

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan. 3000 words

Before I go on answering the question, I would like to apologize for posting my answer very late. It’s not about being too busy but I prefer to finish my other assignments and I would admit that I always set it aside and always plan to work it later.:-( So much for that, I and some of my dear classmates went to SAMULCO to have interview regarding with this assignment. We have done our interview last year (2009) on 6th day of December. Since SAMULCO has been our adapted company for our major paper in Management Information System 1 subject, we are very lucky enough to interview the Management Information System Supervisor. He never hesitates when we try to approach him through a phone call.

To have an overview, SAMULCO or Santa Ana Multipurpose Cooperative is located at Monteverde St., Uyanguren Davao City. It was organized n the 26th day of February on the year 1967 among parishioners of Sta. Ana Parish Catholic Church, initiated by the PME fathers led by Rev. Fr. Gerard Loiselle, PME, parish priest. SAMULCO is considered as one of the biggest cooperative here in Davao City. The firm’s vision is to be a world class cooperative. SAMULCO is committed to improve quality of life of members and community through excellent savings, credit and allied services as part of their mission. SAMULCO stands with its eight goals: to encourage thrift and savings mobilization among members for capital formation, to engage in merchandising, marketing and distribution of consumer goods to members, to extent health services, putting up medical clinic and drug stores, to acquire and develop land for residential units, to extend loans for productive and providential purposes, to engage in Funeral Care Services for deceased members, its immediate family and dependents, to engage in Micro Mutual Benefit Assistance(MBA) a Life Insurance Services of the cooperative for the protection of the members, immediate family and dependents, and to promote the cooperative as a way of life. The following information about the said cooperative company was based on the given brochure when we adopt the company for our Management Information System I’s technical paper.

When working on an Information System Plan, there are two essential actors that we always consider. They are the IS professionals and the users or end-users. The success of the organization’s Information System plan depends on those two actors. As what I have understood with information system plan definitely starts with identifying the needs of every end-users and as well as the company itself. When you plan an information system strategically, consequently it can be considered as a critical issue. It is a serious challenge that will be faced by the IS professionals. When a company aims to develop a computer-based system to be competitive with other bigger companies and be updated with the latest trend of technologies, it is necessary that every type of computer-based system must response to what the company and its end-users need. It is vital to know what the firm is planning for the next years that are why it must be specific enough, easy to understand, flexible and useful for the identifying the best way of purchasing and installing new information systems to maximize the return on its information technology investment. Once you’re done with your strategic information system plan, you could proceed with an action plan to illustrate the desired path and outputs that will be essential in aligning the use and need of information with the strategic direction of the firm.

An information system professional plays a big and vital role in planning, development and implementation of information technology in a firm. Information System professionals includes System’s Analyst, Project Manager, programmers, web designers, and IT specialist. They are just few of the professions present in developing a plan for the information system of a firm. An IS professional are able to analyze the company’s information and different processes using all the given business information models and specifically, IS professionals should capture and evaluate the possible risk that may occur during the planning, development and implementation part. The later should manage to know the current needs of its company and may gather all the valuable and necessary requirements needed for the success of the information system plan. As an IS professional, there are a lot of things that you need to consider such as how you will serve the firm’s business goals, how will you create a competitive advantage against the other company, and are you able to meet the firm’s data processing and management information needs. Organization’s information system plan is not only for the sake of having a tool to lessen the cost and expense of the firm but to add a value wherein every end user will be valued by the organization.

Men are also emotional. We can’t deny the fact that often times in our life we face a scenario wherein we failed or unable to reach up to mark, and with this it brings frustration. Frustration, as defined by the known Wikipedia, “frustration a common emotional response to opposition. Related to anger and disappointment, it arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of individual will. The greater the obstruction, and the greater the will, the more the frustration is likely to be”. There are different reasons why we, human, feel frustrations. At school, in friends, family and especially our personal emotion can be the cause of frustration. At school, if we feel we don’t have some learning abilities may often frustrate students. In friends, when we feel betrayed and fails to keep its promises can be the reason of our frustrations too. In the family, when we feel we don’t belong and never been taken care of it will be very frustrating. And in our own personal emotion, what brings frustration in our life is on the way we handle our pride, how we understand the things poorly, suspicions and arrogance. At work or in our daily activities, stress can cause frustration. Stress marks due to some reasons such us busy schedules, demanding work, urgent jobs.

Sometimes, a failure n the development of an information system plan is due to the frustrations felt by both IS professionals and as well as the users. Doing a strategic information system plan is not an easy task thus IS professionals become frustrated for some reasons. The said reasons may include resistance to change, fast organizational change, budget and cost, lack of teamwork, top management’s decision. As what I have said earlier, in doing an IS plan there are a lot of things that we need to consider such as the needs of the company and the end-users, the cost, the expertise of every IS professionals, the predicted and unexpected risks, and especially the feelings of both IS professionals and end-users. Though we are familiar that doing an IS plan is more concern on planning how to convert every processes into a computer-based system but we should also consider the feelings of every person that will be involve for this for the success of the plan and will last on the estimated length of time that the plan will be effective.

Now, going back to the main question, what are the two most experienced cause of frustrations of IS professionals and users in working with an IS plan. When we have the chance to ask the MIS supervisor of the Sta. Ana Multi-Purpose Cooperative (SAMULCO) it took him for a while before he can finally identify what are those. And according to him, the two most frequently cause of frustration when they are working with an Information System Plan are the resistance to change and the budget or cost.

Resistance to change

The Management Information System Department of SAMULCO is managed by two personnel and one of those was our interviewee. The first thing that they frequently experienced while working with an IS plan is the resistance to change. As what he have explained to us, there are costumers who don’t want to use the system or they prefer and comfortable on the old system or they choose to do the manual system. I would agree when he said that we can’t force a costumer if he/she is not interested to adopt with the change, specifically on the change of the technology and the systems used to process the data. As what I have understood and stated above, an Information System Plan or a Strategic Information System Plan is developing a computer-based system that will help the needs of the company and its end-users, which includes the costumers and staff. It is about using applications that would be critical for the future success of the firm. Those computer-based applications is used to assist the cooperative in performing their business plans in correspond to their business goals. That is why Information Technology (IT) has been considered as one of the most effective and common ways to improve the performance of every business. And with that, it would be quite necessary to be updated with the latest trends of technology that would be useful for the company because it can be considered as an asset and advantage of a firm. But even if you manage to deliver a good information system plan and still not all of its users will embrace on to it, it will hinder the success of the IS plan. Resistance to change does not focus on the costumers or the users but also on the top management. In a firm, personnel belongs to the top management has a big right especially in deciding what will be best for the company. If the top management is not interested to adopt with the change, even if you create a good and maybe effective plan to help the company grow thus the top management don’t want to still the conclusion would be “NO”. In my own opinion, it would be nicer if all the end-users and even the top management will allow the change and will try to cope up with those changes. Planning for the information system of a company would be very effective if everyone will support for it.

Budget and Cost

The second cause of frustration of the MIS supervisor in developing an IS plan is the cost and budget. Even me, I would probably point it out as the main reason why sometimes it is hard to create a good and effective IS plan that would be flexible for the possible changes. Why? As what I have observed, the cost and the budget is vital and essential to be prioritize before you plan for a strategic information system plan because in planning, development and implementation of the IS plan the cost matters and everything would rely on how much the firm allocates for a certain project. The higher the budget the better IS plan will be developed. If we try to calculate, doing an IS plan needs a higher budget from planning to its implementation plan. When we plan we consider the technologies or gadgets that will be used during its implementation and even the budget for the experts that will handle the project. If I will put myself as one of the IS professionals that will work for an information system plan, the hardest part is on planning what will be the best way to manage the different needs of the users if the firm only allocates an amount that will not be enough for the project. Every IS professionals wants to cater all the needs of the end-users so they manage to think for another option that will lessen the cost that everyone will benefit.
Though I fail to interview a user of the company’s information system, I guess the main cause of frustration is when the IS professionals are unsuccessful in managing and coping the needs and if he/she fails to work with an IS plan that is flexible and effective even in a minimum budget. One basis why the IS professional develop an IS plan is to know what are the needs of the users and the company itself and be aware what’s lacking on their system for them to improve it. It would be disappointing if they fail to cater one’s needs. And it would be impressive if an IS professional manage to develop a good and effective IS plan even if the budget is not that big.

Due to unexpected circumstances, I and my group mates in MIS II are lucky to interview the MIS manager of the Lapanday Foods Corporations last January 4, 2010. The interview was mainly for our reporting on the said subject but still, we grab the opportunity to ask for an answer in our third assignment in MIS II that is through answering the question, What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan.

According to LAPANDAY’s MIS manager, the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plans are: Team working not in tandem due to office politics, jealousies, personal conflicts, etc. and Support from top management – not 100%.

Team working not in tandem due to office politics, jealousies, personal conflicts, etc.

Developing an IS plan and in implementing this type of plan is done by a group or a team not by a solo individual. In a team may include project manager, systems analyst, programmers and design. It would be very nice if the persons belong on a certain group and even with the employees in the company work together and it will be frustrating if they will not work in tandem. When working on an IS plan, different heads with dissimilar ideas interacts at the same time. It isn’t healthy if all the people belong in one company are not unified due to office politics, jealousies, personal conflicts and etc. If we try to observe, emotions are still in there and we can’t perform our job because of some personal conflicts. Work is work. People are not paid by the company for their personal conflicts and dislikes, it’s their job and responsibilities are needed. The only person who can help in overcoming this cause of frustration is through us. Discipline ourselves and try to separate job or work with personal feelings. Be congeniality and perform every task that was given well. A discipline to one’s self is a good start to avoid frustrations at work or in the company.

Support from top management – not 100%.

The top management also triggers the development and implementation of an information system plan. As we all know, the top management is compose of the highest ranking and every decisions for the company’s sake depends on their approval. In every project, a 100 percent approval can make the project success. When working on an IS plan, you have to make sure that you meet all the necessary needs of the users, the company and the top management. A project will only start if that was approved by the later. Even in planning, the top management is the first to prioritize because they are the one to decide how much budget they will give for the planning up to the implementation part. Sometimes, they approve but it’s not an assurance that once it is approved you gain a 100 percent support from them. And it’s not an easy task to acquire a 100 percent approval and support from the top management. In order to cross this type of circumstances, you need to stay positive, take action, and visualize a positive outcome to the situation. Stay positive and never lose hope. Things are apparently not that bad as it first appear, it is even worse realizing that we are tired and mentally drained of thinking. We can never say no if the top management declined what we have plan for the information system of the firm, it may cause frustration unto us but the time of frustration will only pass if we have a positive mind and be open for more solutions and ideas to gain their respect. There are also times that when we feel frustrated after the top management’s decision we tend not to continue our work anymore. But think twice, it’s more frustrating and even hard to accept that you are not going anywhere with all your plans because you are not working for it. We need to be open-minded and take an action because failures only come to those who gave up so early.

Humans have their own personal emotions and often times we can’t avoid our personal motions ruined our work and plans. Frustrations may come but we can avoid it if we will be able to relate our dreaming behavior with the actual situation, and when we observe not the people around us but you. As what I have said earlier, work is work and people are paid for their service for the company that is why we should perform our job well and exclude our personal feeling with our work. A good information system plan will be very successful if we will meet the user’s needs, earn a 100 percent approval and support from the top management, acceptance of the users with the change, enough budget from planning to implementation and working as one. We fear to fail that’s why we loss control of ourselves. Failure is not the thing to be feared but the thing we need to fight. Failure only comes to those who don’t know how to face it and gave up early. We develop a strategic information system plan to adopt the change not to avoid it. We should be open-minded to gain more information and erase the idea that plans may fail, think positive and never let your plans down with some things that causes frustration. The time of frustration will pass and the success of the plan depends on how you handle the things that triggers your way to success.



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Jezreel Jyl P. Hilado

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PostSubject: Assignment 3   Mon Mar 29, 2010 11:37 pm

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?

In this topic we were tasked to interview an IT professional. I have interviewed Engr. Miclat of NCCC regarding this question. I have acquired answers of this questions throughout the interview we conducted.

In the information age, as we have become increasingly dependent upon complex information systems, there has been a focus on the vulnerability of these systems to computer crime and security attacks.
Because of the high-tech nature of these systems and the technological
expertise required to develop and maintain them, it is not surprising that overwhelming attention
has been devoted by experts to technological vulnerabilities and solutions.


Frustration is a common emotional response to opposition. Related to anger and disappointment, it arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of individual will. The greater the obstruction, and the greater the will, the more the frustration is likely to be. Causes of frustration may be internal or external. In people, internal frustration may arise from challenges in fulfilling personal and desires, instinctual drives and needs, or dealing with perceived deficiencies, such as a lack of confidence or fear ofsocial situations. Conflict can also be an internal source of frustration; when one has competing goals that interfere with one another, it can create cognitive dissonance. External causes of frustration involve conditions outside an individual, such as a blocked road or a difficult task. While coping with frustration, some individuals may engage in passive-aggressive behavior, making it difficult to identify the original cause(s) of their frustration, as the responses are indirect. A more direct, and common response, is a propensity towards aggression.

As a human being, chances are you've said this many times, eitherout loud or in your mind. The great thing about accepting you're frustrated is that you've identified and acknowledged what's going on. It's too easy to carry on struggling with something
and being unaware that it's causing you frustration. Once you've realised that you're frustrated, you're free to make choices about how you handle it. The way you handle your
frustrations is a key to successfully moving on.



One of the best ways to be an observer and to see the situation more clearly is to take a break.Once you've stepped back from the frustration, you'll find it easier to tap into your creativeness and come upwith ideas and solutions. Tap into the creative and resourceful
part of yourself by asking empowering questions. Empowering questions such as "What is important to me about this?", "What is the intended result?", "What choices are available to me?", or "What is the next action I need to take?" When you're asking these questions, listen carefully for your ownresponse. This is where your own personal resourcefulness will show up and give you the answers and solutions to enable you to move forward. You'll quickly move beyond the frustration and get back to achieving what you want.

When frustrations have occurred,it's well worth getting to the source so that you can handle it once and for all. What often leaves us frustrated is when the same problems come up time and time again. Get to the source of your frustration and from that, learn what needs to change or needs to be done differently in the future. Frustrations can also present an opportunity, although it may not feel like it at the time. They're an opportunity for growth and improvement. Next time you feel frustrated, I invite you to see it as an opportunity.

- People have No role Models for the new activity.

Never underestimate the power of observational learning. If you see yourself as a change agent, you probably are something of a dreamer, someone who uses the imagination to create new possibilities that do not currently exist. Well, most people don’t operate that way. It’s great to be a visionary, but communicating a vision is not enough. Get some people on board with your idea, so that you or they can demonstrate how the new way can work. Operationally, this can mean setting up effective pilot programs that model a change and work out the kinks before taking your innovation “on the road.” For most people, seeing is believing. Less rhetoric and more demonstration can go a long way toward overcoming resistance, changing people’s objections from the “It can’t be done!” variety to the “How can we get it done?” category.

-People anticipate a loss of status or quality of life.

Real change reshuffles the deck a bit. Reshuffling the deck can bring winners . . . and losers. Some people, most likely, will gain in status, job security, quality of life, etc. with the proposed change,

and some will likely lose a bit. Change does not have to be a zero sum game, and change can (and should) bring more advantage to more people than disadvantage. But we all live in the real world, and let’s face it– if there were no obstacles (read: people and their interests) align ed against change, then special efforts to promote change would be unnecessary.

-The risk of change is seen as greater than the risk of standing still.

Making a change requires a kind of leap of faith: you decide to move in the direction of the unknown on the promise that something will be better for you. But you have no proof.
Taking that leap of faith is risky, and people will only take active steps toward the unknown if they genuinely believe – and perhaps more importantly, feel – that the risks of standing still are greater than those of moving forward in a new direction. Making a change is all about managing risk. If you are making the case for change, be sure to set out in stark, truthful terms why you believe the risk situation favors change. Use numbers whenever you can, because we in the West payattention to numbers. At the very least, they get our attention, and then when the rational mind is engaged, the emotional mind (which is typically most decisive) can begin to grapple with the prospect of change. But if you only sell your idea of change based on idealistic, unseen promises of reward, you won’t be nearly as effective in moving people to action.

A budget is one of those pivotal tools that is used across many departments within acompany. For the developers, it dictates how much time to spend on specific areas of the application. For the project manager, it's a baseline used to determine whether the project is on track. For sales orthe client, it correlates directly to the success of the effort. It's no surprise that one of the biggest issues in creating a budget is interpretation.

What steps are you taking today to increase your personal leadership and having the career that gives you more juice and energy?There is a resurgence going on in the workplace. Sure there are still some layoffs in places, but career professionals globally are feeling the
"pull" to exercise their personal leadership and create what they want to experience in their career. That desire, for more knowledge, skill, leadership and money is a powerful driver.It's no small feat to
persevere with all that is swirling around us. However there are opportunities to create an emotional "state" change that will serve each one of us in the future. This emotional "state" change is taking action and exercising your personal leadership. It's recognizing the abundant insight available to you, right now. How will you tap into this gift and lead your career and life as a result of what you're learning in this environment.

Watching and paying attention to what's happening around you and not taking personal leadership to make it work for you is a sorely missed opportunity. We are all being gifted with the"breadcrumbs" that give us license to take our own personal leadership to new and untold heights. You are responsible for your career satisfaction and fulfillment. Now, you can lead your self to the best that you deserve. Use the time, energy, opportunities and your personal leadership to do so, today!
When you find yourself in a situation in which your desires, needs or wishes are not fulfilled, you may experience what is commonly known as frustration. It is something that happens to us all, as life rarely goesas planned. Being able to effectively cope with the emotions that so frequently accompany frustration is a critical life skill. When a personallows their frustration to take over, they are not able to think clearly and cannot make rational decisions. This can lead to making detrimental choices from which they may never fully recover. You can learn to overcome feelings of frustration before they get out of control.


REFERENCES:

http://www.articlesbase.com/business-articles/how-to-lead-yourself-out-of-career-frustration-1157353.html

http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/ospp/securityguide/Treason/Infosys.htm

http://www.ehow.com/how_5113823_overcome-frustrations.html



please visit my blog.
http://fujiwarayumi.blogspot.com/
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vanessa may caneda

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PostSubject: Assignment 3..   Fri Apr 02, 2010 8:27 pm

Our world today has changed a great deal with the aid of information technology. Things that were once done manually or by hand have now become computerized operating systems, which simply require a single click of a mouse to get a task completed. With the aid of IT we are not only able to streamline our business processes but we are also able to get constant information up to the minute and up to date. Nowadays, the rise of information technology plays a vital role in every organization and major businesses. Competition is indeed a mere challenge to all organizations. The use of the so-called technology brings life to them not just because they need to have one but also by showing to others what they’ve got. The fast growing technology ruled over the world and influenced the industry level of businesses. Information technology is a powerful tool for meeting environmental objectives and promoting sustainable development. Information technologies are unique not just because of their growing use in decision-making and knowledge management systems, important as that is. Their use has also yielded significant improvements in the efficiency of energy and materials used by certain companies. This has contributed to economic expansion without the increases in environmental impacts that would have resulted had the efficiency improvements not occurred.

Advances in information technology are likely to continue to provide opportunities for the development of improved and new products and services offered by some organizations. The advances of technology nowadays certainly help in building a skilled workforce within the organization that definitely makes the company grow and produced quality services to customers.

Due to the rapid development of technology, information is acquired anytime, anywhere and everywhere. Likewise, all medium to large organizations depend on Information technology for their continued survival. Information systems were developed simply to improve the efficiency of specific business functions. More recently information systems have been viewed as tools for obtaining competitive advantage.

The significance of IT can be seen from the fact that it has penetrated almost every aspect of our daily lives from business to leisure and even the society. Today personal computers, cell phones, fax machines, email and internet have all not only become an integral part of our very culture but also play an essential role in our day to day activities as well.

Today information technology involves more than just computer literacy; it also takes into account how computers work and how these computers can further be used not just for information processing but also for communications and problem solving tasks as well.

As we all know, all business processing units nowadays make use of the so-called technology we had now. It brings a lot of advantages for the company since it is an aid in achieving the company’s goal and to become globally competitive in so many ways. With information technology, computerize business process helped those companies in streamlining businesses to make them extremely cost effective money making machines. This in turn increases productivity that ultimately gives rise to profits that means better pay and less tough working conditions. IT has made it possible for businesses to be open 24 x7 all over the globe. This means that a business can be open anytime anywhere, making purchases from different countries easier and more convenient. It simply means money is always coming. Probably the best advantage of information technology is the creation of new and interesting jobs. Computer programmers, Systems analyzers, Hardware and Software developers and Web designers are just some of the many new employment opportunities created with the help of IT.
Information is the lifeblood of any organization. Damaged or lost data can cause disruptions in normal business activities leading to financial losses and lawsuits. Information systems, which comprise hardware, software, data, applications, communication and people, help an organization to better manage and secure its critical corporate, customer and employee data. Information systems also improve integration and work processes.

The role of information system in an organization is to monitor and document the operations of systems, which are called target systems. An information system owes its existence to the target system. For example, production activities would be the target system for a production scheduling information system; human resources would be the target system of a human resource information system. It could be that every reactive system may have a subsystem that can be considered as an information system whose objective is to monitor and control such a system. The main functions of an information system may be input, processing, output, storage and control.
IT makes plans that don’t reflect what IT will actually do or what the business actually needs. In the end, business doesn’t understand how IT contributes to the execution of strategy. IT doesn’t start planning with a clear picture of which demand is truly strategic or which actions will have the biggest impact. Information regarding business needs and the costs, benefits, and risks of IT capabilities comes from sources of varying quality. IT then makes planning decisions based on misleading information Additionally, it must be timely, useable, maintainable, able to be iterated into a quality product, and reproducible. IT organizations, once they have completed their initial set of databases and business information systems will find themselves transformed from a project to a release environment.
Without the planning process, there is no way to ensure that building project will be in accordance with established plans. The project planning process requires a meeting of the various players involved in the building of a home. This includes the home owner, designer or architect and home builder. This may also include local building inspectors and a banker. The planning process involves that all parties work together, as a result all parties will have a vested interest in the project’s successful completion.
IT’s plans often end up rigid and unverifiable. Plans don’t include contingencies that reduce the impact of change, nor have they been verified as the best plan of action via comparison to alternatives and scenarios. IT simply doesn’t have the time and information for it. Manually preparing multiple plans and selecting the best one would take too long for most organizations — especially considering the availability of the information needed for a comparison

In some organizations, doing Information System Plan outcomes some frustration as they go on through. What is frustration? is a common emotional response to opposition. Related to anger and disappointment, it arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of individual will. Frustration can be a result of blocking motivated behavior. An individual may react in several different ways. He may respond with rational problem-solving methods to overcome the barrier. Failing in this, he may become frustrated and behave irrationally. An example of blockage of motivational energy would be the case of the worker who wants time off to go fishing but is denied permission by his supervisor. Another example would be the executive who wants a promotion but finds he lacks certain qualifications. If, in these cases, an appeal to reason does not succeed in reducing the barrier or in developing some reasonable alternative approach, the frustrated individual may resort to less adaptive methods of trying to reach his goal. He may, for example, attack the barrier physically or verbally or both.

User frustration with information and computing technology is a pervasive and persistent problem. When computers crash, network congestion causes delays, and poor user interfaces trigger confusion there are dramatic consequences for individuals, organizations, and society. These frustrations, not only cause personal dissatisfaction and loss of self-efficacy, but may disrupt workplaces, slow learning, and reduce participation in local and national communities.

Knowing what frustration is arising some common frustrations that a company face as IT professional is working on with Information System Plan. We had a chance to interview the MIS Director of EMCOR Davao, Mr, Nilo Ricafort. He states two frustrations that they encounter while working on a IS plan. These are follows:

Lack of effective communication

Communication is certainly central to what all of us do constantly as planning involve. With proper communication, both individuals understand their views and opinions of a certain project they work on together. In EMCOR’s case, the lack of communication is one of the problem that frustrates the IT personnel in doing their plans to the project they worked together. The ideas of each other didn’t unite as one but in the end they solved it together.

Cannot Adapt to Change

Change is the constant thing in this world. Since competition is always there, changes in the information systems take place to be able to compete in the global market. And with that, it is one of the frustration the IT professional encounters in doing the plan. They have to include in their plans the possible technology they will use in order to adapt to changes as technology is concern. There are also some instances that they may think the changes are going to hurt the customer or the company in some way. Sometimes they really don't understand what the changes are supposed to accomplish, so they are reluctant to support them.
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Michael George Guanzon

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PostSubject: assignment #3   Sun Apr 04, 2010 12:59 am

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan? note: you are required to interview an IS professional/s for your answer ...(at least 3000 words)

Let’s discuss first what is frustration..


Frustration?


Life is full of frustrations. From the minor irritations of losing something to the major problem of continued failure towards a desired goal. Since many of the things we truly want require a degree of frustration, being able to manage frustration is required in order to allow us to remain happy and positive even in trying circumstances.

Definition of Frustration

Frustration is an emotion that occurs in situations where a person is blocked from reaching a desired outcome. In general, whenever we reach one of our goals, we feel pleased and whenever we are prevented from reaching our goals, we may succumb to frustration and feel irritable, annoyed and angry. Typically, the more important the goal, the greater the frustration and resultant anger or loss of confidence.

Frustration is not necessarily bad since it can be a useful indicator of the problems in a person's life and, as a result, it can act as a motivator to change. However, when it results in anger, irritability, stress, resentment, depression, or a spiral downward where we have a feeling of resignation or giving up, frustration can be destructive.

What Causes Frustration?

Frustration is experienced whenever the results (goals) you are expecting do not seem to fit the effort and action you are applying. Frustration will occur whenever your actions are producing less and fewer results than you think they should.

The frustration we experience can be seen as the result of two types of goal blockage, i.e. internal and external sources of frustration.

Internal sources of frustration usually involve the disappointment that get when we cannot have what we want as a result of personal real or imagined deficiencies such as a lack of confidence or fear of social situations. Another type of internal frustration results when a person has competing goals that interfere with one another.
The second type of frustration results from external causes that involve conditions outside the person such as physical roadblocks we encounter in life including other people and things that get in the way of our goals. One of the biggest sources of frustration in today's world is the frustration caused by the perception of wasting time. When you're standing in line at a bank, or in traffic, or on the phone, watching your day go by when you have got so much to do, that's one big frustration.

External frustration may be unavoidable. We can try to do something about it, like finding a different route if we are stuck in traffic, or choosing a different restaurant if our first choice is closed, but sometimes there is just nothing we can do about it. It is just the way life is. Our goal in dealing with external sources of frustration is to recognize the wisdom of the the Serenity Prayer..."God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change; courage to change the things I can; and wisdom to know the difference."

One can learn that while the situation itself may be upsetting and frustrating, you do not have to be frustrated. Accepting life is one of the secrets of avoiding frustration.

Responses

Some of the "typical" responses to frustration, adapted from the ways to deal with frustration website, include anger, quitting (burn out or giving up), loss of self-esteem and self-confidence, stress and depression.

ANGER: Most of us have heard the saying, "Frustration begets anger and anger begets aggression." Direct anger and aggression is expressed toward the object perceived as the cause of the frustration. If a machine does not work, you might hit it or kick it. If someone gets in your way, you could verbally threaten them or push them aside. If the source of the frustration is too powerful or threatening for direct aggression, displaced aggression is often used. The aggression is redirected toward a less threatening and more available object.

An angry person often acts without thinking. The person has given in to the frustration and they have given up restraint. Anger can be a healthy response if it motivates us to positive action but all too often the actions we engage in when angry are destructive. Indeed, if we could see a videotape of ourselves getting angry, the humiliation might well help cure us of anger. When you feel frustration building, you have to practice learned responses that lead to healthy actions instead of destructive ones.

GIVING UP: Giving up on a goal can be productive if the goal is truly out of reach. However, more often giving up (quitting or being apathetic) is another form of giving in to frustration. When repeatedly frustrated, people can drop out of school, quit jobs, or move away. Apathy is giving up all of your goals, so you cannot be frustrated by trying to reach them.

We live in difficult time and we have to be persistent in order to accomplish. Consider how many projects you began, and then gave up, because you became frustrated and lost patience. Make a list of things you started and quit because they seemed too difficult. Now calculate the disappointment and loss you suffered by not dealing with the frustration in a more healthy way. Try to remember that quitters never win, and winners never quit. Losing your temper means you're a quitter.

LOSS OF CONFIDENCE: Loss of confidence is a terrible frequent side effect of giving up and not fulfilling your goal. A loss of self-confidence and self-esteem means that If we quit once, then the next time we plan a goal, we may not be able to accurately assess our ability to carry it out and we stop trusting ourselves and our own abilities. This became a self-fulfilling and self-destructive attitude. You need to be able to learn that when the going gets tough, you say to yourself "It is worth it!" and by following through, it not only gets the job done, but it builds self-confidence.

STRESS: Stress is the "wear and tear" our body and mind experiences as we adjust to the frustrations our continually changing environment. Too frequently, extreme, or prolonged frustration and stress strains us and generates distress signals. Our body experiences distress signals in a variety of ways, often in the form of: irritability, anger, fatigue, anxiety, headaches, depression, stomachaches, hypertension, migraines, ulcers, heart attacks, or colitis.

DEPRESSION: Depression can affect almost every aspect of your life. It affects people of all ages, income, race, and cultures. Depression can affect the way you eat and sleep, the way you feel about yourself, the way one think about things, and the way you interact with others. While we all feel depression at various appropriate times in our lives, excess or inappropriate depression cannot be easily dismissed or wished away.

OTHER REACTIONS: Abuse of drugs or alcohol is self-destructive and usually futile attempt at dealing with frustration, as are many eating and weight problems and addictive behaviors. Whenever the immediate effects of the addictive behavior wear off, users find themselves back in the same, or even worse, frustrating situation.

Learning To Deal With Frustration

It is unrealistic to believe you can rid yourself of frustration forever, but you can learn to do things to minimize your frustrations and to make sure you do not engage in unhealthy responses to frustration.
You will need to learn to distinguish between what you hope will happen, what will probably happen, and what actually happened. Life inevitably has its ups and downs -- its moments of relaxation and times of tension. When you learn to truly accept this reality, you come one step closer to being able to deal with frustration in a healthy way.
There are several types of problems that we encounter in everyday living: those which you know can be solved, those which you are not sure if they can be solved or not, those you know are totally out of your control, and those you are so confused about that you do not even know what the problem is. You need to be able to accurately assess your abilities to alter situations that prevent you from solving your problems and reaching your goal. Then you will be able to assess which of the types of problems you have encountered, and you will then be able to develop a realistic plan.
Learning to take things in stride will also help you to be more content and happy which, in turn, will help you to more easily overcome anger and frustration. If you are upset, sad, anxious, or depressed you will have less patience and tolerance for everything and everybody.

Treatment

Frustration and anger are fundamental emotions that everyone experiences from time to time. From a very early age, people learn to express frustration by copying the behavior they see modeled around them, and by expressing frustration and angry behavior and seeing what they can get away with.

We all suffer from frustration, and being able to effectively deal with frustration is a very important skill to develop. Each person needs to learn how to control frustration, so that it does not control them. The following is a brief overview of types of frustration management programs and resources that have proved helpful in understanding and controlling frustration and anger.

Individual and Group Therapy for Anger Management

For some people, the easiest way to change the way they handle chronic feelings of frustration is to work with a psychologist or other licensed mental health professional in an individual or group therapy setting. A therapist, who can observe and analyze your behavior from an impartial perspective, can help you with your reality testing. An therapist knows many effective frustration and anger management strategies and will be able to help you develop a personalized set of strategies for changing both your thinking and behavior. Depending on your needs, your therapist may work with you on breathing or meditation exercises to reduce frustration, safe and appropriate emotional and physical techniques to release frustration, communication skills, or cognitive restructuring (a method for disputing and changing the way you think).

Relaxation and exercise

Simple relaxation tools such as deep breathing and relaxing imagery can help calm down feelings of frustration and anger. Breathing deeply, from your diaphragm, will help while breathing from your chest won't relax you. While breathing, you can slowly repeat a calm word or phrase such as "relax," "calm down" or "take it easy." Non-strenuous exercise, like yoga, can relax your muscles and make you feel much calmer. Strenuous and vigorous exercise can also help you to work off frustration and angry feelings.

Frustration can have a highly damaging impact on our frame of mind. It can turn a positive person into a person who sees nearly everything as a problem. It can slow you down, inhibit your progress, and at times completely immobilize you. We can become so wound up with our frustration that we do not, and can not, think or act rationally. Our frustration can often exacerbate a situation and create a vicious circle. If we are convinced that our actions are not working, no matter how hard we try, we are much more likely to reduce, rather than increase, our chances of success.

If you feel that your degree of frustration is really out of control, if it is having an impact on your relationships and on important parts of your life, you might consider counseling to learn how to handle it better. A psychologist or other licensed mental health professional can work with you in developing a range of techniques for changing your thinking and your behavior.

Remember, you can not eliminate frustration. In spite of all your efforts, things will happen that will cause you frustration and anger. Life is filled with frustration, pain, loss, and the unpredictable actions of others. You can't change that; but you can change the way you let such events affect you.

Last December 14, we had interviewed the MIS Supervisor of Samulco or the Sta. Ana Multipurpose Cooperative. We asked him what are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan. And he answered, First, was the lack of budget and the second was the resistance to change:

Let's discuss first what is this lack of budget..

I. Lack of Budget- the company only has limited budget for the system or it does not have any budget for the system.

A budget is generally a list of all planned expenses and revenues. It is a plan for saving and spending. A budget is an important concept in microeconomics, which uses a budget line to illustrate the trade-offs between two or more goods. In other terms, a budget is an organizational plan stated in monetary terms.
In summary, the purpose of budgeting is to:

1. Provide a forecast of revenues and expenditures i.e. construct a model of how our business might perform financially speaking if certain strategies, events and plans are carried out.
2. Enable the actual financial operation of the business to be measured against the forecast.

Budgeting is an integral part of society. In today's hurry up and get it done society; every day we are trying to budget our time, our meals, our kids' time and our money. Unfortunately for many, most of this process is done mentally and never put on paper. Remember, just as families budget time and money, your business must also develop a financial plan. This type of budget is simply a formal written summary of your goals and intentions in terms of dollars.

Budgeting requires you to look ahead and formalize future goals. By establishing a budget, you can set goals for achieving a certain level of income and monitor your expenses. Many home based and small-business owners have remarked that their increase in profit margins did not occur until they had a written revenue goal and a method with which to monitor expenses.

Other business owners need to know their sales levels in terms of dollars and how hard they need to work to make the budget work. Sound familiar, goals and budgeting is very much tied together. The closer you come to the goals you have set for yourself, the closer you will come to achieving the budget amount you need. You'll know you are on top of your business when you can tell your accountant that you need to sell 3.25 items per day in order to make your budget work and meet your financial goals.

A budget is a plan that identifies the financial resources required to achieve programmatic objectives. Once constructed, this plan assists staff and board in managing the organization both programmatically and financially throughout the year.
Establishing a schedule of key action and decision points in the process allows adequate time for information gathering and decision making. How long the process should take and who should be involved varies depending on the management style and complexity of the organization. Typically the budgeting process should begin at least four months before the end of the fiscal year to ensure the budget is approved by the Board before the start of the new year.

THE BUDGETING PROCESS

Step 1: Planning the Process

•Identify who will coordinate the budgeting process and which staff, board members and committees need to be involved;
•Agree upon key definitions, assumptions and document formats;
•Set time lines and key deadlines;
• Determine and schedule any training or key meetings.

Step 2: Communicating about the Process

•Clearly communicate responsibilities, expectations and deadlines to everyone involved;
• Explain and distribute forms and assumptions.

Step 3: Programmatic Goal Setting

• Determine program goals and objectives;
• Project staffing requirements and salary and benefit assumptions based on program goals;
• Get board agreement on goals and assumptions.

Step 4: Information Gathering

• Research and gather information about income and expenses based on program goals and assumptions;
• Construct budget details by program;
• Communicate regularly to avoid duplication of effort and to share information and assumptions.

Step 5: Compilation and Revision

•Have one person compile all information, review it for consistency and redistribute to everyone involved;
• Leave plenty of time for review and revisions.

Step 6: Committee Review

•Have the finance committee and other appropriate staff and board committees review a budget draft and key assumptions;
• Be sure to allow enough time between committee meetings and the final approval deadline to address questions and recommendations and make revisions.

Step 7: Final Approval

•Distribute information to the board prior to the board meeting, including budget draft, program goals and other supporting information;
•Have program and development committees play a role in making an informative presentation to the board based on the opportunities, challenges and resources behind the budget numbers;
• Have the finance committee or treasurer present the budget proposal to the board.

Step 8: Implementation and Management The real work begins once the budget is approved:
• Communicate budget, program goals and time lines for the next year to staff;
• Review actual income and expense compared to the budget on a monthly basis;
• Update and revise the budget as there are changes during the year. Depending on the significance of changes, the board may need to approve revisions.

KEYS TO A SUCCESSFUL BUDGETING PROCESS

1. Clearly identify programmatic objectives that are aligned with the mission and strategic plan.

2. Determine the financial resources needed and available to achieve program goals.

3. Involve staff and board members in the process to improve accuracy of information and commitment to the plan.

4. Document! Don’t rely on memory. Write down assumptions and formulas. This will be very important in managing the budget throughout the year.

5. Customize your process. The steps each organization takes will be somewhat different. v

Example
BUDGET PREPARATION SCHEDULE

July/August Step
1: Planning the Process Executive Director meets with financial staff and finance committee to plan budgeting process and set timelines. Budget worksheet and template formats updated.

September
Step 2: Communicating about the Process Staff meeting he
ld to communicate process, responsibilities and deadlines to all participants. Report made to board about process, timelines and assumptions.

Step 3: Programmatic Goal Setting Board and committees review strategic goals and identify priorities; Staff meet within programs/departments to brainstorm and plan for programmatic goals for next year.

September/October
Step 4: Information Gathering Managers draft program or department budgets based on plans and assumptions.

November
Step 5: Compilation and Revision Designated coordinator compiles information to prepare an initial organizational budget draft. Managers review and revise initial draft.

Step 6: Committee Review Finance committee meets to review budget draft and assumptions and make recommendations.

December
Step 7: Final Approval Board meeting held and budget proposal and programmatic and fundraising assumptions are presented for approval.

December/January
Step 8: Implementation and Management Staff meeting held to discuss budget, program goals and timelines for new year.

And the second most frequently experienced causes of frustration is the Resistance to change..

II. Resistance to Change- Resistance to change is the action taken by individuals and groups when they perceive that a change that is occurring as a threat to them.


In today's economy, change is all-pervasive in organizations. It happens continuously, and often at rapid speed. Because change has become an everyday part of organizational dynamics, employees who resist change can actually cripple an organization. Resistance is an inevitable response to any major change. Individuals naturally rush to defend the status quoi they feel their security or status is threatened. Folger & Skarlicki (1999) claim that "organizational change can generate skepticism and resistance in employees, making it sometimes difficult or impossible to implement organizational improvements".

If management does not understand, accept and make an effort to work with resistance, it can undermine even the most well-intentioned and well-conceived change efforts. Coetsee (1999) states "any management’s ability to achieve maximum benefits from change depends in part of how effectively they create and maintain a climate that minimizes resistant behavior and encourages acceptance and support".

Resistance Defined

In order to understand the concept of employee resistance, it is critical to define what is meant by the term resistance Alvin Zander (1950) an early researcher on the subject, defined resistance to change as "behavior which is intended to protect an individual from the effects of real or imagined change" (cited in Dent &Goldberg, 1999, p. 34). Zaltman & Duncan (1977) define resistance as "any conduct that serves to maintain the status quo in the face of pressure to alter the status quo" (cited in Bradley, 2000, p. 76). In the view ofFolger & Skarlicki (1999) resistance is defined as "employee behavior that seeks to challenge, disrupt, or invert prevailing assumptions, discourses, and power relations".

Piderit (2000) believes that the definition of the term resistance must incorporate a much broader scope. She states that "a review of past empirical research reveals three different emphases in conceptualizations of resistance: as a cognitive state, as an emotional state, and as a behavior".

The notion that employee resistance can be overcome cognitively suggests that negative thoughts or beliefs about the change exist. Piderit sites, "Watson (1982) who suggests that what is often labeled as resistance is, in fact, only reluctance. Armenakis, Harris, and Mossholder (1993) define resistance in behavioral terms but suggest that another state precedes it: is a cognitive state they call (un)-readiness" (2000, p. 785). Others attempt to define employee resistance based on the emotional factors exhibited as a result of organizational change. From their early study, Coch and French (1948) acknowledged aggression and frustration in employees as the emotional factors that caused undesirable behaviors and resistance to change.

Argyris and Schon (1974, 1978) noted that resistance to change is a defense mechanism caused by frustration and anxiety (Piderit, 2000). The final aspect of Piderit's conceptualization focuses on individual behavior in an attempt to define employee resistance to change. She cites Brower and Abolafia (1995) who define resistance as a particular kind of action or inaction. Ashforth and Mael (1998) define resistance as intentional acts of commission(defiance) or omission. Shapiro, Lweicki, and Devine (1995) suggest that willingness to deceive authorities constitutes resistance to change (2000). Piderit (2000) claims that: although these conceptualizations of overlap somewhat, they diverge in important ways. Finding a way to bring together these varying emphases should deepen our understanding of how employees respond to proposed organizational changes.

Each of these three conceptualizations of resistance- as a behavior, an emotion, or a belief - has merit and represents an important part of our experience of response to change. Thus, any definition focusing on one view at the expense of the others seems incomplete (p. 785). According to Dent & Goldberg (1999), individuals aren't really resisting the change, but rather they may be resisting the loss of status, loss of pay, or loss of comfort. They claim that, "it is time that we dispense with the phrase resistance to change and find a more useful and appropriate models for describing what the phrase has come to mean - employees are not wholeheartedly embracing a change that management wants to implement".

Early Research

In the 1940's, social psychologist Kurt Lewin first introduced the idea of managing and removing” resistance" to proposed changes occurring within organizations. His early work focused on the aspects of individual behavior that must be addressed in order to bring about effective organizational change. Morgan (1997) states that: Lewin suggested that any potential change is resisted by forces in the opposite direction. The idea is similar to the dialectical principle that everything generates its opposite. But within Lewin's framework, the forces tend to be external to the change, holding situations in states of dynamic equilibrium. His solution was to advocate that successful change rests in "unfreezing" an established equilibrium by enhancing the forces driving change, or by reducing or removing resisting forces, and then” refreezing" in a new equilibrium state (p. 294).

The first known published reference to research on resistance to change in organizations was a 1948 study conducted by Lester Coach and John R. P. French entitled, "Overcoming Resistance to Change." Their research, which generated a large body of work on the importance of employee involvement in decision-making, was conducted at the Hardwood Manufacturing Company, a pajama factory located in Virginia.

This study focused on the main questions (1) Why do people resist change so strongly? and (2) What can be done to overcome this resistance? (Dent & Goldberg, 1999). In 1950, Alvin Sander wrote, "Resistance to Change-Its Analysis and Prevention." His article made an early distinction between the symptoms of resistance, like hostility or poor effort, and the underlying causes forth behavior. Dent & Goldberg (1999) state, "Rather than providing a systems model, Sander equates resistance in organizations to that of a psychotherapist and a patient. His primary advice for practicing managers is to know what the resistance means so that they may reduce it by working on the causes rather than the symptoms" (p. 33). Sander, who was a close colleague of Kurt Le win and leaned heavily on his work, offered six primary reasons for resistance to surface. (1).

If the nature of the change is not made clear to the people who are going to be influenced by the change. (2). If the change is open to a wide variety of interpretations. (3). If those influenced feel strong forces deterring them from changing. (4). If the people influenced by the change have pressure put on them to make it instead of having a say in the nature or the direction of the change. (5).If the change is made on personal grounds. (6). If the change ignores the already established institutions in the group (cited in Dent & Goldberg, 1999, p. 33).

The Nature and Causes of Resistance

Symptoms are the specific behaviors individuals’ exhibit when they are resistant to change. According to Bhutan (1995), it is important to distinguish between the symptoms of resistance to change, and the causes behind it. These behaviors fall into two categories -- active-resistance or passive-resistance. Symptoms of active-resistance include finding fault, ridiculing, appealing to fear, and manipulating. Passive-resistance symptoms include agreeing verbally but not following through, feigning ignorance and withholding information. Bhutan (1995) adds, "there is always the danger of identifying a symptom of resistance when you are really looking for its cause. To diagnose the causes, we must understand a person's state of mind.

The most important factors that go into a person's state of mind are his or her facts, beliefs, feeling, and values" (p.16). The list of reasons why individuals might be resistance to organizational change has grown since Sander’s initial six published in 1950. It is safe to assume that any attempts to cover all of them would produce volumes of literature. However, there are several that are quite common and prevalent, which help provide solid basis to understanding the concept. Employees resist change because they have to learn something new. In many case there is not disagreement with the benefits of the new process, but rather a fear of the unknown future and about their ability to adapt to it. de Jag er (2001) argues, 'Most people are reluctant to leave the familiar behind. We are all suspicious about the unfamiliar; we are naturally concerned about how we will get from the old to the new, especially if it involves learning something new and risking failure" (p. 24).

Low tolerance for change is defined as the fear that one will not be able to develop new skills and behaviors that are required in a new work setting. According to Kotter & Schlesinger (1979), if an employee has a low tolerance for change, the increased ambiguity that results as a result of having to perform their job differently would likely cause a resistance to the new way of doing things. An employee may understand that a change is needed, but may be emotionally unable to make the transition and resist for reasons they may not consciously understand. Folger & Skarlicki (1995) investigated resistance to change as a response to the treatment employees receive in the change process. Specifically they focus on resentment-based resistance -reactions by disgruntled employees regarding the perceived unfairness of the change.

They claim that "resent-based resistance behaviors, which can range from subtle acts of non-cooperation to industrial sabotage, are often seen by the perpetrators as subjectively justifiable - a way to "get even" for perceived mistreatment and away for employees to exercise their power to restore perceived injustice" (p. 36). Paul Strebel (1996), professor and director of the Change Program for international managers at the International Institute for Management Development (IMD), attributes resistance as a violation of "personal compacts" management has with their employees. Personal compacts are the essence of the relationship between employees and organizations defined by reciprocal obligations and mutual commitments that are both stated and implied. Any change initiatives proposed by the organization would alter their current terms.

Personal compacts are comprised of formal, psychological, and social dimensions. The formal dimension is the most familiar. It is the aspect of the relationship that addresses the basic tasks and performance requirements of the job, and is defined by job descriptions, employee contracts, and performance agreements. Management, in return, agrees to supply the employee the resources needed to perform their job. The psychological dimension addresses aspects of the employment relationship that incorporate the elements of mutual trust, loyalty and commitment. The social dimension of the personal compact deals with organizational culture, which encompasses, mission statement, values, ethics and business practices.

Strebel points out that when these personal compacts are disrupted it upsets the balance, and increases the likelihood of resistance. He suggests that management view how change looks from the employee’s perspective, and to examine the terms of the personal compacts currently in place. 'Unless manages define new terms and persuade employees to accept them, it is unrealistic for managers to expect employees to fully buy into changes that alter the status quo" (p. 87). Kegan & Lahey (2001) describe a psychological dynamic called a "competing commitment" as the realreason for employee resistance to organizational change. The change is not challenged, but rather is it resisted, or not implemented at all because the employee faces additional issue or concerns related to the change. When an employee's hidden competing commitment is uncovered, "behavior that seems irrational land ineffective suddenly becomes stunningly sensible and masterful - but unfortunately, on behalf of a goal that conflicts with what you and even the employee are trying to achieve" (p. 85). Competing commitments should not be viewed as a weakness, but as a version of self-protection.

If the scampering commitments are a form of self-protection, then what are employees protecting themselves from? Kegan & Lahey believe the answer usually lies in what they call "big assumptions" - deeply rooted beliefs people have about themselves and the world around them. Many rarely realize they hold big assumptions because they are woven into the very fabric of people's existence, and thus they accept them as reality. "these assumptions put an order to the world and at the same time suggest ways in which the world can go out of order. Competing commitments arise from these assumptions, driving behaviors unwittingly designed to keep the picture intact" (p. 88).

Positive Resistance

Managers often perceive resistance negatively, and employees who resist are viewed as disobedient and obstacles the organization must overcome in order to achieve the new goals. However in certain instances, employee resistance may play a positive and useful role in organizational change. Insightful and well-intended debate, criticism, or disagreement do not necessarily equate to negative resistance, but rather maybe intended to produce better understanding as well as additional options and solutions. de Jager (2001)claims, "the idea that anyone who questions the need for change has an attitude problem is simply wrong, not only because it discounts past achievements, but also because it makes us vulnerable to indiscriminate and ill-advised change' (p. 25).

Piderit (2000) points out that what some managers may perceive as disrespectful or unfounded resistance to change might be motivated by an individual's ethical principles or by their desire to protect what they feel is the best interests of the organization. Employee resistance may force management to rethink or reevaluate a proposed change initiative. It also can act as a as a gateway or filter, which can help organizations select from all possible changes the one that is most appropriate to the current situation. According to de Jager(2001), "resistance is simply a very effective, very powerful, very useful survival mechanism' ' (p. 26). Folgers & Skarlicki (1999) claim "that not all interventions are appropriate as implemented -the organization might be changing the wrong thing or doing it wrong. Just as conflict can sometimes be used constructively for change, legitimate resistance might bring about additional organizational change" (p. 37).

The Six (6) Change Approaches of Kotter and Schlesinger is a model to prevent, decrease or minimize resistance to change in organizations.

According to Kotter and Schlesinger (1979), there are four reasons that certain people are resisting change:

• Parochial self-interest (some people are concerned with the implication of the change for themselves ad how it may effect their own interests, rather than considering the effects for the success of the business)
• Misunderstanding (communication problems; inadequate information)
• Low tolerance to change (certain people are very keen on security and stability in their work)
• Different assessments of the situation (some employees may disagree on the reasons for the change and on the advantages and disadvantages of the change process)

Kotter and Schlesinger set out the following six (6) change approaches to deal with this resistance to change:

1. Education and Communication - Where there is a lack of information or inaccurate information and analysis. One of the best ways to overcome resistance to change is to educate people about the change effort beforehand. Up-front communication and education helps employees see the logic in the change effort. this reduces unfounded and incorrect rumors concerning the effects of change in the organization.

2. Participation and Involvement - Where the initiators do not have all the information they need to design the change and where others have considerable power to resist. When employees are involved in the change effort they are more likely to buy into change rather than resist it. This approach is likely to lower resistance and those who merely acquiesce to change.

3. Facilitation and Support - Where people are resisting change due to adjustment problems. Managers can head-off potential resistance by being supportive of employees during difficult times. Managerial support helps employees deal with fear and anxiety during a transition period. The basis of resistance to change is likely to be the perception that there some form of detrimental effect occasioned by the change in the organization. This approach is concerned with provision of special training, counseling, time off work.

4. Negotiation and Agreement - Where someone or some group may lose out in a change and where that individual or group has considerable power to resist. Managers can combat resistance by offering incentives to employees not to resist change. This can be done by allowing change resistors to veto elements of change that are threatening, or change resistors can be offered incentives to leave the company through early buyouts or retirements in order to avoid having to experience the change effort. This approach will be appropriate where those resisting change are in a position of power.

5. Manipulation and Co-option - Where other tactics will not work or are too expensive. Kotter and Schlesinger suggest that an effective manipulation technique is to co-opt with resisters. Co-option involves the patronizing gesture in bringing a person into a change management planning group for the sake of appearances rather than their substantive contribution. This often involves selecting leaders of the resisters to participate in the change effort. These leaders can be given a symbolic role in decision making without threatening the change effort. Still, if these leaders feel they are being tricked they are likely to push resistance even further than if they were never included in the change effort leadership.

6. Explicit and Implicit Coercion - Where speed is essential and to be used only as last resort. Managers can explicitly or implicitly force employees into accepting change by making clear that resisting to change can lead to losing jobs, firing, transferring or not promoting employees.



references:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/19218916/Employee-Resistance-to-Change
http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_kotter_change_approaches.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Budget
http://www.psychologistanywhereanytime.com/emotional_problems_psychologist/pyschologist_frustration.htm
http://www.nonprofitsassistancefund.org/files/MNAF/ArticlesPublications/BudgetingProcess.pdf


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PostSubject: Assignment#3   Sun Apr 04, 2010 6:33 pm

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan? Note: you are required to interview an IS professional/s for your answer ...(at least 3000 words)
=====================================================================================================
What is Information System Plan?
Information System Plan is a process for developing a strategy and plans for aligning information systems with the business strategies of an organization.
What is frustration?
According to Wikipedia, frustration is a common emotional response to opposition. Related to anger and disappointment, it arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of individual will. The greater the obstruction, and the greater the will, the more the frustration is likely to be. Causes of frustration may be internal or external. In people, internal frustration may arise from challenges in fulfilling personal goals and desires, instinctual drives and needs, or dealing with perceived deficiencies, such as a lack of confidence or fear of social situations. Conflict can also be an internal source of frustration; when one has competing goals that interfere with one another, it can create cognitive dissonance. External causes of frustration involve conditions outside an individual, such as a blocked road or a difficult task. While coping with frustration, some individuals may engage in passive-aggressive behavior, making it difficult to identify the original cause(s) of their frustration, as the responses are indirect. A more direct, and common response, is a propensity towards aggression.
In the website, Psychologist anywhere anytime, frustration is an emotion that occurs in situations where a person is blocked from reaching a desired outcome. In general, whenever we reach one of our goals, we feel pleased and whenever we are prevented from reaching our goals, we may succumb to frustration and feel irritable, annoyed and angry. Typically, the more important the goal, the greater the frustration and the resultant anger or loss of confidence.
It is high time that the matter of integrating advanced information systems (AIS) be seriously addressed. Over the short history of computer-based information systems, professionals have gone through a series of generations which were initially based on heavy technical developments of hardware, soon followed by software, and later by people ware. Information systems (IS) soon became a feature of major courses of action in carrying out business functions. A greater demand for applications led to the need for integrated systems where business processes were facilitated and enhanced by information technology (IT). Technology and systems are changing; opportunities for success as well as competitive pressures are cascading on management; and management concerns point to the need for new managerial guidelines. AISs change both the thinking and decision-making processes requiring organizational changes.
Considerations that causes frustration:

These are some factors or barriers that make IS professionals suffer from frustration while working on the Information System Plan. It is considerable that not all IS professionals encounter this but the majority.
• Organizational Culture Barriers
• Culture of physical/paper records
• Their workflow is designed for paper.
• Paper provides them a sense of security.
• Paper provides proof of action.
• Paper is readily available (cheap) .
• Culture of organization type
The company is a construction industry and most of its data is on paper .
Staff education lacks priority in organizational plans
because they focus on the fields (sites) .
Technology and Standards Barrier
There is a technical challenge to assure user authentication and successful use of system. The interface for retrieving records would have to be standardized so that providers would not be trying to learn each individual system . There are far more users of information system than there are technical assistants
available to address technical issues . According to them, technical documentation for information system is usually long and not user friendly .Staff maynot receive proper training in user authentication and system use .

Organizationslack adequate infrastructure and role delineation for the development and
enforcement of security, privacy, and information management policies and
procedures No IT personnel .
Users’ frustration
User frustration with information and computing technology is a pervasive and persistent problem. When computers crash, network congestion causes delays, and poor user interfaces trigger confusion there are dramatic consequences for individuals, organizations, and society. These frustrations, not only cause personal dissatisfaction and loss of self-efficacy, but may disrupt workplaces, slow learning, and reduce participation in local and national communities.
The literature on user frustration is just emerging, but there are already a number of researches directions related to errors, time delays, and emotional reactions to problematic situations.

Errors
Certainly, there is a lot of overlap in the areas of errors and frustration, as users do tend to find errors to be very frustrating. Frustration is a broader topic than errors. Errors produce frustration when users perceive that something is in an incorrect state, regardless of whether it is their fault, a design flaw or an implementation bug (Lazar, Meiselwitz and Norcio, 2003). There are many things that could cause users to be frustrated, even if a computer is operating in a correct state (such as pop-up advertisements, viruses, and spam mail), and users perceive that the computer is operating in a correct state. However, since errors are a major cause of user frustration, the research on errors can provide useful background literature for research on frustration. While there is no clear definition for an error, it seems that an error could be broadly defined as when users perceive that something in the computing system is not providing the desired outcome and users are therefore unable to reach their task goals (Norman, 1983). This might be due to a hardware or software failure (such as a crash), which is not directly due to the actions of the users. Alternatively, an error might be caused by the actions of users, for example, users either choose the wrong commands to reach their task goals, or choose the correct commands, but enter those commands in an incorrect manner (such as spelling error or a mode error). Errors can be especially frustrating experiences for novice users, who are unable to fully understand the cause of the error, are unable to understand how to appropriately respond to the error, and therefore, may perform actions that compound the severity of the error (Carroll and Carrithers, 1984; Lazar and Norcio, 2000; Lazar, Meiselwitz, and Norcio, 2003). Even expert users may have trouble responding to errors if the system’s feedback is poor. In addition, error messages tend to be inconsistent, unclear and confusing, which does not help users responds to the error, but more likely frustrates them (Shneiderman, 1998; Lazar and Huang, 2003).

Time Delays
While users generally prefer a shorter response time, the appropriate response time is related to the users’ past experiences, users’ knowledge level related to technology, cost of an error, and outside time pressures. For instance, novice users may be willing to wait longer than expert users for a computer to respond (Shneiderman, 1998). In addition, the importance of the task and the related time pressure to complete a task may influence users’ expectations and frustration related to time delays. Frustration can be reduced when delays are predictable and users are made aware of the estimated time until they can move on with their task. Recent research on time delays has focused on the internet and web environment. Time delays are especially frustrating on the web, when users are typically requesting content from a remote site. In these situations, the delay can be caused by numerous factors and components (Sears and Jacko, 2000), and is inherently unpredictable (Johnson, 1995; Johnson, 1998). A number of studies have found that time delays are problematic on the web. As the time delay increases, users may find the content less interesting (Ramsay, Barbesi, and Preece, 1998), and of a lower quality (Jacko, Sears, and Borella, 2000). A long time delay can make it harder for users to remember what they were doing, and the related context in which they had made the request (Shubin and Meehan, 1997). In addition, web pages that take a very long time to load may also cause users to believe that an error has occurred, because the computer has not responded in an appropriate amount of time (Lazar and Norcio, 2000; Lazar and Norcio, 2002).

Emotional Reactions
Another related area of research is that of emotional reactions to computing technology (Reeves and Nass, 1996). Schleifer and Amick conducted a study that analyzed the effects of computer system response time (slow vs. rapid) and method of pay (incentive vs. nonincentive) on mood disturbances and somatic discomfort (Schleifer and Amick, 1989). Regardless of method of pay, slow response time generated higher ratings of frustration and impatience than did rapid response time. In addition, ratings of rush and tension were higher with incentive pay than without incentive pay, regardless of system response time. Mood disturbances and somatic discomfort increased linearly with the amount of time spent performing a data entry task over the course of the workday. This effect was independent of system response time or method of pay. The results indicate that computer systems which incorporate features such as rapid response times reduce work stress, while the motivational advantages of computer-based incentive pay programs must be balanced against the stress effects of this method of pay. Another study had as a goal the development of a computer system trained to sense a user's emotional state via the recognition of physiological signals (Riseberg, Klein, Fernandez, and Picard, 1998). The researchers designed a controlled study in which participants participated in a vision-oriented computer game using a (seemingly) traditional graphical user interface. The game consisted of a series of puzzles. The researchers created incentives (a $100 prize) for the participants to play the game as fast as possible and achieve a good score. They also created seemingly random obstacles to attaining a good score in the game (at specific, but irregular intervals during the game play, they designed the software interface to simulate the mouse failing or “sticking”), so that the participants would experience frustration. The study found a correlation between psychological signal patterns (skin conductivity, blood volume pressure and muscle tension) and game events. The method used proved efficient in solving some of the problems in building a computer that can recognize affect. Other contributors to negative emotional responses are system complexity and poorly crafted interfaces, which lead to experiences of confusion, frustration, and failure (Baecker, Booth, Jovicic, McGrenere, and Moore, 2000). Such experiences may be most strongly felt by novice users who often are confronted with instructions, menu choices, and dialog boxes that they cannot understand. One of the key challenges in making information and communications technologies universally usable is to bridge the gap between what users know and what they need to know, thereby leading to a more successful, less frustrating user experience.

User Satisfaction and Frustration
User satisfaction has been utilized in previous studies as a dependent variable, being used as an affective measure of the success of a technology (Olaniran, 1996; Zviran, 1992; Collins et. al., 1999). From the socio-psychological literature, satisfaction is also defined as the completion of a goal or task, and goal directed behavior is aimed at the satisfaction of some need, desire, or want. Frustration occurs at an interruption or inhibition of the goal-attainment process, where a barrier or conflict is put in the path of an individual (Dollard et al., 1939). Sigmund Freud defined frustration as both external and internal barriers to goal attainment and internal obstacles blocking satisfaction (Freud, in Strachey 1958). In other words, a person is frustrated if they are prevented from achieving an expected satisfying result (Berkowitz, 1978). However, users can still achieve satisfaction in their tasks despite the presence of frustration in the path of task achievement. The Technology Acceptance Model identifies usefulness and ease of use as the two biggest influences on the user acceptance of technology (Davis, 1993). This model suggests that, even with a computer application that is not easy to use, users will persevere in their attempts to reach a task goal if it is important to them. One large study of user frustration was sponsored by Compaq. A survey of 1,255 workers in the United Kingdom assessed their frustrations with information technology (Compaq, 2001). Of those who had their own personal computers at work, nearly half have felt frustrated or stressed by the amount of time it takes to solve problems. Two in five blame computer jargon for exacerbating their frustration, while three quarters of respondents who suffer daily problems with their computers say that their colleagues “swear at their monitors” out of frustration. The survey also analyzed the business cost of computer frustration. Nearly a quarter (23%) of respondents said that their work was interrupted daily due to computer crashes and other faults. Two in five who suffer daily breakdowns claim that this delay has caused them to miss deadlines, while one in ten have felt like criticizing their company to clients as well as friends because of frustration with the ineptness of their information technology departments. This is despite the fact that one in six admit that their problems are normally due to their own lack of knowledge and understanding. An important contribution to the collection and analysis of the source of frustrating experiences (application and system crashes) has been made by Bugtoaster. The Bugtoaster software consists of a client program installed on a computer and a web site that work in concert to capture, track and display information about the crashes that affect the computer. Normally Bugtoaster sits silently on a user’s system and waits for an application to crash. When it does, it captures the details relating to the crash. The details of the crash are packaged up and stored on the user’s computer hard disk. Periodically, crash details are sent to the Bugtoaster database server where they are compared and correlated with the crashes of other Bugtoaster community members. Summaries of crashes can be viewed on the web site, along with large collections of statistical data regarding top 50 applications that cause crashes, which operating systems and which vendors are involved in most crashes, and which bugs have been repaired.

IS professional interview…………
Our group had interviewed the system analyst of EMCOR. We are so lucky that they entertained us and answered our question. Since the assignment is to interview Information system professionals regarding their frustration while working in IS plan. The following are what we heard from them. Burnout is a widely acknowledged stress outcome. As the prevalence of burnout has been observed in several other professions, it is very plausible that it could be prevalent in the Information Technology (IT) field.
Yes, working with computers can sometimes be stressful. And dealing with computer stress is really no different than dealing with any other type of stress in life. The more you understand and focus upon the underlying causes of computer stress, the better you will fare in trying to cope with it.
1. Beginning in organizational change

The world is rapidly changing into something too hard to easily predict, with a hundred opportunities and pitfalls passing by every moment. To add to this confusion, there are hundreds, if not thousands of techniques, solutions and methods that claim to help business improve productivity, quality and customer satisfaction. A company President, CEO or business owner has so many choices in these buzzwords, whether they be called Total Quality Management, Customer Satisfaction, Re-engineering or Teambuilding. They are like new shoppers in a giant grocery store: They are hungry, but there are so many brands, sizes and varieties you don’t know what to buy.
In response to this confusion, many do nothing, often afraid of making the wrong choices. Others change the techniques they use every few months, using the “program du’jeur” method of organizational change, otherwise known as MBS (Management by Best Seller). Neither of these responses help the organization in the long run. Changing nothing will produce nothing. Implementing a different buzzword (Total Quality, Just in Time, Re-engineering, etc.) every few months often creates a “whipsaw” effect that causes mass confusion among your employees. These buzzwords are often a hammer in search of a nail, techniques applied with no clear focus as to the why, expected results or return on investment.

One of the organizations we consulted with started on this path. Senior management proclaimed in a memo that Total Quality should be a way of life. One senior vice president declared that he wanted 25% of his organization using Total Quality tools within a year. This caused tremendous excitement in the organization, However, the follow-through was delayed, occasionally inappropriate and sometimes not there. Many employee became discouraged with the process and considered it just another management fad. With the next business downturn, virtually all training had stopped and little enthusiasm was left.
Other organizations clearly focus on technical problems and on improving what they had. They are initially successful, but become victims of their own success. I call this an improved, planned incremental approach. Their initial quality improvement teams may be so successful they rapidly create more teams, without the qualitative organization-wide changes (re-engineering) necessary to sustain a permanent effort.
One organization we worked with had over 70 quality improvement teams in a plan with only 300 employees. They had shown little results after their first successes, and asked us what their next steps should be. We suggested the union’s leadership in their efforts, look at restructuring their organization along more product-focused lines, and possibly start profit sharing. They were not interested in taking any of these actions. A few months later, its parent company shut down the site, partly because of its poor productivity.
Organizations need to move beyond the buzzwords into deciding what actions they need to perform that will help them grow and develop. In response to this problem, this article will provide you a framework for coping with organizational change independent of buzzwords or the latest management fad. Organizations must first decide on the framework their organizational change long before they choose a buzzword to implement.

2. The major decisions

Instead of grasping for the latest technique, I suggest instead that organizations should go through a formal decision-making process that has four major components:
• Levels, goals and strategies
• Measurement system
• Sequence of steps
• Implementation and organizational change
The levels of organizational change
Perhaps the most difficult decision to make is at what "level" to start. There are four levels of organizational change:

• shaping and anticipating the future (level 1)
• defining what business(es) to be in and their "core competencies” (level 2)
• reengineering processes (level 3)
• incrementally improving processes (level 4)
First let's describe these levels, and then under what circumstances a business should use them.

Level 1-shaping and anticipating the future
At this level, organizations start out with few assumptions about the business itself, what it is "good" at, and what the future will be like.
Management generates alternate "scenarios" of the future, defines opportunities based on these possible futures, assesses its strengths and weaknesses in these scenarios changes its mission, measurement system etc. More information on this is in the next article, "Moving from the Future to your Strategy."

Level 2 - defining what business(es) to be in and their "Core Competencies

Many attempts at strategic planning start at this level, either assuming that 1) the future will be like the past or at least predictable; 2) the future is embodied in the CEO's "vision for the future"; or 3) management doesn't know where else to start; 4) management is too afraid to start at level 1 because of the changes needed to really meet future requirements; or 5) the only mandate they have is to refine what mission already exists.
After a mission has been defined and a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis is completed, an organization can then define its measures, goals, strategies, etc. More information on this is in the next article, "Moving from the Future to your Strategy."

Level 3 - Reengineering (Structurally Changing) Your Processes
Either as an aftermath or consequence of level one or two work or as an independent action, level three work focuses on fundamentally changing how work is accomplished. Rather than focus on modest improvements, reengineering focuses on making major structural changes to everyday with the goal of substantially improving productivity, efficiency, quality or customer satisfaction. To read more about level 3 organizational changes, please see "A Tale of Three Villages."

Level 4 - Incrementally Changing your Processes
Level 4 organizational changes are focusing in making many small changes to existing work processes. Oftentimes organizations put in considerable effort into getting every employee focused on making these small changes, often with considerable effect. Unfortunately, making improvements on how a buggy whip for horse-drawn carriages is made will rarely come up with the idea that buggy whips are no longer necessary because cars have been invented. To read more about level 4 organizational changes and how it compares to level 3, please see "A Tale of Three Villages."

One organization we consulted with has had a more positive experience with the incremental approach. We trained an internal facilitator, helped them deliver training in a just-in-time fashion, and had them focus on specific technical problems. The teams management formed reduced initial quality defects by 48%.
The disadvantages of such an incremental approach include avoiding structural, system-wide problems, and assume existing processes need modest improvement. In addition, using incremental approaches can be frustrating to employees and management if (pick a buzzword) does not catch on in the organization. As a result of these disadvantages, many organizations experience a high risk of failure in the long run.

These frustrations are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan. These may be common while working plan, yet the concerned and involved human resource must be prepared.
While this in no way represents a complete list of causes, the ones I will highlight here account for much of the computer stress most people frequently experience.
1. Failing to Anticipate Problems
Many stressful problems computer users experience can be prevented. Yes, power outages do occur, but equipment and software controls are available to keep you from losing data. Theft or damage from children, natural disasters, viruses, intruders, and hard disk failures may not always be avoidable. But adopting a regular backup schedule and keeping a recent backup in a second location can make such losses easier to bear. Software bugs are common in many types of programs, especially new releases such as Windows 95. So if one is uncomfortable dealing with such problems, it may be better to wait before making a purchase.
The point is there are many potential computer-related nightmares, but they can be anticipated and steps taken to either prevent a disaster or at the very least to significantly soften its blow.
2. Trying to Get By on the Cheap
Sometimes we invite disasters by trying to do things on the cheap. That less expensive modem or graphics board you could pick up at a computer show may save you a hundred dollars or more, but are the potential headaches worth the risk? Sure you can save some money if you don't upgrade to a Pentium processor, but are the savings really worth all the frustration and anger you may experience when your slower CPU can't keep up with the latest software? Or how about building a system on your own. If you're not really experienced, it's probably better (and less stressful) to pay a little more and get a system assembled by a pro.
3. Failing to Ask for Help
Many novice computer users (and some veterans too), are reluctant to ask other people for help. This can lead to an incredible amount of stress, most of which is totally unnecessary.
When you are just starting out learning to use your computer, nothing can beat having one or two experienced computer users in your life whom you can call whenever you run into a problem. It also may help to visit your local bookstore and purchase a supplemental training or tutorial guide. And don't forget the many on-line sources of help for all levels of users. Hardware and software forums can be found on AOL, Compuserve, and other popular services. And there is also a tremendous amount of free (and not so free) technical support available by phone, fax, and on-line that is provided by most product manufacturers.
4. Failing to Relate to Stress as Feedback
Whether you get angry, frustrated, or impatient with your computer from time to time, or whether you worry about some computer disaster befalling you, the very best way to deal with any type of stress in your life is to view it as personal feedback.
Instead of blaming your computer, blaming software developers and manufacturing companies, or blaming life itself, take the viewpoint that any type of stress in your life may have something to do with your own thinking and behavior. Did nefarious forces single you out and send that lightning bolt down your electrical lines that fried your expensive equipment? Or did you fail to anticipate this problem and install an adequate surge protector? Are you frustrated and angry because you can't seem to get your slick new software program to run as advertised? Or did you fail to read the instruction manual or skip the online tutorial?
Whatever type of computer stress you might be experiencing, look for your own hidden thought patterns and behavior patterns lurking in the background. If you're not familiar with how to do this, there are several excellent self-help references available.
5. Trying to Cut Corners
In addition to cutting financial corners, there are many other ways computer users get themselves into trouble by trying to skip important or critical steps. Trying to use hardware or software without reading the manuals or doing the basic tutorials is one very common cause. Unfortunately, the new "Plug and Play" mentality fosters this behavior. Many Plug and Play users, on the other hand, have found out that they still need to understand how their new equipment works (and installs) to get it up and running smoothly.
Attempting to use powerful software programs such as word processors, spread sheets, relational database programs, web page designers, graphics illustrators, and many others right out of the box is another preventable cause of computer related stress. While many of these program are relatively easy to learn and operate at a very basic level, most users could benefit from additional training and tutoring.
The usual excuse for skipping these steps is time. Many people feel that they just don't have the time to sit down and study their manuals, read an additional book, attend a class, or hire a professional trainer. Unfortunately, when you don't put in the time to learn what you are doing on the front end, you usually end up spending much more time (and sometimes money) in the long run.
So try to get yourself properly trained at the outset. Not doing this is a very common cause of computer related headaches.
6. Unrealistic Expectations
Much of our stress in life is caused by our own unrealistic expectations. Many of these expectations are quite silly when examined in the open. But they often lurk in the background of our thinking, causing mischief and stress in ways that we may not always be consciously aware of.
Take the common experience of frustration associated with computers. Much of this frustration comes from expecting ourselves or our computers to function perfectly all the time. While this is a laudable goal, it is not very realistic. From time to time, computer problems will occur. The file we are working on may have appeared to disappear! (Don't worry, it's usually still there--somewhere.) Heavy traffic on our on-line service may preclude us from being able to connect when we want or may cause a system slow down just at the moment we need things to be fast.
Or the new "Plug and Play" mentality sweeping the computer world today may lead us to believe that every installation of every new product we buy will be a pleasurable experience. As many users have already discovered, Plug and Play, in many instances, should be more aptly renamed "Plug and Pray" or "Plug and No-Play."
Another area where expectations play an important role is how we respond to the behavior of others. In the computer world, there are many opportunities to become upset with other people. Some people may not respond in a timely manner (or at all) to your e-mail messages. Others will send you unsollicited e-mail or will flame you repeatedly for making a beginner's mistake. And then there are all the vendors, sales people, repair technicians, receptionists, tech support people and many others who repeatedly fail to live up to our personal standards for how people should behave.
This common source of stress is not just limited to the world of computer usage. If you look at other instances of stress in your life, you will almost always find unrealistic expectations, of one type or another, lurking somewhere.
7. Beating Up On Yourself Unnecessarily
Along with the expectations of perfectionism and universally faultless performance comes the very common behavior pattern of beating yourself whenever you do something wrong or make a "dumb" mistake.
Mistakes in the computer world are very common. All it takes is entering one incorrect letter, number, or symbol and your whole operation can grind to a halt. Deleting the wrong file (or a whole directory of important files!) happens to the very best of us. And when it comes to operating complex software applications or coordinating the installation of complex hardware or networking systems, errors are common, and you should not feel too bad or demean yourself when they occur.
Forgiveness and compassion are what you need to deal with the many intracacies and pitfalls computer usage entails. If you find yourself engaging in their opposites, stop this at once. There is nothing to be gained from continuing.
8. Conflicts With Other People
Much of our stress in life comes from conflicts and interpersonal difficulties we encounter with other people. While the computer world may give you the illusion of working alone and isolating yourself from others, this is not really the case.
Both at home and at work, many different types of computer related conflicts and resultant stress can arise. At home, there may be issues of sharing usage between family members, exposure of children to outside influences, increased financial burdens, conflicts over the amount of time spent at the terminal (or not being spent elsewhere) and many others. These types of conflicts require strong communication, relationship building, and negotiation skills.
At work, similar types of issues can surface. Conflicts over access to shared company resources, such as laser printers, network searches, or the availability of expert assistance, are very common.
And both at home or at work, there are vendors, customers, other computer users and their networked virtual communities, and many other people you might interact with, both on-line and in person. Some of these interactions can sometimes be stressful. Because computers expand our capabilities for social interactions, and because such interactions are often beyond our direct personal control, computers tend to increase our stress in this very important and difficult area of living harmoniously with other human beings.
9. Failing to Do Your Homework
Another common cause of computer stress is failing to do your homework. In some ways this is similar to Cause #5 (Trying To Cut Corners). It too is done mainly to save time. But many problems computer users experience could have been prevented had they researched products or companies more thouroughly or had they spoken to experienced experts before making a purchase.
10. Compromising Your Own or Others' Integrity
When you do something you know is wrong, you don't have to get caught to suffer consequences. Your unconscious will take over and make sure you are punished.
Since no one is actually watching, many computer users feel safe about accepting copied software, using shareware without paying registration fees, giving copies of non-free software to others, or using purchased software programs on multiple machines. But these minor transgressions do add up. And they can be subtle causes of later "accidental mishaps."
Do yourself and others a favor--don't engage in any of this behavior. Even if no one else finds out, you will know, and that's all that counts.


Link:
http://stresscure.com/hrn/common.html
http://www.organizedchange.com/decide.htm
http://www.crfonline.org/orc/pdf/ref4.pdf
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Apr 05, 2010 7:22 pm

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan? note: you are required to interview an IS professional/s for your answer ...(at least 3000 words)

We all have to deal with frustration every once in a while in our lives. Even at a young age, we may already have experienced our own bouts on frustration. I can still remember mine as a kid, I would often get frustrated whenever I play Super Mario. Even if I had infinite lives, it’s still irritating to die repeatedly and not advance to the next world level.

Of course, school has its own way of serving us our usual dose of frustrating events. Countless nights of study and long hours spent on a project, only to fail or get below average marks. It can really be quite discouraging. But looking at the bright side, I believe that all those years of dealing with frustration gave me strength and the proper perspective to overcome my weaknesses. It has invaluably prepared me to conquer more challenging disappointments in the future such as feeling stuck and defeated in my work, my relationships and most specially in my finances.

So how do I deal with life’s frustrations? Well, perhaps the first and most immediate thing I do is to stop and take my mind off the things that frustrate me. I conserve whatever energy is left in me and use it to recharge myself. I do what my favorite poem tells me, “Rest, if you must, but don’t you quit.”

I shut down everything temporarily and go inside my sanctuary – armed with music and my favorite comfort foods, I drive around the city without a destination. Yes, this routine has been very therapeutic for me for the past years. I would spend a couple of hours without worries inside my car and let all my troubles settle at the back of my mind.

Other than driving, I’ve also managed to come up with other things to do whenever I’m feeling depressed and frustrated. Some of which are spending time and talking with friends, writing my frustrations down and then burning the paper (I know, how dramatic) and sometimes, I simply go out for a jog inside our village. I guess the key here is to release the frustrations in a non-aggressive way.

Of course, your problems won’t get solved by simply doing that. Chances are, it will still be in the same state when you come back from taking a break. However, what I hope to be different this time is my enthusiasm to tackle the difficulties once again. Moreover, with revitalized energy, I am now more capable to think and act towards succeeding this time. Upon my return, I take stock of everything at hand and systematically analyze the situation by asking myself such questions:
• What have I learned so far?
• What do I think is the real reason that’s causing me to fail?
• How do I remedy and prevent mistakes this time?
• Is there another way to accomplish my goal?

Furthermore, I always keep in mind that frustration may lead to aggression and procrastination. Remembering so helps me act consciously without negativity and delay. When your goals seems to be so near yet so far, take positivity from the small accomplishments you’ve already attained and learn to also reward your efforts, not just your results. In the end, when you finallyachieve your goals, you’ll find yourself stronger in character and more ready to face greater challenges.
Man is a social element, so family and society influence our feelings, emotional arena while we come across any situation and get fail or not reach up to mark; any such adverse situation brings frustration. Trivial routines are capable to built frustration, e.g. inattentiveness of today's busy parents brings their children frustration. Learning disabilities at schools often frustrate students. Friends can cause us frustration too, especially when they betrayed us or a promise is broken. Broken promises are always frustrating and painful. Apart there are lots of situations or surroundings factors that could bring frustration in our life. The intensity of frustration phase may be variable from person to person and it depends upon prevailing circumstances at that time. Frustration is an outcome of many accrued 'negative emotions'. Such negativities in our behavior, as well as our external circumstance give rise to frustration. it is virtually impossible to list down each and every negativity associated with frustration. As stated earlier, many of these factors are relative in nature and obviously they will vary according to individual life experiences and personalities. We can say that frustration is a result or a complement of other behavioral negativities like envy, guilt, fear, phobia, jealousy, distrust, failure, loneliness, betrayal, shame and many more.

Our own emotions can make us frustrated, like misunderstandings, misinterpreting the situation, suspicion, pride, arrogance etc. can unnecessarily bring the frustration. Every work that is done means is a unified combination of task and our performance or efficiency so as to get that work done. To avoid frustrations, we need to accept our factual position instead of putting hopes on vague imagination in which the situation would have been different. We need to co-relate our dreaming behavior to actual situation. When we observe ourselves carefully, we can actually realize our limitations and hence can work towards exploring our available resources unless it would cause even more frustration.

Our surrounding is a factors as well as assisting team play major role on our working ability. If our working ability gets hampered by external factors like non-cooperation of workers, that will bring frustration. We cannot expect any improvement against expressed will of other person if one is unwilling to put in the effort for it. If we waste our energy on such futile team that in fact is not interested in co-operating us, we get frustrated, we waste precious energy and attention and we will find ourselves stuck in a downward spiral of performance.

Frustration is a common emotional response to opposition. Related to anger and disappointment, it arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of individual will. The greater the obstruction, and the greater the will, the more the frustration is likely to be. Causes of frustration may be internal or external. In people, internal frustration may arise from challenges in fulfilling personal goals and desires, instinctual drives and needs, or dealing with perceived deficiencies, such as a lack of confidence or fear of social situations. Conflict can also be an internal source of frustration; when one has competing goals that interfere with one another, it can create cognitive dissonance. External causes of frustration involve conditions outside an individual, such as a blocked road or a difficult task. While coping with frustration, some individuals may engage in passive-aggressive behavior, making it difficult to identify the original cause(s) of their frustration, as the responses are indirect. A more direct, and common response, is a propensity towards aggression.

To the individual experiencing frustration, the emotion is usually attributed to external factors which are beyond their control. Although mild frustration due to internal factors (e.g. laziness, lack of effort) is often a positive force (inspiring motivation), it is more often than not a perceived uncontrolledproblem that instigates more severe, and perhaps pathological, frustration. An individual suffering from pathological frustration will often feel powerless to change the situation they are in, leading to frustration and, if left uncontrolled, further anger.

Frustration can be a result of blocking motivated behavior. An individual may react in several different ways. He may respond with rational problem-solving methods to overcome the barrier. Failing in this, he may become frustrated and behave irrationally. An example of blockage of motivational energy would be the case of the worker who wants time off to go fishing but is denied permission by his supervisor. Another example would be the executive who wants a promotion but finds he lacks certain qualifications. If, in these cases, an appeal to reason does not succeed in reducing the barrier or in developing some reasonable alternative approach, the frustrated individual may resort to less adaptive methods of trying to reach his goal. He may, for example, attack the barrier physically or verbally or both.

Frustration can be considered a problem-response behavior, and can have a number of effects, depending on the mental health of the individual. In positive cases, this frustration will build until a level that is too great for the individual to contend with, and thus produce action directed at solving the inherent problem. In negative cases, however, the individual may perceive the source of frustration to be outside of their control, and thus the frustration will continue to build, leading eventually to further problematic behavior (e.g. violent reaction).

Stubborn refusal to respond to new conditions affecting the goal, such as removal or modification of the barrier, sometimes occurs. As pointed out by Brown, severe punishment may cause individuals to continue nonadaptive behavior blindly: “Either it may have an effect opposite to that of reward and as such, discourage the repetition of the act, or, by functioning as a frustrating agent, it may lead to fixation and the other symptoms of frustration as well. It follows that punishment is a dangerous tool, since it often has effects which are entirely the opposite of those desired” .

The emotion you’re feeling is “Frustration”.

With a capital “F”. Maybe even add in some anger because you’ve been working really hard towards your goal or on a project and it just isn’t working. Or you feel like you’re stuck in a dead-end job and can’t find another one. And you may not even really know why. All you know is that you seem to be stuck and no matter how hard you try, you don’t seem to get anywhere. You’re just spinning your wheels in the mud and all you feel is pure frustration. Sound familiar?
This is the point where a lot of people will just say, “I Quit” and give up. Before you do though, here’s 8 ways you can blast through any frustration:

1. Ask Yourself, “What Is Working in This Situation?”
Even if feels like nothing is working, look closely and you will probably find at least something that is going right. So, that’s good. You’ve found something that’s working. Now, how do you improve it? By asking this question, you’ve taken yourself out of the negative mindset of “it’s hopeless” and are back to focusing on the positive.
There's something that’s working and that will give you a clue of what direction to focus on. You may find that even if your previous issues come up you’ll be able to resolve them in the process of concentrating on your improvements.

2. Keep an Accomplishments Log
Write down everything you accomplish in a log. If you do it in a monthly format you will be able to see all that you have accomplished in just one month. You may be surprised by how much you have done. If you realize there’s not much on the list, it may open your eyes to the fact that you may be procrastinating more than working or that you are using too much of your energy going in too many directions and that you need to focus more. Hopefully, you will have lots of items on your list then you can see that even though it may not feel like it, you are moving forwards. The log will also help to highlight where you were the most effective and where you need to work harder.

3. Focus On What You Want to Happen
Go back to the big picture. What is the desired outcome? Sometimes, we get so wrapped up in one problem and trying to solve it that we forget what we were originally trying to accomplish. Try not to ask yourself, “Why did this happen?” Asking questions like that will keep you rooted in the past. It doesn’t offer a solution to the problem. The important thing is knowing the answer to the following two questions:
- What do you want to happen differently this time?”
- What do you need to do in order to get there?

4. Remove the “Noise” and Simplify
When you’re trying to solve a problem, you can get so wrapped up in trying to find a solution that you add unnecessary clutter, noise, and tasks to a project because you thought they “might” be a solution.
Working on this website, I get bombarded by offer after offer of “easy ways to run your website”, “get more traffic”, “make more money” etc. They’re just noise though and usually a waste of my time even reading them. These people are just trying to make money off of me. They have no interest in whether I succeed or not. When people are frustrated by how slow the hard work process is taking, they get tempted by these “here’s what you’ve been missing” and “I’ll make it easy for you” offers. Usually, it ends up that if you do get tempted by the offers you discover 6 months down the road that if you had just stuck with your first plan and just kept working at it, you’d be a lot further ahead by now. Not to mention richer from not having spent money on the Get Rich Quick schemes. Believe in yourself. Simplify and go back to the basics. Determine what is really necessary and remove everything else. Anything that takes your time and effort that isn’t adding value, should be eliminated.

5. Multiple Solutions
You always have options. You just need to brainstorm and figure them out. Tell yourself you need to come up with 8 possible options to what you’re dealing with. Just knowing that you have lots of options will help to make you feel better. You won’t feel like you are trapped in one negative situation. From your list, figure out the best direction and go for it.

6. Take Action
When you get into serious frustration with a problem, you tend not to want to work on it anymore. It’s hard, it’s frustrating, and you’re not getting anywhere. So, anything to avoid having to be in that situation may be far more attractive. Procrastination may start to set in. If you can keep taking steps forwards, you will probably make it past this temporary hump. As Thomas Edison said, “Many of life's failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up” and “Surprises and reverses can serve as an incentive for great accomplishment.”
The other thing that can happen is that you start to spend a lot of time worrying. Worrying is a definite way of energy and does not move you in a forwards direction. Only taking action will. Once you start moving forwards again, you will most likely find that you worried for no reason.

7. Visualize a Positive Outcome to the Situation
A lot of times you can get stuck on focusing on what you don’t want to happen or fearing the absolute worst thing that could happen. The top athletes of the world will imagine themselves competing flawlessly over and over again. There is no room for failure in their minds. This is what you need to focus on as well. See yourself achieving your desired outcome. What will it look like? What will it feel like? What will you say? How will you feel? Take the time to visualize it and really feel it. It will inspire you to keep moving forwards.

8. Stay Positive
Things are usually not as bad as they first appear. Sometimes, things seem much worse simply because we’re tired or mentally drained. Taking a break and remembering to keep your sense of humour can also help. This time of frustration will pass. A positive mind is far more open to solutions and answers than a negative one that thinks it’s just “hopeless” and thinks “what’s the use?” A closed mind will not be able to see the possible solutions when they do come along. Stay positive.
As with any problem, the solution is to figure out what your options are, decide on a plan, focus, and then take action. By using the above 8 steps, you should find that you’re running into fewer problems and feeling less frustration. Instead, you may find that you’re running into opportunities and you know exactly how to take advantage of them.


RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
The rationale for resistance is often quite straightforward as people justify their actions to themselves. If you want to overcome resistance to change, you must be able to answer the following points.

I want to stay where I am because…
Even if you offer me a bowl of cherries, I may not be very concerned to take what you proffer if I am happy where I am now. People who have been in the same place for a long time are usually in this state. They do not need to change and will view any suggestion of change with distaste.

…my needs are already met here
Needs are basic drivers of action. If needs are not perceived as being particularly threatened and the current situation is relatively comfortable (particularly in comparison with the proposed change) then I will be happier to stay where I am.
If people already have their needs met, then you will need to shake the carpet and provide some sort of threat to those needs so they are no longer sufficiently met for the person to want to stay where they are.

…I have invested heavily here
When I have invested a lot of time and energy in building up my position, both socially and organizationally, then any change may mean bad news. Social investment creates a person's sense of identity. Organizational investment gives them control. Sliding down the ladder that I have so painstakingly climbed over the year is a long way from my shopping list.
Where people have invested heavily, you will either have to show them how to get to a similar position in the new organization or otherwise reduce the value of their investment (for example by moving the people over whom they have social influence).

...I am in the middle of something important
When I have committed to achieving a goal, either personal or emotional, then a part of my integrity and hence identity may be bound up in achieving the goal. When I have partly completed something, I am also affected by the need for completion, such that I will feel uncomfortable with stopping now.
When people are busy, find ways for them to complete the work in the shorter term, perhaps by nudging their goals so they have less to do to complete. If possible, turn their work towards something that will be useful for the new organization.

I do not want to change because…
Even if I am not that happy where I am, I still may not be particularly interested in moving forward with the change.

…the destination looks worse than where I am now
Although I want to move, the final resting place of the change looks significantly worse for me than the current position. I feel it is like jumping out of the frying pan and into the fire.
If you want people to voluntarily move, then it must be to somewhere better than they are now. You can create this in two ways: first by making the present position worse (though be careful with this!) and secondly by building a rosy vision to which people can then attach their dreams.

…there is nothing to attract me forwards
If the change is nothing to do with me, if the benefits are all for other people or the general organization, if I just do not buy the 'vision' as sold, then I will feel no pull and I will not buy into the change.
You may offer forth a brilliant vision, but do the people buy it? Make sure your communications are clear and couched in terms that people can understand and buy into. Make your visions inclusive, such that people really can and will buy the change.

…I do not know which way to move
If I buy the vision, I may still may not know which way to jump. Some change projects sound wonderful, but people are left wondering what to do (even the managers).
Grand plans need to be turned into tactical detail in which people can see and easily take the step forward.

…the journey there looks painful
The final destination may be great, but the journey from here to there looks very uncomfortable. The anticipated pain of the transition is more immediate than the distant and hazy future, and I respond more to this than to any inspiring vision.
Make sure the transitional period between now and the final change does not appear so uncomfortable that people refuse to join you. In practice, it may not be that bad -- what counts, though, is the perception of the people, so design the transition well and then communicate it well.

...the destination or journey is somehow bad or wrong
If the transition or the final destination somehow transgresses my values, then I will judge it to be bad or wrong and will be very loathe to join the party.
Be careful with the change in working around established organizational and general social values. If you must break an unwritten rule (such as getting rid of people) then do so with appropriate consideration and care.

…I do not trust those who are asking me to change
If my experience of you is that you have been untrustworthy in the past, then I am not likely to buy your vision of the future. If you are going on what I perceive as a perilous journey, then I will not trust you and will not join you.
The integrity of leaders is a very important attribute. If you want people to follow you, then you must give them good reason to trust you.

I am not going to change because…
Even if people do not want to change, they may still have to do so, albeit truculently. Some people, how ever, have the wherewithal to refuse.

…I am able to ignore the change
One of the questions I will ask is 'What happens if I do not go along with the change?' If the negative implications for my non-compliance are negligible, then I can happily not join in.
This sort of situation occurs when the person in question is so valued by the organization that the idea of them leaving is unthinkable. This is often where difficult choices around change take place. What do you do with the laggards? If this problem is not addressed, then the people around them may take their lead and before long you have a silent revolution on your hands.

…I have the power to obstruct the change
Another reason why a person can happily ignore the change is because they can stop it. People in senior positions often treat change as being a good thing -- as long as it is for someone else. When faced with change themselves, they may do whatever it takes to scupper the change, for example by refusing to give needed access or other support.
This is a good test of the senior sponsor of change -- which may need to be the most senior officer in the organization. Those who actively oppose the change must be dealt with -- preferably kindly and in in an understanding way, but ultimately in a firm and final way.


MAIN REASONS:
• Fear of the unknown. Change implies uncertainty, and uncertainty is uncomfortable. Not knowing what may potentially happen often leads to heightened anxiety. Resisting change is one of the anxiety-reducing actions.1
• Fear of failure. The new order may require skill and abilities that may be beyond our capabilities. There is resistance to trying a new approach as people know how to operate in the existing order, but fear they will not be able to the new skills and behavior that will be required of them.
• Disagreement with the need for change. Associates may feel that the new direction is a wrong direction.
• Losing something of value. All associates want to know how the change will affect them. If people believe they will wind up losing as a result of the change, they will resist.
• Leaving a comfort zone. People are afraid to go after what they want because it would force them to stretch their comfort zones. It's only natural to put off things that scare us, to sidestep goals that require us to leave our comfort zone and take a risk.
• False beliefs. To put themselves at ease and avoid taking the risk, many people fool themselves into believing everything will all work out someday by itself.
• Misunderstanding and lack of trust. People resist change when they do not understand its implications and perceive that it might cost them much more than they gain. Such situations often occur when trust is lacking between the person initiating the change and the employees.2
• Inertia. All organizations suffer from inertia to some degree and try to maintain status quo. Change requires effort, oftentimes, a significant one. So, don't underestimate the power of fatigue and burnout.


RESPONDING TO UNEXPECTED RESISTANCE:
What happens when you are in the middle of a conversation or meeting and someone speaks out against the change?

Pause
The natural tendency of many people is to respond immediately, perhaps butting in or cutting the other person short. The voice may be authoritarian and tinged with anger.
But think how this appears to other people? The message being sent is 'public disagreement is not allowed'. A likely effect is that the person resisting now has the sympathy of others (and may recruit the others to their cause). It is also very likely that the resistance will just go underground.
So the very first thing is to bite your lip, hold your tongue and count to three. Take a moment to pause and assess the situation. What are others doing? Is the person speaking cautious or bold? What does the body language tell you?

Listen
The next step is to listen carefully not only to what they are saying but also to how they are saying it. Listen for the deeper messages between the lines. Listen to their fears, hopes and ambitions. Hear the tensions and emotions. Notice how they are coping.
You can also draw out further information, tipping the bucket to ensure you have the whole story. Use appropriate questioning techniques to learn more.

Empathize
Make your initial response one that empathizes with their position. Show first that you understand (even though you may not agree) and respect their right to voice an honest opinion.
This and other previous action will have won you many friends -- perhaps even the person in question who may have been expecting you to resist their resistance (which is just what it would be) and is preparing for a fight. When people expect a fight and find only concern, the surprise is likely to change their opinion.

Think
Before you open your mouth, think hard about what you are going to say and how you are going to say it. Done wrong, a response will show your empathy to be false and may cause a bitter backlash.
Respond
Respond in a way that offers the other person a dignified way out. Seek win-win. Use their language. Reframe their position to show a bigger picture.


COMMUNICATION GAP
Part of an Information Planning is the communication; it is often define as a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules. Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs". All forms of communication require a sender, a message, and a receiver. Communication requires that all parties have an area of communicative commonality. Now let’s define Communication gap; it is define as a state that occurs when what is being said is not been communicated to the addressee properly and completely. There can be many causes of communication gap depending on where it exists. Actually Communication gap is the biggest hurdle in achieving the organizational goal and does not help at all in achievement of organizational goal. Communication gap in an organization means that the goals and objectives that are set by the top management are either not communicated to the employees of the organization at all levels or if communicated they are not been understood properly by the employees. This can be because of improper communication channels, unrealistic goals, inappropriate language etc.

Communication gap is a state that occurs when what is being said is not been communicated to the addressee properly and completely. There can be many causes of communication gap depending on where it exists. Actually Communication gap is the biggest hurdle in achieving the organizational goal and does not help at all in achievement of organizational goal. Communication gap in an organization means that the goals and objectives that are set by the top management are either not communicated to the employees of the organization at all levels or if communicated they are not been understood properly by the employees. This can be because of improper communication channels, unrealistic goals, inappropriate language etc.

Bridging the gap is commonly the best answer for communication gap. There are many ways to bridge the gaps especially in IT communication. These include:

• Find help to assess the situation. Get an outside, third-party to conduct an assessment of IT service performance with your business executives. The assessment team can interview your key executives to provide a complete evaluation and gap analysis of your current process capability against the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL), which is a comprehensive documentation of best practices within the framework of IT Service Management (ITSM), including the provision, support, and management of effective IT services. You can’t do this as well as an outsider with no vested interest in the outcome, plus the business people will be more open because their complaints will not be directly attributed.

• Understand that perception is reality. You might view some of the feedback as unfair. IT departments moan they are over-worked and under-funded. They lament that executives understand marketing and finance but haven’t got a clue when it comes to computers. “Those people,” the complaints go, “just think of us as techies and nerds who want more expensive technology toys that increase overhead.” You need to prove them wrong.

• Manage expectations. You need to measure the communications gap and then work to close the gap. You can complain about this being a classic no-win situation, or you can take charge of managing the expectations of IT department success within the organization. Kindly explain to IT users upfront how long things take or cost.

• Open the lines of communication. The solution is not sweet talking the C-suite (“Nice tie, Mr. Bigley!”), but more consistent delivery of business value and better communication of that value. Don’t wait for the business people to invite you to lunch, take them out for a meal. Breaking bread is a powerful tool. Unfortunately, good work doesn’t stand on its own — it needs to be explained and shared with others.

• No more geek speak. Transform communications from IT jargon and alphabet soup into the language of business. Quit trying to teach them the language of IT. Instead, become bilingual so you can speak IT and business lingo like balanced scorecards and Six Sigma.
There are actually hundreds of ways how to bridge the gap, we just need to be specific with our communication tools especially if we are in the field of Information Technology, wherein not all people within your environment or organization is aware with the activities related to the field.

HOW TO STAY POSITIVE DESPITE ALL THE NEGATIVE VIBES

1. Be Grateful
Even if it seems everything is going wrong, there are things that are going right. Every day, write down all the things you are grateful for having happened to you today. Be descriptive of each item. Feel the joy those things bring you. Even if it's something really small like your car started this morning. Be grateful for it. This will help you to stay focused on the positive.

2. Look for the Silver Linings
Sometimes events that initially look bad turn out to be really good things in the end. I can't remember the saying but it was something like every black cloud has a silver lining. Here's an example, maybe you need to look for a new job because your company is downsizing. If you look for the silver lining in that, you can see that it's making you leave a job you didn't like that much anyway. You can now find that job that you really want to do or pursue a lifelong dream or even just take some time off to enjoy life before going back to find another job. By looking for the silver lining then bad things can actually become really good things.

3. Often the Greatest Doubts Occur Just Before a Breakthrough
This is a quote by Lama Surya Das. If you can think of your difficulties as being necessary to make a breakthrough to the new life you want to lead, it will make it easier. You're breaking free of your old life on the way to your new, more exciting life.

4. Discouragement is Just a Trick
Here’s a quote I really like about not letting yourself get discouraged.
"Discouragement is a negative emotion with more than one trick up its dark sleeve. It tricks you into mentally or emotionally dwelling in the very place you want to leave. Drop all such sorrow permanently by daring to see through this deception of the unconscious mind. You have a destination far beyond where you find yourself standing today" - Guy Finley
Keep this in mind as you continue to take steps towards your goals. You do have a destination far beyond where you are today.

5. Take a Break Sometimes
Forget about your problems and just go out and do something fun. Go to a movie, go out with some fun, positive thinking friends, go to a play, go for a bike ride, just do something. Get out and just enjoy yourself for a little bit. Sometimes, we just get so wrapped up in our problems that we forget to have fun. Taking a break will re-energize you and you may find that things aren't as bad as you thought.

So, there's at least 7 things you can do to help you remain in a positive frame of mind when your life seems to be falling apart. I hope it helps. I also want to say, good for you in recognizing the need to stay positive when it can be easier to just go with the negative flow. It shows you are on the right path and you will make it through your current situation with flying colours. Hang in there. This will pass and you will soon be experiencing your new, more positive life.

6. Look at the Big Picture and Focus
Decide on what direction you want your life to head. Think about what areas you want to explore, what experiences you want to feel, what do you want to accomplish in your life? What kind of person do you want to be? Then start taking steps towards those goals. Even if it’s just tiny steps every day, stay focused on where you want to go, and keep moving forwards. Then the little things you’re going through right now won’t matter as much because you have an exciting new direction to focus on instead.

7. Keep Reading Inspirational Articles and Maybe Join a Forum
If you keep reading inspirational articles and books, it will motivate you to stay positive. You will see that everyone goes through rough patches but that they do make it through. It will be worth it in the end. Also, there are some good forums you can join where even just reading the other posts can motivate you to stay positive. Or, if you want to make a posting, you can gain support from others as well. Who knows, you may even be able to answer some one else’s post and help them out too.


REFERENCES:
http://fitzvillafuerte.com/things-to-do-when-dealing-with-frustration.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frustration
http://www.life-with-confidence.com/frustration.html
http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/resistance_change/rationale_resistance.htm
http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/change_resistance.html
http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/resistance_change/unexpected_resistance.htm
http://www.microsoft.com/smallbusiness/resources/management/leadership-training/women-vs-men-6-tips-for-bridging-the-communication-gap.aspx#tipsforbridgingthecommunicationgap
http://www.life-with-confidence.com/how-to-stay-positive.html
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Apr 05, 2010 9:28 pm

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan? note: you are required to interview an IS professional/s for your answer ...(at least 3000 words)

First, let’s define FRUSTRATIONS. As wikipedia stated, it is a common response to opposition, it arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of individual will. In people, internal frustration may arise from challenges in fulfilling personal goals and desires, instinctual drives and needs, or dealing with perceived deficiencies, such as a lack of confidence or fear of social situations.
The emotion you’re feeling is “Frustration”.

With a capital “F”. Maybe even add in some anger because you’ve been working really hard towards your goal or on a project and it just isn’t working. Or you feel like you’re stuck in a dead-end job and can’t find another one. And you may not even really know why. All you know is that you seem to be stuck and no matter how hard you try, you don’t seem to get anywhere. You’re just spinning your wheels in the mud and all you feel is pure frustration. Sound familiar?
This is the point where a lot of people will just say, “I Quit” and give up. Before you do though, here’s 8 ways you can blast through any frustration:

1. Ask Yourself, “What Is Working in This Situation?”
Even if feels like nothing is working, look closely and you will probably find at least something that is going right. So, that’s good. You’ve found something that’s working. Now, how do you improve it? By asking this question, you’ve taken yourself out of the negative mindset of “it’s hopeless” and are back to focusing on the positive.
There's something that’s working and that will give you a clue of what direction to focus on. You may find that even if your previous issues come up you’ll be able to resolve them in the process of concentrating on your improvements.

2. Keep an Accomplishments Log
Write down everything you accomplish in a log. If you do it in a monthly format you will be able to see all that you have accomplished in just one month. You may be surprised by how much you have done. If you realize there’s not much on the list, it may open your eyes to the fact that you may be procrastinating more than working or that you are using too much of your energy going in too many directions and that you need to focus more. Hopefully, you will have lots of items on your list then you can see that even though it may not feel like it, you are moving forwards. The log will also help to highlight where you were the most effective and where you need to work harder.

3. Focus On What You Want to Happen
Go back to the big picture. What is the desired outcome? Sometimes, we get so wrapped up in one problem and trying to solve it that we forget what we were originally trying to accomplish. Try not to ask yourself, “Why did this happen?” Asking questions like that will keep you rooted in the past. It doesn’t offer a solution to the problem. The important thing is knowing the answer to the following two questions:
- What do you want to happen differently this time?”
- What do you need to do in order to get there?

4. Remove the “Noise” and Simplify
When you’re trying to solve a problem, you can get so wrapped up in trying to find a solution that you add unnecessary clutter, noise, and tasks to a project because you thought they “might” be a solution.
Working on this website, I get bombarded by offer after offer of “easy ways to run your website”, “get more traffic”, “make more money” etc. They’re just noise though and usually a waste of my time even reading them. These people are just trying to make money off of me. They have no interest in whether I succeed or not. When people are frustrated by how slow the hard work process is taking, they get tempted by these “here’s what you’ve been missing” and “I’ll make it easy for you” offers. Usually, it ends up that if you do get tempted by the offers you discover 6 months down the road that if you had just stuck with your first plan and just kept working at it, you’d be a lot further ahead by now. Not to mention richer from not having spent money on the Get Rich Quick schemes. Believe in yourself. Simplify and go back to the basics. Determine what is really necessary and remove everything else. Anything that takes your time and effort that isn’t adding value, should be eliminated.

5. Multiple Solutions
You always have options. You just need to brainstorm and figure them out. Tell yourself you need to come up with 8 possible options to what you’re dealing with. Just knowing that you have lots of options will help to make you feel better. You won’t feel like you are trapped in one negative situation. From your list, figure out the best direction and go for it.

6. Take Action
When you get into serious frustration with a problem, you tend not to want to work on it anymore. It’s hard, it’s frustrating, and you’re not getting anywhere. So, anything to avoid having to be in that situation may be far more attractive. Procrastination may start to set in. If you can keep taking steps forwards, you will probably make it past this temporary hump. As Thomas Edison said, “Many of life's failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up” and “Surprises and reverses can serve as an incentive for great accomplishment.”
The other thing that can happen is that you start to spend a lot of time worrying. Worrying is a definite way of energy and does not move you in a forwards direction. Only taking action will. Once you start moving forwards again, you will most likely find that you worried for no reason.

7. Visualize a Positive Outcome to the Situation
A lot of times you can get stuck on focusing on what you don’t want to happen or fearing the absolute worst thing that could happen. The top athletes of the world will imagine themselves competing flawlessly over and over again. There is no room for failure in their minds. This is what you need to focus on as well. See yourself achieving your desired outcome. What will it look like? What will it feel like? What will you say? How will you feel? Take the time to visualize it and really feel it. It will inspire you to keep moving forwards.

8. Stay Positive
Things are usually not as bad as they first appear. Sometimes, things seem much worse simply because we’re tired or mentally drained. Taking a break and remembering to keep your sense of humour can also help. This time of frustration will pass. A positive mind is far more open to solutions and answers than a negative one that thinks it’s just “hopeless” and thinks “what’s the use?” A closed mind will not be able to see the possible solutions when they do come along. Stay positive.
As with any problem, the solution is to figure out what your options are, decide on a plan, focus, and then take action. By using the above 8 steps, you should find that you’re running into fewer problems and feeling less frustration. Instead, you may find that you’re running into opportunities and you know exactly how to take advantage of them.


Vadim Kotelnikov, founder and author of Ten3 Business eCoach from which I gathered some helpful facts about change management, enumerated the following main reasons in resistance to change in the workplace:

Fear of the unknown. Workers may feel hesitant of the new change that will happen for they do not know what may take place next. Sometimes, refusing to go along with it will reduce anxiety.


Fear of failure. In the current situation, employees may have already found or developed the skills and abilities their work required. But thinking about the change, they might be afraid to accept it for fear that it may call for new skills and abilities that they may not be able to give.

Disagreement with the need for change. This is true in the case of managers and associates. They may argue with each other that the new direction is a wrong direction.

Losing something of value. Workers sometimes determine how they would become in the future when the change will be implemented. They tend to weigh down things circumstances and as to how they will be affected. If they think they will end up losing, they will resist the change.

Leaving a comfort zone. A lot of times we tend to be scared of what awaits us in the upcoming times especially if a change requires us to leave our comfort zones. Maybe in the future if the changes will take effect it would force us to take risks.

False beliefs. Employees sometimes tend to believe into false beliefs that someday everything will work out fine that is why they avoid taking the risks that may be brought by the change and continue working their easy way.

Misunderstanding and lack of trust. In this case, the employer-employee relationship takes deep concern. When workers do not fully know and understand the proposition of the change, they may perceive that it will cost them more than they can gain. This is also true if workers do not have enough trust with their employer or the one initiating the change.

Moreover, there are some key points and common things people tell themselves justifying their actions in resisting change. Most people want to stay where they are because they think their needs are already met in the workplace or the situation where they are currently in; that they have invested heavily there, and/or they think they are in the middle of something important. A lot of times employees do not want to change because they think the destination looks worse than where they currently are; there is nothing that attracts them forward; they do not know which way to move; the journey looks painful or somehow bad or wrong; and they do not trust those who are asking them to change. People also tend to refuse to change and say to themselves that they are not going to change because they think they are able to ignore the change and have the power to obstruct it.

There are early signs of resistance one might find out especially when a change is being introduced. You would probably hear some gossips and grumbling or complaints which may be on the way to attempts for organizing resistance. They could also test the management on what happens when they resist change like not turning up to a meeting or openly challenge a decision.

Resistance may also be in cases of individual or collective action. Individually, people who have lower or lesser power can take passive refusals or action while those with more power could challenge and even criticize.

The visibility of resistance may be covert or overt. Covert resistance is being done in a manner as if workers are not resisting while overt resistance does not try to hide so they could take forms as open argument, refusal or attack.

Activity of resistance may also take in passive or active form. Passive resistance occurs where people do not take specific actions like sitting in the meeting and may appear to agree with the change. On the other hand, active resistance occurs where people are taking specific and deliberate action to resist the change. It may be overt, with such as public statements and acts of resistance, and it may be covert, such as mobilizing others to create an underground resistance movement.

Resistance should at least be addressed so not to make frustrations on the persons involved. There are various ways in which resistance can be dealt with. Changingminds.org has identified these several steps to handle resistance:

Facilitation. Basically, this approach is the safe way to deal with your resisting workers, I could say. In this type of handling resistance, the management is making steps to work with the workers in such a way that the employees feel that they are achieving their goals that somehow also reach the goals of the project. As we know, unwilling or opposing workers think that they are exerting much effort just to adjust with the new project and this might change the usual and comfortable way they are working in the environment they have used to. Collaborating with them might help a lot since when workers feel that you are working with them, they will be happy to be working with you.

Education. Well, workers sometimes react violently (or less) when they think of something else as a consequence of the sudden change that you will impose. But they may end up supporting or coming around if they have a good knowledge and clear understanding why there is a need for a change. They might also realize the urgency of the change if they know what is that for and what is needed of them. Typically, educating them will help in eliminating doubts and fears that people have at the back of their minds.

Involvement. In whichever job you will be doing, it could best be done if your heart is at it. Similarly, workers need to feel the sense of being engaged in their work not just physically and mentally or intellectually but also emotionally. It is difficult for people to persuade them to get to work if they do not do it heartily. Getting them involved is one of the best methods to bring them in. somehow they need to justify their involvement to themselves and convince themselves that it is the best thing to do.

Negotiation. Well, this kind of dealing with resistance is something which can be done by the management when the other persons are hard to be convinced or persuaded. This may be made by sitting with the unwilling party, talk with them, and ask them what they really are looking for. Management should find out what they want and what they will never accept. Perhaps, after determining these, you can work out a possible solution which is agreed mutually, of course, and works just for them and just for you.

Manipulation. This may be a harsher kind of pace in coping with resistance. Manipulation is controlling a person’s environment such that they are shaped by what is around them. This can only be a considerable thing to do when it is necessary to change in the short term and you have tried all other possible solutions. Manipulation approach is morally questionable and might lead to a dangerous backslash if the workers sense what you are doing. Better think before acting.

Coercion. An even more intense approach than manipulation, coercion (overt) forces the opposing workers to give in. An example is that, when you sit them down and make overt (or publicly open) threats, such as if they do not abide by or conform to what they should do they will lose their jobs, possibly in a humiliating and public sacking. However, this approach should only be done when speed is of the essence or when the persons themselves have taken to public and damaging actions.
Another major cause of frustration that our interviewers identified is more on the employer - employee relationship. They said that employees are also highly aware of how they are being treated by their bosses. Definitely, workers do not like that they are being treated small even by their co-workers.

There are cases when employees have nothing to do in particular at some point in time in the office. But even if they are just sitting and appear like doing nothing, they are being paid because they are working. It does not necessarily mean that if they are not doing any work they should be treated like they are not useful. There may be times when a pilot store needs somebody in a particular job and it happens that no one in the office is available for that job, the store can request for assistance from other branches that has a worker who is available to get the job done. So we can see here that a certain employee has significance. Every person’s job has a purpose.

Now, as stated by Mr. Gemrald that there are two frequently experienced causes of frustrations of IS professional and users while working on an IS plan. Let’s discuss it one by one.


Resistant to changes

Mr. Gemrald is working on the automation of manual systems of the HR Department of the company and developing the enterprise systems for the company, aside form being the Head of office he is also working as the project manager of the MIS department and the Developer. According to him, in any organization you cannot expect that all are adaptive to changes which he consider that as one of the frustrations as an IT professional. It is really hard to purse IS plans when the users themselves resist for changes, that’s the challenging part of being a project manager. You cannot please everyone, he added.

Some sources have identified the reasons of an individual being resistant to changes – organizational and technological change. These include the following:

• THE RISK OF CHANGE IS SEEN AS GREATER THAN THE RISK OF STANDING STILL. Making a change requires a kind of leap of faith: you decide to move in the direction of the unknown on the promise that something will be better for you. But you have no proof. Taking that leap of faith is risky, and people will only take active steps toward the unknown if they genuinely believe – and perhaps more importantly, feel – that the risks of standing still are greater than those of moving forward in a new direction. Making a change is all about managing risk. If you are making the case for change, be sure to set out in stark, truthful terms why you believe the risk situation favors change. Use numbers whenever you can, because we in the West pay attention to numbers. At the very least, they get our attention, and then when the rational mind is engaged, the emotional mind (which is typically most decisive) can begin to grapple with the prospect of change. But if you only sell your idea of change based on idealistic, unseen promises of reward, you won’t be nearly as effective in moving people to action

• PEOPLE HAVE NO ROLE MODELS FOR THE NEW ACTIVITY. Never underestimate the power of observational learning. If you see yourself as a change agent, you probably are something of a dreamer, someone who uses the imagination to create new possibilities that do not currently exist. Well, most people don’t operate that way. It’s great to be a visionary, but communicating a vision is not enough. Get some people on board with your idea, so that you or they can demonstrate how the new way can work. Operationally, this can mean setting up effective pilot programs that model a change and work out the kinks before taking your innovation “on the road.” For most people, seeing is believing. Less rhetoric and more demonstration can go a long way toward overcoming resistance, changing people’s objections from the “It can’t be done!” variety to the “How can we get it done?” category.

• PEOPLE FEAR THEY LACK THE COMPETENCE TO CHANGE. This is a fear people will seldom admit. But sometimes, change in organizations necessitates changes in skills, and some people will feel that they won’t be able to make the transition very well. They don’t think they, as individuals, can do it. The hard part is that some of them may be right. But in many cases, their fears will be unfounded, and that’s why part of moving people toward change requires you to be an effective motivator. Even more, a successful change campaign includes effective new training programs, typically staged from the broad to the specific. By this I mean that initial events should be town-hall type information events, presenting the rationale and plan for change, specifying the next steps, outlining future communications channels for questions, etc., and specifying how people will learn the specifics of what will be required of them, from whom, and when. Then, training programs must be implemented and evaluated over time. In this way, you can minimize the initial fear of a lack of personal competence for change by showing how people will be brought to competence throughout the change process. Then you have to deliver.

• PEOPLE HAVE A HEALTHY SKEPTICISM AND WANT TO BE SURE NEW IDEAS ARE SOUND. It’s important to remember that few worthwhile changes are conceived in their final, best form at the outset. Healthy skeptics perform an important social function: to vet the change idea or process so that it can be improved upon along the road to becoming reality. So listen to your skeptics, and pay attention, because some percentage of what they have to say will prompt genuine improvements to your change idea (even if some of the criticism you will hear will be based more on fear and anger than substance).

• PEOPLE FEAR HIDDEN AGENDAS AMONG WOULD-BE REFORMERS. Let’s face it, reformers can be a motley lot. Not all are to be trusted. Perhaps even more frightening, some of the worst atrocities modern history has known were begun by earnest people who really believed they knew what was best for everyone else. Reformers, as a group, share a blemished past . . . And so, you can hardly blame those you might seek to move toward change for mistrusting your motives, or for thinking you have another agenda to follow shortly. If you seek to promote change in an organization, not only can you expect to encounter resentment for upsetting the established order and for thinking you know better than everyone else, but you may also be suspected of wanted to increase your own power, or even eliminate potential opposition through later stages of change.

• PEOPLE FEEL THE PROPOSED CHANGE THREATENS THEIR NOTIONS OF THEMSELVES. Sometimes change on the job gets right to a person’s sense of identity. When a factory worker begins to do less with her hands and more with the monitoring of automated instruments, she may lose her sense of herself as a craftsperson, and may genuinely feel that the very things that attracted her to the work in the first place have been lost. I saw this among many medical people and psychologists during my graduate training, as the structures of medical reimbursement in this country changed in favor of the insurance companies, HMO’s and managed care organizations. Medical professionals felt they had less say in the treatment of their patients, and felt answerable to less well trained people in the insurance companies to approve treatments the doctors felt were necessary. And so, the doctors felt they had lost control of their profession, and lost the ability to do what they thought best for patients.

• PEOPLE ANTICIPATE A LOSS OF STATUS OR QUALITY OF LIFE. Real change reshuffles the deck a bit. Reshuffling the deck can bring winners . . . and losers. Some people, most likely, will gain in status, job security, quality of life, etc. with the proposed change, and some will likely lose a bit. Change does not have to be a zero sum game, and change can (and should) bring more advantage to more people than disadvantage. But we all live in the real world, and let’s face it – if there were no obstacles (read: people and their interests) aligned against change, then special efforts to promote change would be unnecessary.

• PEOPLE GENUINELY BELIEVE THAT THE PROPOSED CHANGE IS A BAD IDEA. The truth is, sometimes someone’s (even – gasp! – my) idea of change is just not a good idea. Sometimes people are not being recalcitrant, or afraid, or muddle-headed, or nasty, or foolish when they resist. They just see that we’re wrong. And even if we’re not all wrong, but only half wrong, or even if we’re right, it’s important not to ignore when people have genuine, rational reservations or objections.

Now, in any Information System Planning, support of both parties (developer and the client) is very vital on the process of the planning. A developer cannot pursue with his/her goals when the client is not doing his/her part in the planning. If there is planning, these two components is interdependent with each other. Support is essential to a successful project. Projects can fail because of lack of support, because some people in an organization hasn't actively involved key decision makers in determining project strategy and direction. Anybody who is within the organization should keep support throughout the lifecycle of their project and improving project quality down the line. IS professionals often faced with the challenge of dealing to people who are very resistant to organizational change. We all know that we are in fast-paced environment and so changes should be expected and in turn we should have to deal these changes accordingly. However, not all people in an organization is flexible enough to adapt the change, that’s why IS professional should have the ability to effectively influence others, and it is often the solution to achieve desired results. This skill is used daily in meetings and business discussions and when constructing and communicating the business case for a new initiative.


There are six externalities that bring about change. They are regulation, capital markets, competition, technology, globalization and customers. When any of these external contexts changes radically and the company is either unable or unwilling to change, it often results in failure. Company success is very much like human behavior—a result of nature and nurture. But managers refuse to say that they were blessed from above, and so they take all the credit for themselves. They succeed as long as the environment doesn’t change. The underlying theory is that many people in business succeed by accident and not by plan. But, unfortunately, people end up believing what they will succeed forever, and they become resistant to change. They get locked into one paradigm or one way of life. Or in other words, people tend to forget that the environment they are in is changing, that’s why these people never think of facing the change for they got so used to something being a certain way in their lives that they don't want it to change and if they will do will affect their lives as they believed.
SOURCES OF ORGANISATIONAL RESISTANCE :

Factor built in the organizational system also lead to resistance to change. It has been observed that organizations are conservative and are therefore slow to change.

1. Inertia of a structure: A number of built-in mechanisms provide stability to organizations. Every organization has got its own systems, processes, policies, and procedures, which ought to be followed for uniformity and formalization of the process. Consequently any change in the structural aspects has cascading effect on other related systems and processes. This creates a hurdle in introducing organizational change. In organizations where structural changes are introduced, it takes long for people to accept and assimilate the structural change.

2. Threat to power dynamics: Structural change with ensuing changes in decision-making pattern can destabilize power relationships established over a period of time. Change in decision-making process from centralize decision making process to participative or democratic decision-making process form centralized decision-making can threaten managers affected by it.

3. Group pressure : Group norms evolved by an organization over the years become a bottleneck in bringing about change. It is common observation that a single member of a group accepts change suggested by management willingly. However, his group affiliation with a union does not allow him to do so. Therefore, he is likely to resists change.

4. Blinkered view of change : Any organization consists of four elements namely task, structure, technology, and people. Focus on any one of the elements of the organization will bring about corresponding change in other elements as well. Therefore, change can not have lopsided and limited perspective.

SOURCES OF INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE

1. Lack of knowledge : in situations when people do not have sufficient knowledge about the cause and effects of change they feel anxious and stressed and consequently resist to change. Employees also resists change because it threaten their need for security ,self-esteem, competence, status and social interaction. Irrespective ofthe nature of change it has been found that employees make efforts to protect them from effect of change and the reaction may range from simple complaint and grievances to passive resistance, sabotage, absenteeism an slowing down of work. Resistance to change takes place irrespective of the level of employee in the organization- whether one is white collar or a blue-collar worker.

However, when the change become inevitable, the employees try to offset the facts of change by desire for now learning / experiences and for the rewards that may come with change. In that case changes are requested and sought for by employees. Change reaction effects are seen in feeling of insecurity and the change of working situations or job. Change can have cascading effect when one person receives promotion; it leads to promotion of ten other people’s at lower levels. This is indicative of change reaction effects of a single precipitating event.

2. Selective perception : when changes are introduced employees are more concerned about how it would affect the entire organization. This is often observed when mode of payment is changed or reorganization is done. Also individuals assess the compatibility of the change with their belief and value systems.

3. Fear of Uncertainty : Uncertainty about the effect of change personally and professionally is another reason for individual resistance. The threat perceived by the employee may be imaginary, intended or unintended, big or small, direct or indirect. A number of fears like loss of status, power, income and uncertainty about their ability to cope with work-demand come in the way of accepting the change.

4. Aversion to Risk : change threatens those who like comfort of familiar. Change often requires personal transition where in familiar has to be destabilized. It calls for giving up the status quo, unlearning or unfreezing the person to integrate and absorb new learning. It is interesting that a number of individuals consider change to bring new opportunities. Research findings also support the view that positive approach to change results in opportunities for individuals during the transition period.

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES TO OVER COME THE REGISTANCE :

1. Counseling: counseling has been found to be very effective in reducing individual resistance. Individual resistance occurs because of anxieties and fears and by letting people talk through their problems and anxieties can help them come to terms with change. This techniques is used on one-to-one and also in formal communication system with the whole team.

2. Force-field analysis : this technique provides an assessment of any change situation and presents a balance between the driving forces and the resisting forces. The participants are advised by the change agent to identify these forces. While identifying the restraining forces the group develops insight about ways of handling them. In a number of organizations this technique is used effectively to create a shared change processes for thinking through specific changes.

3. Commitment Charting : in any change there will be people who gain and others who lose. Therefore, in order to get the commitment of the people who are likely to loose, it is important to handle them with care, as they will be sensitive to any action. For a change to succeed it is important to have a critical mass and also to minimize the pain it causes to the affected. In order to do that a chart is prepared listing the names of key players and their commitment level to the change. The chart indicates the status of the people who have commitment at present and whose commitment needs to be ensured for change to be successful. Also the people who have no commitment need to be focused for gaining commitment.

In this regard our organization follows the ways as suggested by Watson (1969) to reduce the resistance. These relate to ownership of change, nature of change and the process of changing.

Ownership : resistance is likely to be low if the change is perceived as being the need of and suggested (sense of belongingness ) by those affected by it. And when it has the top management support.

Nature of Change : Resistance is reduced by joint and agreed diagnosis of the problems and burdens, conforming to the core values of the group, offering new and interesting experience to the group, and does not threaten autonomy and security.

Change process : Resistance is reduced by joint and agreed diagnosis of the problem, consensus on the board design of change, listening to “objections’(and learning from them), periodical review and feedback, development of high interpersonal trust and cohesive teams and openness to revision.

However, even if frustration would exist to everyone, this would not mean that we cannot avoid or block this existence. How to deal this issue?

1. Ask Yourself, “What Is Working in This Situation?”
Even if feels like nothing is working, look closely and you will probably find at least something that is going right. So, that’s good. You’ve found something that’s working. Now, how do you improve it? By asking this question, you’ve taken yourself out of the negative mindset of “it’s hopeless” and are back to focusing on the positive.

2. Keep an Accomplishments Log
Write down everything you accomplish in a log. If you do it in a monthly format you will be able to see all that you have accomplished in just one month. You may be surprised by how much you have done. If you realize there’s not much on the list, it may open your eyes to the fact that you may be procrastinating more than working or that you are using too much of your energy going in too many directions and that you need to focus more.

3. Multiple Solutions
You always have options. You just need to brainstorm and figure them out. Tell yourself you need to come up with 8 possible options to what you’re dealing with. Just knowing that you have lots of options will help to make you feel better. You won’t feel like you are trapped in one negative situation. From your list, figure out the best direction and go for it.

4. Stay Positive
Things are usually not as bad as they first appear. Sometimes, things seem much worse simply because we’re tired or mentally drained. Taking a break and remembering to keep your sense of humour can also help. This time of frustration will pass.

In the making and working of an information system plan, there are a lot of scenario where IS professionals find trouble in dealing not with the subject of matter but the people who are actually working with the planning process. Some superiors and subordinates and colleagues provide valid reasons why they are also treated as causes of frustrations. Frustration is an emotion that occurs in situations where a person is blocked from reaching a desired outcome. Frustration is experienced whenever the results (goals) you are expecting do not seem to fit the effort and action you are applying. Frustration will occur whenever your actions are producing less and fewer results than you think they should. Common responses to frustrations include anger, giving up, stress, depression, and other reactions. Although this is one psychological aspect, this will surely have an effect especially in doing something of high value and complexity like information systems planning. If this would not be further addressed appropriately, chances are harmonious relationships and working conditions with the human resources (these are most likely be affected), would result in failed information system plan


REFERENCES:
http://www.akamarketing.com/communicating-with-clients.html
http://www.advancinginsights.com/resistant-to-change
http://www.information-management.com/issues/19980301/697-1.html
http://www.life-with-confidence.com/frustration.html
http://charmainespeaksup.blogspot.com/2010/03/frequent-frustrations-of-is.html
http://arielserenado.blogspot.com/p/mis-2.html
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Jethro Alburo Querubin

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PostSubject: Assignment 3   Tue Apr 06, 2010 10:19 am

All businesses share one common asset, regardless of the type of business. It does not matter if they manufacture goods or provide services. It is a vital part of any business entity, whether a sole proprietorship or a multinational corporation. That common asset is information.
Information enables us to determine the need to create new products and services. Information tells us to move into new markets or to withdraw from other markets. Without information, the goods do not get made, the orders are not placed, the materials are not procured, the shipments are not delivered, the customers are not billed, and the business cannot survive.
But information has far lesser impact when presented as raw data. In order to maximize the value of information, it must be captured, analyzed, quantified, compiled, manipulated, made accessible, and shared. In order to accomplish those tasks, an information system (IS) must be designed, developed, administered, and maintained.
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
An information system is a computer system that provides management and other personnel within an organization with up-to-date information regarding the organization's performance; for example, current inventory and sales. It usually is linked to a computer network, which is created by joining different computers together in order to share data and resources. It is designed to capture, transmit, store, retrieve, manipulate, and or display information used in one or more business processes. These systems output information in a form that is useable at all levels of the organization: strategic, tactical, and operational.
Systems that are specifically geared toward serving general, predictable management functions are sometimes called management information systems (MIS). A good example of an MIS report is the information that goes into an annual report created for the stockholders of a corporation (a scheduled report). The administration of an information system is typically the province of the MIS or information technology (IT) department within an organization.
Some applications have infringed on the familiar MIS landscape. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software and executive information systems (EIS) both provide packaged modules and programs that perform the same functions as traditional MIS, but with greater functionality, flexibility, and integration capabilities.
MAINFRAMES.
The original computerized information systems were based on mainframes. "Mainframe" is a term originally referring to the cabinet containing the central processor unit or "main frame" of a room-filling computer. After the emergence of smaller mini-computer designs in the early 1970s, the traditional large machines were described as "mainframe computers," or simply mainframes. The term carries the connotation of a machine designed for batch rather than interactive use, though possibly with an interactive time-sharing operating system retrofitted onto it.
It has been conventional wisdom in most of the business community since the late 1980s that the mainframe architectural tradition is essentially dead, having been swamped by huge advances in integrated circuit design technology and low-cost personal computing. Despite this, mainframe sales in the United States enjoyed somewhat of a resurgence in the 1990s, as prices came down and as large organizations found they needed high-power computing resources more than ever. Supporters claim that mainframes still house 90 percent of the data major businesses rely on for mission-critical applications, attributing this to their superior performance, reliability, scalability, and security compared to microprocessors.
THE INTERNET.
The Internet has opened up further developments in information systems and the exchange of information via web-based e-mail, intranets, and extranets. These technologies allow for much faster data and information exchange and greater access for more users. Web-casting and videoconferencing allow for real-time information exchanges. Mobile computing technologies accessed by handheld devices, such as multi-functional mobile phones, personal digital assistants, and podcasting (via iPods), are offering further modes of communication.
INFORMATION SYSTEM DESIGN
AND ADMINISTRATION
The design of an information system is based on various factors. Cost is a major consideration, but there certainly are others to be taken into account, such as the number of users; the modularity of the system, or the ease with which new components can be integrated into the system, and the ease with which outdated or failed components can be replaced; the amount of information to be processed; the type of information to be processed; the computing power required to meet the varied needs of the organization; the anticipated functional life of the system and/or components; the ease of use for the people who will be using the system; and the requirements and compatibility of the applications that are to be run on the system.
There are different ways to construct an information system, based upon organizational requirements, both in the function aspect and the financial sense. Of course, the company needs to take into consideration that hardware that is purchased and assembled into a network will become outdated rather quickly. It is almost axiomatic that the technologies used in information systems steadily increase in power and versatility on a rapid time scale. Perhaps the trickiest part of designing an information system from a hardware standpoint is straddling the fine line between too much and not enough, while keeping an eye on the requirements that the future may impose.
Applying foresight when designing a system can bring substantial rewards in the future, when system components are easy to repair, replace, remove, or update without having to bring the whole information system to its knees. When an information system is rendered inaccessible or inoperative, the system is considered to be "down."
A primary function of the maintaining an information system is to minimize downtime, or hopefully, to eradicate downtime altogether. The costs created by a department, facility, organization, or workforce being idled by an inoperative system can become staggering in a short amount of time. The inconvenience to customers can cost the firm even more if sales are lost as a result, in addition to any added costs the customers might incur.
Another vital consideration regarding the design and creation of an information system is to determine which users have access to which information. The system should be configured to grant access to the different partitions of data and information by granting user-level permissions for access. A common method of administering system access rights is to create unique profiles for each user, with the appropriate user-level permissions that provide proper clearances.
Individual passwords can be used to delineate each user and their level of access rights, as well as identify the tasks performed by each user. Data regarding the performance of any user unit, whether individual, departmental, or organizational can also be collected, measured, and assessed through the user identification process.
The OSI seven-layer model attempts to provide a way of partitioning any computer network into independent modules from the lowest (physical/hardware) layer to the highest (application/program) layer. Many different specifications can exist at each of these layers.
A crucial aspect of administering information systems is maintaining communication between the IS staff, who have a technical perspective on situations, and the system users, who usually communicate their concerns or needs in more prosaic terminology. Getting the two sides to negotiate the language barriers can be difficult, but the burden of translation should fall upon the IS staff. A little patience and understanding can go a long way toward avoiding frustration on the part of both parties.
There is more to maintaining an information system than applying technical knowledge to hardware or software. IS professionals have to bridge the gap between technical issues and practicality for the users. The information system should also have a centralized body that functions to provide information, assistance, and services to the users of the system. These services will typically include telephone and electronic mail "help desk" type services for users, as well as direct contact between the users and IS personnel.
INFORMATION SYSTEM FUNCTIONS
DOCUMENT AND RECORD MANAGEMENT.
Document and record management may well be the most crucial aspect of any information system. Some examples of types of information maintained in these systems would be accounting, financial, manufacturing, marketing, and human resources. An information system can serve as a library. When properly collected, organized, and indexed in accordance with the requirements of the organization, its stored data becomes accessible to those who need the information.
The location and retrieval of archived information can be a direct and logical process, if careful planning is employed during the design of the system. Creating an outline of how the information should be organized and indexed can be a very valuable tool during the design phase of a system. A critical feature of any information system should be the ability to not only access and retrieve data, but also to keep the archived information as current as possible.
COLLABORATIVE TOOLS.
Collaborative tools can consist of software or hardware, and serve as a base for the sharing of data and information, both internally and externally. These tools allow the exchange of information between users, as well as the sharing of resources. As previously mentioned, real-time communication is also a possible function that can be enabled through the use of collaborative tools.
DATA MINING.
Data mining, or the process of analyzing empirical data, allows for the extrapolation of information. The extrapolated results are then used in forecasting and defining trends.
QUERY TOOLS.
Query tools allow the users to find the information needed to perform any specific function. The inability to easily create and execute functional queries is a common weak link in many information systems. A significant cause of that inability, as noted earlier, can be the communication difficulties between a management information systems department and the system users.
Another critical issue toward ensuring successful navigation of the varied information levels and partitions is the compatibility factor between knowledge bases. For maximum effectiveness, the system administrator should ascertain that the varied collection, retrieval, and analysis levels of the system either operate on a common platform, or can export the data to a common platform. Although much the same as query tools in principle, intelligent agents allow the customization of the information flow through sorting and filtering to suit the individual needs of the users. The primary difference between query tools and intelligent agents is that query tools allow the sorting and filtering processes to be employed to the specifications of management and the system administrators, and intelligent agents allow the information flow to be defined in accord with the needs of the user.
KEY POINTS
Managers should keep in mind the following advice in order to get the most out of an information system:
• Use the available hardware and software technologies to support the business. If the information system does not support quality and productivity, then it is misused.
• Use the available technologies to create and facilitate the flow of communication within your organization and, if feasible, outside of it as well. Collaboration and flexibility are the key advantages offered for all involved parties. Make the most of those advantages.
• Determine if any strategic advantages are to be gained by use of your information system, such as in the areas of order placement, shipment tracking, order fulfillment, market forecasting, just-in-time supply, or regular inventory. If you can gain any sort of advantage by virtue of the use of your information system, use it.
• Use the quantification opportunities presented by your information system to measure, analyze, and benchmark the performances of an individual, department, division, plant, or entire organization.
An information system is more than hardware or software. The most integral and important components of the system are the people who design it, maintain it, and use it. While the overall system must meet various needs in terms of power and performance, it must also be usable for the organization's personnel. If the operation of day-to-day tasks is too daunting for the workforce, then even the most humble of aspirations for the system will go unrealized.
A company will likely have a staff entrusted with the overall operation and maintenance of the system and that staff will be able to make the system perform in the manner expected of it. Pairing the information systems department with a training department can create a synergistic solution to the quandary of how to get non-technical staff to perform technical tasks. Oft times, the individuals staffing an information systems department will be as technical in their orientation as the operative staff is non-technical in theirs. This creates a language barrier between the two factions, but the communication level between them may be the most important exchange of information within the organization. Nomenclature out of context becomes little more than insular buzzwords.
If a company does not have a formal training department, the presence of staff members with a natural inclination to demonstrate and teach could mitigate a potentially disastrous situation. Management should find those employees who are most likely to adapt to the system and its operation. They should be taught how the system works and what it is supposed to do. Then they can share their knowledge with their fellow workers. There may not be a better way to bridge the natural chasm between the IS department and non-technical personnel. When the process of communicating information flows smoothly and can be used for enhancing and refining business operations, the organization and its customers will all profit.

Read more: Management Information Systems - strategy, organization, levels, system, examples, advantages, model, type, company, business, system, Information system design and administration, Information system functions, Key points http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Log-Mar/Management-Information-Systems.html#ixzz0kDjbKABr


1. Communication Gap

Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules. Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs". Although there is such a thing as one-way communication, communication can be perceived better as a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progression of thoughts, feelings or ideas (energy) towards a mutually accepted goal or direction (information).[1]

Communication gap is a state that occurs when what is being said is not been communicated to the addressee properly and completely. There can be many causes of communication gap depending on where it exists. Actually Communication gap is the biggest hurdle in achieving the organizational goal and does not help at all in achievement of organizational goal. Communication gap in an organization means that the goals and objectives that are set by the top management are either not communicated to the employees of the organization at all levels or if communicated they are not been understood properly by the employees. This can be because of improper communication channels, unrealistic goals, inappropriate language etc.

2. Eagerness to Change

Change is something that presses us out of our comfort zone. It is destiny-filtered, heart grown, faith built. Change is inequitable; not a respecter of persons. Change is for the better or for the worst, depending on where you view it. Change has an adjustment period which varies on the individual. It is uncomfortable, for changing from one state to the next upsets our control over outcomes. Change has a ripping effect on those who won’t let go. Flex is the key. Even a roller coaster ride can be fun if you know when to lean and create new balance within the change. Change is needed when all the props and practices of the past no longer work. Change is not comforted by the statement ‘just hang in there’ but with the statement ‘you can make it’. We don’t grow in retreat, but through endurance. Change isn’t fixed by crying, worrying, or mental treadmilling. Change is won by victors not victims; and that choice is ours.
Change is awkward -- at first. Change is a muscle that develops to abundantly enjoy the dynamics of the life set before us. Change calls own strength beyond anyone of us. Change pushes you to do your personal best. Change draws out those poised for a new way. Change isn’t for chickens. Change does have casualties of those defeated. Change will cause us to churn or to learn. Change changes the speed of time. Time is so slow for the reluctant, and yet it is a whirlwind for those who embrace it. Change is more fun to do than to be done to. Change seeks a better place at the end and is complete when you realize you are different.
Change is measured by its impact on all who are connected to it. Change is charged when you are dissatisfied with where you are. Change doesn’t look for a resting-place; just the next launching point. Change is only a waste to those who don’t learn from it. Change happens in the heart before it is proclaimed by our works. Change chaps those moving slower than the change itself. If you can change before you have to change, there will be less pain. Change can flow or jerk, depending on our resistance to it. Change uses the power invested in the unseen to reinvent what is seen. Change is like driving in a fog – you can’t see very far, but you can make the whole trip that way.
Change is here to stay.
change must involve the people - change must not be imposed upon the people
Be wary of expressions like 'mindset change', and 'changing people's mindsets' or 'changing attitudes', because this language often indicates a tendency towards imposed or enforced change (theory x), and it implies strongly that the organization believes that its people currently have the 'wrong' mindset, which is never, ever, the case. If people are not approaching their tasks or the organization effectively, then the organization has the wrong mindset, not the people. Change such as new structures, policies, targets, acquisitions, disposals, re-locations, etc., all create new systems and environments, which need to be explained to people as early as possible, so that people's involvement in validating and refining the changes themselves can be obtained.

The largest growth in most economies is coming from 'information' industries. The success of such knowledge-based organisations lies in their information systems. Also, forced by technological change and globalisation of markets, many manufacturing industries are also placing increasing emphasis upon information systems. Information systems are more than just computer programs. Though information and communications technologies are playing an increasing role in meeting organisations’ information needs, an information system is a much more general concept. It refers to the wider systems of people, data and activities, both computer-based and manual, that effectively gather, process, store and disseminate organisations’ information.
Study Information Systems here:
Postgraduate opportunities in Information Systems at Department of Information Studies at University of Sheffield.
Information Systems not Computer Science
Information systems, as a discipline, focuses on exploring the interface between management, information science and computer science. Computer Science focuses on information technology: software. Information Systems mediates the two opposing worlds of human activity systems and information technology.
Career prospects in Information Systems
A recent survey by the Association for Computing Machinery established buoyancy in the IT jobs market, exceeding that of the market at the peak of the IT boom, six years ago. Also, throughout the current decade, salaries in this area have increased, year on year. Consequently, knowledge of the state of the art in information systems development, application and management is at a premium in the workplace. This knowledge can be deployed in a range of professional positions, including information systems consultancy, systems analysis and design, and information systems project management. There are also positions in research and education concerned with advanced studies in information systems.
What can you get from an Information Systems course?
The value of the information systems professional stems from a breadth of knowledge and skills. Requirements of an information system are to do with the people and organizations that the system must serve, as well as IT capabilities. Consequently, the field is a multidisciplinary one, which requires specialist knowledge of the computer world, the world of organisations and people for whom the system must process information, and the professional skills and knowledge to make the former work for the latter. Not least, the information systems professional will have communication and interpersonal skills, for example, needed to elicit those requirements and communicate analyses and designs to decision makers.
A graduate from an information system programme will have studied each of these aspects to acquire theoretical and practical knowledge which they will be able to apply confidently in organizations of all kinds. Reflecting the multidisciplinarity of the field, Information Systems degree programmes offer a carefully chosen mix of social, management and technical aspects, such as: information systems within the contexts of organisations, management and the information society; computing knowledge and skills in programming, computer architectures and networks; techniques for information systems analysis and design, including database design methods, and related professional and legal knowledge.
Study Information Systems here:
Postgraduate opportunities in Information Systems at Department of Information Studies at University of Sheffield.
After completing, graduates may go on to take up a specialist information systems management positions - such as information systems manager, IT manager, corporate IT administrator or information systems consultant, to name but a few possibilities - but more broadly you will gain a solid foundation for taking up a variety of work roles in this rapidly changing society.
Various Advantages of Information Management Systems
When information systems are designed to provide information needed for effective decision making by managers, they are called management information systems. MIS is a formal system for providing management with accurate and timely information necessary for decision making.
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The system provides information on the past, present and project future and on relevant events inside and outside the organization . It may be defined as a planned and integrated system for gathering relevant data, converting it in to right information and supplying the same to the concerned executives. The main purpose of MIS is to provide the right information to the right people at the right time.

The Concept of management information systems originated in the 1960s and become the byword of almost all attempts to relate computer technology and systems to data processing in business . During the early 1960s , it became evident that the computer was being applied to the solution of business problem in a piecemeal fashion, focusing almost entirely on the computerization of clerical and record – keeping tasks. The concepts of management information systems was developed to counteract such in efficient development and in effective use of the computer. The MIS concepts is vital to efficient and effective computer use in business of two major reasons:

• It serves as a systems framework for organizing business computer applications. Business applications of computers should be viewed as interrelated and integrated computer – based information systems and not as independent data processing job .

• In emphasizes the management orientation of electronics information processing in business . The primary goal of computer based information systems should be the processing of data generated by business operations.
A management information system is an integrated man – machine systems that provides information to support the planning and control function of manager in an organization .
• The out put of an MIS is information that sub serves managerial functions. When a system provides information to persons who are not managers, then it will not be considered as part of an MIS . For .example , an organization often process a lot of data which it is required by law to furnish to various government regulatory agencies. Such a system, while it may have interfaces with an MIS, would not be a part of it, Instances of such systems are salary disclosures and excise duty statements. By the same token to sophisticated computer – aided design system for engineering purposes would also not be a part of an MIS.

• Generally, MIS deals with information that is systematically and routinely collected in accordance with a well-defined set of rules. Thus, and MIS is a part of the formal information network in an organization. Information that has major managerial planning significance is sometimes collected at golf courses. Such information is not part of MIS, how ever, one- shot market research data collected to gauge the potential of a new product does not come with in the scope of an MIS by our definition because although such information may be very systematically collected it is not collected on a regular basis.

• Normally, the information provided by an MIS helps the managers to make planning and control decisions. Now, we will see, what is planning and control. Every organization in order to function must perform, certain operations. For Example, a car manufacturer has to perform certain manufacturing activities, a wholesaler has o provide water to its area of jurisdiction. All these are operations that need to be done. Besides, these operations, an organization must make plans for them. In other words it must decide on how many and what type of cars to make next month or what commissions to offer retailers or what pumping stations to install in the next five years.

Also an organization must control the operations in the light of the plans and targets developed in the planning process. The car manufacturer must know if manufacturing operations are in line with the targets and if not, he must make decisions to correct the deviation or revise his plans. Similarly the wholesaler will want to know the impacts that his commissions have had on sales and make decisions to correct adverse trends. The municipal corporation will need to control the tendering process and contractors who will execute the pumping station plans.
Generally, MIS is concerned with planning and control. Often there are elaborate systems for information that assists operations. For example, the car manufacturer will have a system for providing information to the workers on the shop floor about the job that needs to be done on a particular batch of material. There may be route sheets, which accompany the rate materials and components in their movement through various machines. This system per se provides only information to support operation. It has no managerial decision-making significance. It I not part of an MIS. If, however, the system does provided information on productivity, machine utilization or rejection rates, then we would say that the system is part of an MIS.
• Generally MIS has all the ingredients that are employed in providing information support to manager to making planning and control decisions. Managers often use historical data on an organization’s activities as well as current status data make planning and control decisions. Such data comes from a data base which is contained in files maintained by the organization . This data base is an essential component of an MIS. Manual procedures that are used to collect and process information and computer hardware are obvious ingredients of an MIS . These also form part of the MIS. In summary , when we say that “ an MIS is an integrated man – machine systems that provided information to supports the planning and control function of managers in an origination . It does the following function .
- sub serves managerial function
- collects stores , evaluates information systematically and routinely
- supports planning and control decisions
- Includes files , hardware , software , software and operations research models.
Effective management information systems are needed by all business organization because of the increased complexity and rate of change of today’s business environment . For Example, Marketing manager need information about sales performance and trends, financial manger returns, production managers needs information analyzing resources requirement and worker productivity and personnel manager require information concerning employee compensation and professional development. Thus, effective management information systems must be developed to provide modern managers with the specific marketing , financial, production and personnel information products they required to support their decision making responsibilities .
An MIS provides the following advantages.
1. It Facilitates planning : MIS improves the quality of plants by providing relevant information for sound decision – making . Due to increase in the size and complexity of organizations, managers have lost personal contact with the scene of operations.
2. In Minimizes information overload : MIS change the larger amount of data in to summarized form and there by avoids the confusion which may arise when managers are flooded with detailed facts.
3. MIS Encourages Decentralization : Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system for monitoring operations at lower levels. MIS is successfully used for measuring performance and making necessary change in the organizational plans and procedures.
4. It brings Co ordination : MIS facilities integration of specialized activities by keeping each department aware of the problem and requirements of other departments. It connects all decision centers in the organization .
5. It makes control easier : MIS serves as a link between managerial planning and control. It improves the ability of management to evaluate and improve performance . The used computers has increased the data processing and storage capabilities and reduced the cost .
6. MIS assembles, process , stores , Retrieves , evaluates and Disseminates the information .
The characteristics of an information system are:
• The Organisation of data into information:
For data to be made meaningful it must have a purpose. The purpose of the stored data should reflect the purpose and type of the information system. Data needs to be processed and organised before it becomes information. Organising the data will most likely involve the processes of sorting and filtering (classifying) before it can be analysed and stored for later retrieval. Data dictionaries are used to help organise the data.

• Ability to Analyse the Information:
• Once the data has become information it needs to be analysed to make the most of the information stored. Analysis of databases is done through the tools of queries and reports.

The Different Types and purposes (Functions) of an Information System are:

Processing Transactions:
A transaction processing system (tps) collects, stores, modifies and retrieves the transactions of an organization. Examples of such systems are automatic telling machines (ATMs), electronic funds transfer at point of sale (EFTPOS – also referred to as POS). There are two types of transaction of processing:

• Batch processing: where all of the transactions are collected and processed as one group or batch at a later stage.
• Real-time processing:where the transaction is processed immediately.
Provide Users with Information About an Organisation:
This information system provides information to managers about the performance of their organisation. It may involve information about payroll, an inventory, stock list or budgets and would require the printing of information in the form of reports normally based on queries. Examples of this kind of system are management information systems (MIS) and executive information systems (EIS).

Help Decision-making:
This type of system is also referred to as a decision support system (DSS). A decision support system will assist people to make decisions by providing tools to analyse the information stored in a system. A DSS will provide a mathematical model of the variables affecting the decision and then point directions for actions that should be taken. One such example is the system that used by stockbrokers, which chart fluctuations in price and then make buy or sell recommendations dependant upon the parameters predefined by the stockbroker. Many DSS will allow managers to ask “what if” style questions and then see what would happen. This is particularly useful when the variables are limited and predictions can be safely based on what is known. A DSS is only as accurate as the mathematical model used.

Another kind of DSS is an expert system. Expert systems are designed to help make decisions that would involve someone highly qualified an experienced in that field. An example of an expert system is one used by doctors to help diagnose patients or prescribe drugs.

Manage Information used Within an Organisation:
This system is designed to provide an efficient way of dealing with information within an office environment. Another name for this an office automation system. This will include word processors, spreadsheets, databases and email. An example of an office automation system is Microsoft Office.

Examples of Database Information Systems
Most Information systems store data in a database and are referred to as Database management Systems. Examples referred to in the syllabus include:
1. A school database holding information on teachers, subjects, classrooms and students
2. The Roads and Traffic authority holding information on automobiles and holders of driver’s licences
3. Video stores holding information on borrowers and videos.
Five Types of Information Systems
Information systems are constantly changing and evolving as technology continues to grow. Very importantly the information systems described below are not mutually exclusive and some (especially Expert Systems, Management Information Systems and Executive Information Systems are can be seen as a subset of Decision Support Systems). However these examples are not the only overlaps and the divions of these information systems will change over time.
At present there are five main types:

• Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
• Decision Support Systems (DSS)
• Expert Information Systems (EIS)
• Management Information Systems (MIS
• Office Automation Systems (OAS)



Characteristics of Information Systems
•Organise Data into information
•Analysis of Information to give knowledge
Make a list of as many information systems
that you can think of. Think-Pair Share
Types and Purposes of Information
Systems
TPS: Collect, store, modify and retrieve the
daily transactions of an organisation.
Organisations rely heavily on these systems.
Backup Sytems are important. TPS can be
either batch, or Real time processing.
Decision Support Systems assist people to
make decisions by providing information,
models and analysis tools. A DSS can be used
on a daily basis or when an organisation has to
react to the unexpected or make changes.
Eg: Analysis of stockmarket, buying and
selling shares.
Modelling of variables effecting decisions.
Uses what if analogies.
Expert Systems provide information and
solve problems that would otherwise require a
person experienced in that field Diagnosing,
monitoring, selecting, designing, predicting
and training. Captures a set of knowledge that
is often difficult to transfer by a series of
questions.
•The expert parent: Do you want to go out
tonight
•Have you cleaned your room?
•Have you done your homework?
•Are sensible people going?
•Have you got a way to get home?
•Are the persons parents going?
•Combining expertise from multiple
experts The friend expert:
•Do you look good?
•Can you convince your parents that you’re
allowed to go?
Diagnosis of disease
Problems in production
Management Information Systems
Provides basic information for an organisations
managers. An MIS presents basic facts about
the performance of an organisation. Some
common examples of MIS output are reports on
sales, stock, inventory, payroll
Office Automation Systems provide people with
effective ways to complete administrative
tasks in an organisation. Eg. Denbigh.
Automatic letter writing, email, dtp of
Characteristics of an information system
1. The Organization of data into information
For data to be made meaningful it must have a purpose. The purpose of the stored data should reflect the purpose and type of the information system. Data needs to be processed and organised before it becomes information. Organising the data will most likely involve the processes of sorting and filtering (classifying) before it can be analysed and stored for later retrieval. Data dictionaries are used to help organise the data.
2. Ability to Analyse the Information
Once the data has become information it needs to be analyzed to make the most of the information stored. Analysis of databases is done through the tools of queries and reports.
What Are The Types Of Information Systems And What Are The Characteristics Of These Information Systems?
There are five levels of information systems which serves the business enterprises on different levels. These systems include executive support system, decision support systems, management information systems, knowledge work systems, office systems and transaction processing systems. In transaction processing system, we have a integrated system who is serving the organization at operational level. It is a computerized system which process and records the ongoing transactions generally routine task in the business.

In knowledge work systems the user just enters the input to the computer system and the intelligent processing system display output after processing the information. This is useful for technical people in the organization. The third one is management information systems. In this type of information system usually very large volume of data is entered as input and the system process it and gives output in the form of simple summary. This system is very useful for the managers. The example of this system is annual budgeting in the organizations. The next level is decision support system it is very useful system that is used for the analysis of data and input. The data required for this system is in low volume and it is used by the professionals.




Reference:
http://www.blurtit.com/q945114.html
http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Log-Mar/Management-Information-Systems.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication
http://www.iienet2.org/Details.aspx?id=3290
http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm
http://www.internationalgraduate.net/information-systems.htm
http://www.management-hub.com/information-management-advantages.html
http://www.bettscomputers.com/characteristicsofinformationsystems.htm
http://www.bettscomputers.com/fivetypesofinformationsystems.htm
http://www.blurtit.com/q159696.html


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PostSubject: Assignment #3   Wed Apr 07, 2010 11:03 am

Assignment #3 (December 6, 2009)
What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan? (3000)

The company or organization that me and my group mates in Management Information System 2 subject was the Davao Light and Power Corporation, Bajada, Davao City. There we were able to meet students from the Institute of Computing who were graduate students and some of them were undergraduates. However the main person who was our interviewee in the company was their head of the Information Technology Information Systems department. I honestly forgot the name of our interviewee, I do not know why but I just forgot his name but if happen to see his face I can recognize him, but I was able to remember the things the he told us that day. We were not actually just there to interview about the frustrations of Information Systems professionals and users while working on the Information Systems plan. We were also there for other interview reasons. Obviously all of it was for academic purpose.

First we are going to define what a frustration is. Frustrations, as what I have read from the web, are a common emotional response to opposition. Related to anger and disappointment, it arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of individual will. The greater the obstruction, and the greater the will, the more the frustration is likely to be. Causes of frustration may be internal or external. In people, internal frustration may arise from challenges in fulfilling personal goals anddesires, instinctual drives and needs, or dealing with perceived deficiencies, such as a lack of confidence or fear of social situations. Conflict can also be an internal source of frustration; when one has competing goals that interfere with one another, it can create cognitive dissonance. External causes of frustration involve conditions outside an individual, such as a blocked road or a difficult task. While coping with frustration, some individuals may engage in passive-aggressive behavior, making it difficult to identify the original cause(s) of their frustration, as the responses are indirect. A more direct, and common response, is a propensity towards aggression.

To the individual experiencing frustration, the emotion is usually attributed to external factors which are beyond their control. Although mild frustration due to internal factors (e.g. laziness, lack of effort) is often a positive force (inspiring motivation), it is more often than not a perceived uncontrolled problem that instigates more severe, and perhaps pathological, frustration. An individual suffering from pathological frustration will often feel powerless to change the situation they are in, leading to frustration and, if left uncontrolled, further anger.
And next is to define what an information system is. Information systems are the software and hardware systems that support data-intensive applications. The journal Information Systems publishes articles concerning the design and implementation of languages, data models, process models, algorithms, software and hardware for information systems.

Subject areas include data management issues as presented in the principal international database conferences (e.g. ACM SIGMOD, ACM PODS, VLDB, ICDE and ICDT/EDBT) as well as data-related issues from the fields of data mining, information retrieval, internet and cloud data management, web semantics, visual and audio information systems, scientific computing, and organizational behavior. Implementation papers having to do with massively parallel data management, fault tolerance in practice, and special purpose hardware for data-intensive systems are also welcome.
All papers should motivate the problems they address with compelling examples from real or potential applications. Systems papers must be serious about experimentation either on real systems or simulations based on traces from real systems. Papers from industrial organizations are welcome. Theoretical papers should have a clear motivation from applications. They should either break significant new ground or unify and extend existing algorithms. Such papers should clearly state which ideas have potentially wide applicability. In addition to publishing submitted articles, the Editors-in-Chief will invite retrospective articles that describe significant projects by the principal architects of those projects. Authors of such articles should write in the first person, tracing the social as well as technical history of their projects, describing the evolution of ideas, mistakes made, and reality tests. Technical results should be explained in a uniform notation with the emphasis on clarity and on ideas that may have applications outside of the environment of that research. Particularly complex details may be summarized with references to previously published papers.

During our interview we asked our interviewee about the cause of frustrations that their department usually encounter when planning for an information system. The first cause of frustration the he stated to us in the lack of support from the company. He said that there are many big companies that are flourishing and growing but not all of them are completely knowledgeable and or aware of the current trends of information system. No matter how good the information technology or the information systems department is but as long as the company or the organization does not support the views and beliefs of the department. If this is so then the department would become useless. Our interviewee said that in their company they encounter less support and yet a lot of resistance especially from their old workers, especially the workers who happen to be working in the company for many years. Now their group has been developing solutions to the problems of the company so they have been developing solutions to ease, hasten and optimize their business flows but not all of these developed systems are accepted because there is what they call the legacy systems. Newly developed systems, even a hundred percent effective, are not completely accepted because the people who get to use or interact with the system are not at ease towards the new system because they have already adapted to the so called legacy system or what I call traditional system. Resistance is the reason why some people, especially the old ones (I am not completely criticizing old people inside companies however I am just basing my inferences on observations and facts), neglect or reject new changes in their environment or work flows and it poses a big threat to the department who are developing new systems and doing their best to solve problems inside a company.

What is resistance? Resistance or Resistance to change is the action taken by individuals and groups when they perceive that a change that is occurring as a threat to them. Key words here are 'perceive' and 'threat'. The threat need not be real or large for resistance to occur. In its usual description it refers to change within organizations, although it also is found elsewhere in other forms. Resistance is the equivalent of objections in sales and disagreement in general discussions. Resistance may take many forms, including active or passive, overt or covert, individual or organized, aggressive or timid. As a personal view I do not want to criticize old people in my post or view but it is just an observation. Old people tend to neglect new things and continue to use what they have been doing in a very long time or traditional way because they think that they could not learn like young people do. Some people think that they could not learn it and they think that it would just cost them their time and money. Or some just think it would be troublesome. I find this kind of attitude troublesome because it degrades the attitude of the Filipino people. We are supposed the working class. We were always the ones who are hard working, willing to change for the better even if it means adapting to things that are outside of their comfort zone. One scenario in our history that supports this is the time when we Filipinos were invaded and colonized by two different cultures.

One other reason why people tend to neglect new technology is because of their lack of confidence and or confidence for the new technologies. They do not believe the way as other people believe in technology. One other reason that I can think of is that when their company or organization adapts a certain technology, an information system for example, they become threatened or become afraid that they might be replaced by these new technology and or might lose their job. I also found top ten reasons why people resist to change and these are the following:
1. THE RISK OF CHANGE IS SEEN AS GREATER THAN THE RISK OF STANDING STILL

Making a change requires a kind of leap of faith: you decide to move in the direction of the unknown on the promise that something will be better for you. But you have no proof. Taking that leap of faith is risky, and people will only take active steps toward the unknown if they genuinely believe – and perhaps more importantly, feel – that the risks of standing still are greater than those of moving forward in a new direction. Making a change is all about managing risk. If you are making the case for change, be sure to set out in stark, truthful terms why you believe the risk situation favors change. Use numbers whenever you can, because we in the West pay attention to numbers. At the very least, they get our attention, and then when the rational mind is engaged, the emotional mind (which is typically most decisive) can begin to grapple with the prospect of change. But if you only sell your idea of change based on idealistic, unseen promises of reward, you won’t be nearly as effective in moving people to action. The power of the human fight-or-flight response can be activated to fight for change, but that begins with the perception of risk.

2. PEOPLE FEEL CONNECTED TO OTHER PEOPLE WHO ARE IDENTIFIED WITH THE OLD WAY
We are a social species. We become and like to remains connected to those we know, those who have taught us, those with whom we are familiar – even at times to our own detriment. Loyalty certainly helped our ancestors hunt antelope and defend against the aggressions of hostile tribes, and so we are hard wired, I believe, to form emotional bonds of loyalty, generally speaking. If you ask people in an organization to do things in a new way, as rational as that new way may seem to you, you will be setting yourself up against all that hard wiring, all those emotional connections to those who taught your audience the old way - and that’s not trivial. At the very least, as you craft your change message, you should make statements that honor the work and contributions of those who brought such success to the organization in the past, because on a very human but seldom articulated level, your audience will feel asked to betray their former mentors (whether those people remain in the organization or not). A little good diplomacy at the outset can stave off a lot of resistance.
3. PEOPLE HAVE NO ROLE MODELS FOR THE NEW ACTIVITY

Never underestimate the power of observational learning. If you see yourself as a change agent, you probably are something of a dreamer, someone who uses the imagination to create new possibilities that do not currently exist. Well, most people don’t operate that way. It’s great to be a visionary, but communicating a vision is not enough. Get some people on board with your idea, so that you or they can demonstrate how the new way can work. Operationally, this can mean setting up effective pilot programs that model a change and work out the kinks before taking your innovation “on the road.” For most people, seeing is believing. Less rhetoric and more demonstration can go a long way toward overcoming resistance, changing people’s objections from the “It can’t be done!” variety to the “How can we get it done?” category.

4. PEOPLE FEAR THEY LACK THE COMPETENCE TO CHANGE
This is a fear people will seldom admit. But sometimes, change in organizations necessitates changes in skills, and some people will feel that they won’t be able to make the transition very well. They don’t think they, as individuals, can do it. The hard part is that some of them may be right. But in many cases, their fears will be unfounded, and that’s why part of moving people toward change requires you to be an effective motivator. Even more, a successful change campaign includes effective new training programs, typically staged from the broad to the specific. By this I mean that initial events should be town-hall type information events, presenting the rationale and plan for change, specifying the next steps, outlining future communications channels for questions, etc., and specifying how people will learn the specifics of what will be required of them, from whom, and when. Then, training programs must be implemented and evaluated over time. In this way, you can minimize the initial fear of a lack of personal competence for change by showing how people will be brought to competence throughout the change process. Then you have to deliver.

5. PEOPLE FEEL OVERLOADED AND OVERWHELMED
Fatigue can really kill a change effort, for an individual or for an organization. If, for example, you believe you should quit smoking, but you’ve got ten projects going and four kids to keep up with, it can be easy to put off your personal health improvement project (until your first heart attack or cancer scare, when suddenly the risks of standing still seem greater than the risks of change!). When you’re introducing a change effort, be aware of fatigue as a factor in keeping people from moving forward, even if they are telling you they believe in the wisdom of your idea. If an organization has been through a lot of upheaval, people may resist change just because they are tired and overwhelmed, perhaps at precisely the time when more radical change is most needed! That’s when you need to do two things: re-emphasize the risk scenario that forms the rationale for change (as in my cancer scare example), and also be very generous and continuously attentive with praise, and with understanding for people’s complaints, throughout the change process. When you reemphasize the risk scenario, you’re activating people’s fears, the basic fight-or-flight response we all possess. But that’s not enough, and fear can produce its own fatigue. You’ve got to motivate and praise accomplishments as well, and be patient enough to let people vent (without getting too caught up in attending to unproductive negativity).

6. PEOPLE HAVE A HEALTHY SKEPTICISM AND WANT TO BE SURE NEW IDEAS ARE SOUND
It’s important to remember that few worthwhile changes are conceived in their final, best form at the outset. Healthy skeptics perform an important social function: to vet the change idea or process so that it can be improved upon along the road to becoming reality. So listen to your skeptics, and pay attention, because some percentage of what they have to say will prompt genuine improvements to your change idea (even if some of the criticism you will hear will be based more on fear and anger than substance).

7. PEOPLE FEAR HIDDEN AGENDAS AMONG WOULD-BE REFORMERS
Let’s face it; reformers can be a motley lot. Not all are to be trusted. Perhaps even more frightening, some of the worst atrocities modern history has known were begun by earnest people who really believed they knew what was best for everyone else. Reformers, as a group, share a blemished past . . . And so, you can hardly blame those you might seek to move toward change for mistrusting your motives, or for thinking you have another agenda to follow shortly. If you seek to promote change in an organization, not only can you expect to encounter resentment for upsetting the established order and for thinking you know better than everyone else, but you may also be suspected of wanted to increase your own power, or even eliminate potential opposition through later stages of change.

I saw this in a recent change management project for which I consulted, when management faced a lingering and inextinguishable suspicion in some quarters that the whole affair was a prelude to far-reaching layoffs. It was not the case, but no amount of reason or reassurance sufficed to quell the fears of some people. What’s the solution? Well, you’d better be interested in change for the right reasons, and not for personal or factional advantage, if you want to minimize and overcome resistance. And you’d better be as open with information and communication as you possibly can be, without reacting unduly to accusations and provocations, in order to show your good faith, and your genuine interest in the greater good of the organization. And if your change project will imply reductions in workforce, then be open about that and create an orderly process for outplacement and in-house retraining. Avoid the drip-drip-drip of bad news coming out in stages, or through indirect communication or rumor. Get as much information out there as fast as you can and create a process to allow everyone to move on and stay focused on the change effort.

8. PEOPLE FEEL THE PROPOSED CHANGE THREATENS THEIR NOTIONS OF THEMSELVES
Sometimes change on the job gets right to a person’s sense of identity. When a factory worker begins to do less with her hands and more with the monitoring of automated instruments, she may lose her sense of herself as a craftsperson, and may genuinely feel that the very things that attracted her to the work in the first place have been lost. I saw this among many medical people and psychologists during my graduate training, as the structures of medical reimbursement in this country changed in favor of the insurance companies, HMO’s and managed care organizations. Medical professionals felt they had less say in the treatment of their patients, and felt answerable to less well trained people in the insurance companies to approve treatments the doctors felt were necessary. And so, the doctors felt they had lost control of their profession, and lost the ability to do what they thought best for patients.

My point is not to take sides in that argument, but to point out how change can get right to a person’s sense of identity, the sense of self as a professional. As a result, people may feel that the intrinsic rewards that brought them to a particular line of work will be lost with the change. And in some cases, they may be absolutely right. The only answer is to help people see and understand the new rewards that may come with a new work process, or to see how their own underlying sense of mission and values can still be realized under the new way of operating. When resistance springs from these identity-related roots, it is deep and powerful, and to minimize its force, change leaders must be able to understand it and then address it, acknowledging that change does have costs, but also, (hopefully) larger benefits.

9. PEOPLE ANTICIPATE A LOSS OF STATUS OR QUALITY OF LIFE
Real change reshuffles the deck a bit. Reshuffling the deck can bring winners . . . and losers. Some people, most likely, will gain in status, job security, quality of life, etc. with the proposed change, and some will likely lose a bit. Change does not have to be a zero sum game, and change can (and should) bring more advantage to more people than disadvantage. But we all live in the real world, and let’s face it – if there were no obstacles (read: people and their interests) aligned against change, then special efforts to promote change would be unnecessary.

Some people will, in part, be aligned against change because they will clearly, and in some cases correctly, view the change as being contrary to their interests. There are various strategies for minimizing this, and for dealing with steadfast obstacles to change in the form of people and their interests, but the short answer for dealing with this problem is to do what you can to present the inevitability of the change given the risk landscape, and offer to help people to adjust. Having said that, I’ve never seen a real organizational change effort that did not result in some people choosing to leave the organization, and sometimes that’s best for all concerned. When the organization changes, it won’t be to everyone’s liking, and in that case, it’s best for everyone to be adult about it and move on.

10. PEOPLE GENUINELY BELIEVE THAT THE PROPOSED CHANGE IS A BAD IDEA
I’ll never forget what a supervisor of mine said to be, during the year after I had graduated from college, secure as I was in the knowledge of my well earned, pedigreed wisdom at age twenty-two. We were in a meeting, and I made the comment, in response to some piece of information, “Oh, I didn’t know that!” Ricky, my boss, looked at me sideways, and commented dryly, “Things you don’t know . . . fill libraries.” The truth is, sometimes someone’s (even – gasp! – my) idea of change is just not a good idea. Sometimes people are not being recalcitrant, or afraid, or muddle-headed, or nasty, or foolish when they resist. They just see that we’re wrong. And even if we’re not all wrong, but only half wrong, or even if we’re right, it’s important not to ignore when people have genuine, rational reservations or objections.

Not all resistance is about emotion, in spite of this list I’ve assembled here. To win people’s commitment for change, you must engage them on both a rational level and an emotional level. I’ve emphasized the emotional side of the equation for this list because I find, in my experience, that this is the area would-be change agents understand least well. But I’m also mindful that a failure to listen to and respond to people’s rational objections and beliefs is ultimately disrespectful to them, and to assume arrogantly that we innovative, change agent types really do know best. A word to the wise: we’re just as fallible as anyone. The reasons stated above the individual sources of resistance. However there is also what we call organizational resistance.

Factor built in the organizational system also lead to resistance to change. It has been observed that organizations are conservative and are therefore slow to change. 1. Inertia of a structure: A number of built-in mechanisms provide stability to organizations. Every organization has got its own systems, processes, policies, and procedures, which ought to be followed for uniformity and formalization of the process. Consequently any change in the structural aspects has cascading effect on other related systems and processes. This creates a hurdle in introducing organizational change. In organizations where structural changes are introduced, it takes long for people to accept and assimilate the structural change. 2. Threat to power dynamics: Structural change with ensuing changes in decision-making pattern can destabilize power relationships established over a period of time. Changes in decision-making process from centralize decision making process to participative or democratic decision-making process form centralized decision-making can threaten managers affected by it. 3. Group pressure: Group norms evolved by an organization over the years become a bottleneck in bringing about change. It is common observation that a single member of a group accepts change suggested by management willingly. However, his group affiliation with a union does not allow him to do so. Therefore, he is likely to resists change. 4. Blinkered view of change: Any organization consists of four elements namely task, structure, technology, and people. Focus on any one of the elements of the organization will bring about corresponding change in other elements as well. Therefore, change cannot have lopsided and limited perspective.

Resistance inside a company or an organization is inevitable. Companies do not seldom encounter this because there is resistance everywhere. Now if the company does not find solutions in countering this resistance the company or the organization will never prosper or grow according the views, vision and the mission of the company. A company can never stay as it is. Change is constant and that if you do not ride with the flow you will be left behind.

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES TO OVER COME THE RESISTANCE:

1. Counseling: counseling has been found to be very effective in reducing individual resistance. Individual resistance occurs because of anxieties and fears and by letting people talk through their problems and anxieties can help them come to terms with change. This techniques is used on one-to-one and also in formal communication system with the whole team.

2. Force-field analysis : this technique provides an assessment of any change situation and presents a balance between the driving forces and the resisting forces. The participants are advised by the change agent to identify these forces. While identifying the restraining forces the group develops insight about ways of handling them. In a number of organizations this technique is used effectively to create a shared change processes for thinking through specific changes.

3. Commitment Charting : in any change there will be people who gain and others who lose. Therefore, in order to get the commitment of the people who are likely to loose, it is important to handle them with care, as they will be sensitive to any action. For a change to succeed it is important to have a critical mass and also to minimize the pain it causes to the affected. In order to do that a chart is prepared listing the names of key players and their commitment level to the change. The chart indicates the status of the people who have commitment at present and whose commitment needs to be ensured for change to be successful. Also the people who have no commitment need to be focused for gaining commitment.

In this regard our organization follows the ways as suggested by Watson (1969) to reduce the resistance. These relate to ownership of change, nature of change and the process of changing.

Ownership: resistance is likely to be low if the change is perceived as being the need of and suggested (sense of belongingness ) by those affected by it. And when it has the top management support. Nature of Change : Resistance is reduced by joint and agreed diagnosis of the problems and burdens, conforming to the core values of the group, offering new and interesting experience to the group, and does not threaten autonomy and security.

Change process : Resistance is reduced by joint and agreed diagnosis of the problem, consensus on the board design of change, listening to “objections’(and learning from them), periodical review and feedback, development of high interpersonal trust and cohesive teams and openness to revision.


I can also think of another reason why people tend to resist changing and this other reason is the attitude of skepticism. Skepticism is the Western philosophical tradition that maintains that human beings can never arrive at any kind of certain knowledge. Originating in Greece in the middle of the fourth century BC, skepticism and its derivatives are based on the following principles: There is no such thing as certainty in human knowledge and all human knowledge is only probably true, that is, true most of the time, or not true. Skeptics or some other people call unbelievers are those people who lack faith in some things, in this case the lack of faith to new technology. Most skeptics think that these new technologies are nothing compared to the traditional ways. However I think it is the other way around. These new technologies are derived from the traditional processes and if people tell that the new technology is irrelevant or not reliable then why should the traditional systems be any different? I mean, technologies were derived from these traditional systems. They were made to enhance the traditional systems, not make them even more useless.

Other factors include communication gap. What is communication? Communication is the exchange of information between individuals, for example, by means of speaking, writing, or using a common system of signs or behavior. Communication is essential especially in the planning process. No proper communication within the company especially the persons in charge of the planning will likely end up in a bad plan. Part of an Information Planning is the communication; it is often define as a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules. Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs". All forms of communication require a sender, a message, and a receiver. Communication requires that all parties have an area of communicative commonality. Now let’s define Communication gap; it is define as a state that occurs when what is being said is not been communicated to the addressee properly and completely. There can be many causes of communication gap depending on where it exists. Actually Communication gap is the biggest hurdle in achieving the organizational goal and does not help at all in achievement of organizational goal. Communication gap in an organization means that the goals and objectives that are set by the top management are either not communicated to the employees of the organization at all levels or if communicated they are not been understood properly by the employees. This can be because of improper communication channels, unrealistic goals, inappropriate language etc.

We already discussed what resistance is an the other causes of frustrations in the information systems plan process. So far the two causes stated by our interviewee. The two causes are lack of support and the resistance that the workers of the company exert towards technology. These two cause frustrations. I read about frustration and I also happened to read about how to deal on frustrations. So how do we deal with frustrations? Well, perhaps the first and most immediate thing I do is to stop and take my mind off the things that frustrate me. I conserve whatever energy is left in me and use it to recharge myself. I do what my favorite poem tells me, “Rest, if you must, but don’t you quit.” I shut down everything temporarily and go inside my sanctuary – armed with music and my favorite comfort foods; I drive around the city without a destination. Yes, this routine has been very therapeutic for me for the past years. I would spend a couple of hours without worries inside my car and let all my troubles settle at the back of my mind. Other than driving, I’ve also managed to come up with other things to do whenever I’m feeling depressed and frustrated. Some of which are spending time and talking with friends, writing my frustrations down and then burning the paper (I know, how dramatic) and sometimes, I simply jog inside our village. I guess the key here is to release the frustrations in a non-aggressive way. Of course, your problems won’t get solved by simply doing that. Chances are, it will still be in the same state when you come back from taking a break. However, what I hope to be different this time is my enthusiasm to tackle the difficulties once again. Moreover, with revitalized energy, I am now more capable to think and act towards succeeding this time. Upon my return, I take stock of everything at hand and systematically analyze the situation by asking myself such questions: Furthermore, I always keep in mind that frustration may lead to aggression and procrastination. Remembering so helps me act consciously without negativity and delay. When your goals seems to be so near yet so far, take positivity from the small accomplishments you’ve already attained and learn to also reward your efforts, not just your results. In the end, when you finally achieve, you’ll find yourself stronger in character and more ready to face greater challenges. Dealing with your finances can be frustrating at times, especially when you’ve been working so hard to save and invest and then a financial emergency would come and ruin your plans. As a blogger, I’ve also become familiar with common frustrations in having a website such as spending long hours optimizing for income and traffic only to get less than expected results. How about in your case? What has been your frustration lately and how are you dealing with it? Kindly share them below and continue the conversation

We are all likely to encounter frustration while pursuing our goals. But how do you usually deal with it? Do you vent your frustration through aggression in the form of physical or verbal abuse? Or do you walk on the path of persistence by working through each obstacle? The first sign of trouble usually results in people giving up. So what can you do to smooth the journey of perseverance and attaining eventual reward?

1. Desire. From the beginning, if you wish strongly for something, you will likely sacrifice time, money and effort to achieve it. Those who are intent on satisfying their fondest desire are often the ones who have the strongest motivation and desire to do so. On the same note, if your heart is not into what you do, it will translate into equivalent non-action through mind and body.

2. Self-confidence. Naturally, the more confident you are of your abilities, the more willing you would be to continue working through sticking points. But confidence can be a fragile state of mind. Difficult to build, easily shattered. A good way is to break your goals into smaller and achievable targets. Each positive result will contribute to a greater realization that you are heading in the right direction. Note that self-realizing prophecies cannot be more apparent in these situations - the more negativity you allow yourself to be in, the closer you will sink to greater depths. Practice the art of succeeding instead.

3. Magnitude. Just as well you should break a goal into smaller targets to build confidence; it also changes a much larger problem into bit-sized issues that you can have greater control and success over. Remember how you decided to skip an exam question when it seemed insurmountable given the time and pressure you were under? If the question had been broken down into several parts instead, it would have been tackled without a second thought. Chop your frustration to pieces by making problems smaller in magnitude.

4. Proximity. Another reason why breaking down your problems into bite-sized chunks would lessen your frustrations and channel it towards positive action - solutions and closure become that much closer and bring you nearer the ultimate satisfaction. Having sub goals or milestones will have the added benefit of seeing success progressively, providing assurance and lessening frustration.

5. Ability and Options. By understanding your own abilities, it can allow assessment of each situation in better light, rather than be weighed down by frustration. You can decide whether an obstacle is worth the effort to persevere or there could be a need to adjust goals accordingly. Note that changing goals do not necessarily preclude giving up - other options might have opened up in the realization, and they could very well lead to brighter futures.
These 5 factors are keys to how you can handle frustration and lessen it in the long run. It is natural to feel the stakes are stacked against you from time to time, but remember that it is what you do to face it that will remove that feeling, not wallowing in self-pity or frustration. What are some of the methods that you have personally used to manage frustration to build and achieve your own goals?

In conclusion we should know how to face and handle frustrations because we do not know when we might encounter it. If we do not know how to handle frustrations then we might end up sulking in a corner because we feel rejected. Frustrations can cause downfall and sometimes complete failure on a man, an organization or a company.

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PostSubject: Assignment 3   Thu Apr 08, 2010 8:10 am

Subject: Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs) Tue Nov 10, 2009 4:20 pm

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan? note: you are required to interview an IS professional/s for your answer ...(at least 3000 words)

To answer the question: “What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of Information Systems professionals and users while working on an IS plan,” we were tasked to interview an Information Systems professional. But before I answer the question, let me first define the words that are important in this article. The words that will be given definitions are information, system, plan, information system, professional, and last but not the least, frustration.

Definition of Information
If you ask questions, you get an answer, you get information. If you study, you will be able to have knowledge about a certain subject; hence, that knowledge becomes information. You hear or read the news, you get informed. Read a book, and you will have information. Information has a lot of definitions. I define the word information as a product of inquiry. If you write about something or about someone, it becomes information. Also, I can define information as knowledge about a subject. According to wikipedia.org, “Information is an ordered sequence of symbols.” That is how information was defined, in a technical term, though. Information can also refer to a series of numbers 1 and 0, also known as, the binary numbers. These numbers will be read by the machines and are then converted or translated. Another definition from the wikipedia.com is that, “information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it.”

Information can also be defined as facts, data or knowledge that a person has acquired or disseminated through experience, study, it could also be in any form of inquiry or communication media that can be thought of.

Definition of System
I define the word system as different components that are grouped together to form one larger component. System can also be defined as a group of ideas that are integrated together, to form a whole. The word, system is similar to the words method, organization, classification and order. System can also be referred to as an order which is followed to perform different tasks. There are different types of systems that the people are dealing with in their daily lives. There is a system in the society, economics, and law. System can also be found in the world of information technology. If the word, system will be viewed as an order, it would mean that the certain system is used, for the reason that, their will be one scheme that will be followed. Let me take the case of a society. The people in a society have different laws and orders. These laws and orders are followed by the people so that the society will be able to function and act properly.

As an Information Technology student of the University of Southeastern Philippines, I can also define the word system as a program or software. There are a lot of multifaceted or complex modules in a system. These modules are integrated together to be able to work for one goal. These modules are either dependent or independent to each other. These modules either run in orders or not. Each system has to undergo extensive planning before it will be developed. This is where the needs of the client or company will be known. Through planning, the development team will be able to know the type of system that will be developed based on the needs of the client or company. Also, they will be able to have an idea on how the development team will be able to conduct the feasibility studies such as the economic, technical, and operational feasibility. Requirements analysis is another stage in system development. With the help of the planning stage, a plan will be produced for conducting the requirements analysis for the system which will be developed.

Definition of Plan
The third term that will be defined is plan. The word plan can refer to the word preparation. It is also similar to the words arrangement and diagram. Merriam - Webster dictionary defined the word plan as “a method for achieving an end”. Another extensive definition of the word, plan is done by the site www.brainyqoute.com. Plan is defined as, “A draught or form; properly, a representation drawn on a plane, as a map or a chart; especially, a top view, as of a machine, or the representation or delineation of a horizontal section of anything, as of a building; a graphic representation; a diagram.”

For me, planning is a way of preparing yourself for the future. Planning helps the person to foresee the risks that might occur. It will help him or her to prepare on how to manage those risks. Moreover, he or she will be able to measure the level of impact which will be done by the risks. Aside from the risk management, there are other things that the people can accomplish through planning. An example is reaching a goal or an objective. People have goals in life and they all wanted to reach these goal. For some, reaching one’s goal means reaching one’s success. In addition, before they succeed, they go through a series of realizations, plans and taking their plans to actions. Planning is a way or process of making a plan.

People plan the steps that they are going to take before reaching their goals. For example, a student’s goal is to have a job that best fits his or her skills that has a good pay. How will the student accomplish this goal? Of course, to reach his or her goal, the student would plan several steps and perhaps, identify some milestones. One might be taking his or her studies seriously while in the term. Second might be graduating. The third step can be applying for a job, and so on. By planning the steps ahead, he or she will be able to identify the risks, like what I had said. If ever there are risks that are too much to be handled, having extra plans is a very good idea.

Definition of Information System
Information system, on the other hand, is the combination of the components of information technology plus the people. Information System allows the company to handle large amounts of data or information. Handling large amount of information are done by the Information Technology components - hardware and software and these information technology components are being managed by the people in the company mainly by the management information systems department or information technology department of a certain company. Information system is different from information technology because the former has a component that interacts with information technology components. The information system has the capability of doing the things that the human mind cannot. Such as, handling and/or processing very large amounts of data or information. Information Systems give means to retrieving, storing and managing large quantity of data or information. The data or information that is managed by the information system is necessary for any business operation.

Moreover, information system is a programmed or automated system that provides or gives information to the people or to the company or organization. According to John Daintith who wrote A Dictionary of Computing, “the information systems include data processing applications, office automation applications, and many expert system applications. When their primary purpose is to supply information to management, they are commonly called management information systems”. Those information systems have complex environment, interface and is modeled in a complicated manner. Information system can also refer to a communication system that disseminates information. In a certain company or organization, the all the information that were gathered, stored or disseminated will then be handled by the Management Information Systems or ICT or Information Technology Division – whatever they call it. It is where all the information was stored for security, backed up and was processed by the people or employees who are composed of Information Technology professionals with the help of fast servers with high storage capacity.

Types of Information System
Information systems do not limit itself to management information system only. There are also information systems such as Decision Support Systems (DSS), Transaction Processing Systems (TPS), Office Automation System (OAS) and the Expert Information System (EIS). These information systems are all computer-based and are needed and used in the business world. These make the business transactions that are involved in the said information systems faster than what any types of manual system can do. A Decision Support System (DSS) is a modern day type of computer-based information system. The Decision Support System, also known as, DSS supports the decision-making activity of the business and/or organization. Among the usual transactions done using the Decision Support System or DSS are accounting or financial information regarding a certain company or business organization. It covers the retrieval of the amount of assets, have sales figures compared depending on the period you want to compare and the results of the different decisions. There are different Decision Support System or DSS types. These are the Communication-driven Decision Support System, Data-driven Decision Support System, Document-driven Decision Support System, Knowledge-driven Decision Support System and the Model-driven Decision Support System.

The Communication-driven Decision Support System is a type of information system that provides or enables communication between two or more people. This type of Decision Support System is capable of facilitating the information sharing between groups of people and also supports decision making activities. Another type of Decision Support System is the Data-driven Decision Support System. This type of information system uses data to give support to decision making. It uses a database as its way of handling certain data that are necessary to assist the company or organization in their decision making activities. It is in the database that large arrays of data or information are being stored, edited or deleted. This data or information are being secured, backed up and even treated as confidential information especially if it the data or information can take down a certain company. Another type of a Data-driven Decision Support System or DSS is the GIS or Geographic Information System. This type of Decision Support System can be used to visualize geographical representations for maps. Another type of Decision Support System that was mentioned is the Document-driven Decision Support System which is new in the field. This type of support system centers on the management and manipulation of unstructured documents in different formats. Next is the Knowledge-driven Decision Support System. This type of system informs the person if a decision must be made. The last system that was mentioned is the Model-driven Decision Support System. This type of system integrates the data to create models such as statistical and graphical representations to give support to a certain company or business organization’s decision making activities.

After having Decision Support Systems discussed, Transaction Processing Systems or TPS is next in the list. Transaction Processing Systems, also known as, TPS handles data or information that must be kept constant. In other terms, Transaction Processing Systems are capable of storing, modifying and retrieving data or information. TPS systems can be used in real time processing of data or information. Examples of these are the transactions done in the banks or it can also be accounting systems. Aside from real time processing, the Transaction Processing Systems are also capable of batch processing. Batch processing allows the company to process or manage large amounts of data in limited resources. TPS are always expected to be reliable systems. The system must have security and recovery management most especially if the transactions involve large amounts of money. The next type of information system that was mentioned is the Office Automation System, also known as, OAS. Office Automation Systems are the designing of the information technology infrastructures in a company. It is where all the computers – hardware and the software are networked together to be able to give way to communication and enabling the company or business organization to transfer or share of data or information.

The functions that are integrated or networked in the Office Automation Systems are Electronic Publishing, Electronic Communication, Electronic collaboration, Image Processing and Office Management. Types of electronic publishing are the Microsoft Office tools such as Microsoft Office Word that enables the user to create and edit word documents; Microsoft Office PowerPoint that enables the user to create and edit PowerPoint presentations, Microsoft Office Excel that enables the user to create and edit spreadsheets, etc. Electronic Communication, on the other hand, refer to email or electronic mail, voice mail and fax. Video conferencing is also a type of electronic communication system. Electronic Mail or email, in short, is a software that is used to allow the users to send and receive mails anywhere in the world in just a few minutes. The users are also allowed to attach different types of files in their message. Voice mails refer to phone answering machines, it stores all the voice messages which allows the user to retrieve and listen to the messages that were stored in the machine. Fax messages is a type of electronic communication system that allows a user to send documents to the receiver through the use of telephones that are capable of printing fax messages. Video conferencing allows two or more people to communicate with each other through the use of video and audio and have face-to-face conversation. It is one of the fast growing systems today. The next type of Office Automation System that has been mentioned is the Electronic Collaboration. This system enables the employees to work on a project or on a document together, simultaneously. They will be able to do such activities through the use of networked microcomputer and other hardware that are necessary to do certain activities. Next is the Image Processing system that converts different types of documents to other file types that can be accessed by the computer. Example of this is charts, graphic, videos, audios and text file conversions. The last type of an Office Automation system or OAS is the Office Management Systems. This refers to the systems that are capable of organizing the employees in the companies, the schedules, activities and the projects that will be done in the future. This type of system is also capable of handling schedules such as storing, modifying and retrieving data or information with regards to the schedules, appointments and activities. The last type of information system that has been previously discussed is the Expert Information System or EIS. This type of information system is capable of providing an answer to a problem which will then be used by the employees for decision making activities. It also provides options to choose for decision making activity.

Definition of Professional
The word professional can be defined or referred to as an expert, proficient, or skilled. A professional is someone who has great knowledge about his or her field - not only in his or her field of interest but also in his or her field of work. Moreover, the word professional can also refer to a person or someone who is engaged or employed in profession. When the word or term professional is referred to as a person, it can be a doctor, a lawyer, or an engineer. In the world of Information Technology, a lot of professionals can be found and these people are called Information Technology or Information Systems professional. They are the ones who have great knowledge about the world of computers, the hardware and the software components and even the people who manage these components. There are different types of professions in Information Technology – there are computer programmers, software engineers and systems analysts, to name a few. They all have skills and characteristics that they needed to possess in order for them to become good professionals in their line of work. In our past interview with an Information Technology professional – a Management Information System or MIS supervisor, to be exact, he told us about the different characteristics and skills of a good systems analyst that he or she must possess and develop. A systems analyst is someone whose task is to solve the problems that the company faces. He or she takes a deeper examination and evaluation on the steps to be taken and the risks that will be facing them to come up with the best solution to the problem. The systems analyst must know what the business is all about, understand the business flow of the organization, have knowledge about the people he or she will be dealing with and must have knowledge about computers and CASE tools. Last December 16, 2009, we conducted an interview with the Management Information Systems Supervisor of Sta. Ana Multipurpose Cooperative also known as SAMULCO. Among the skills and characteristics he gave are the following:

1. The systems analyst should have knowledge about systems integration.
2. The systems analyst should have a skill in calculating risk.
3. Experience
4. A systems analyst should be a people’s person with good communication skills.
5. A systems analyst should have a high Adversity Quotient.
6. Flexibility

He said that, in systems analysis, especially, like if you look into a system, you put a person in the center of the circle, that person will not see everything. But once you put him/her in the middle but if you put that person on top of the platform, he/she will see the holistic view of the system. A systems analyst should have both holistic and detailed approach to watching the system. He has an experience that he usually goes into details like an accountant is presenting something and told him that something is lacking. "One mistake is on the programmer, directly", he added. What the MIS supervisor was trying to point out is that as a good systems analyst, one must be both a holistic and a systematic learner because he said that one might just be missing everything else. If the analyst is just a holistic one, then he or she will not be able to see every detail of what the system really needs. On the other hand, if the analyst is just a systematic learner, he or she might not know the things that might be affected or overlooked at every move or any decision that he or she will be making.

The second characteristic he shared is that a good systems analyst should have a skill in calculating risk. “He or she should be a risk taker in a very smart way,” he said. He also defined the word risk as a “possibility of a loss”. “You cannot stop a risk from coming but you can always prepare when it comes,” he added. He even mentioned the law of Murphy which states that “if something can go wrong, it will.” But whatever risks that the systems analyst shall be facing, he or she must have an extra plan to carry out in order for him or her to be able to prevent greater damage or loss to the project.

Third one that he shared to us is experience and he said that, “experience is the best teacher”. Experience for me is a very good asset that a systems analyst possesses. Why, is it so? That is because, if one has an experience in programming or in analyzing and designing a system, it will not be very hard for him or her to handle bigger problems. Moreover, if one has an experience, he or she will already know the ways or techniques in systems analysis, coming up with a better solution or making a decision or choice which will best address the problem. The fourth is being a people’s person with good communication skills. The fifth is having a high Adversity Quotient skill so that the analyst will not break down when a problem comes, according to the MIS Supervisor. The last is flexibility. A good systems analyst must be flexible so that he or she will be able to adjust quickly in whatever changes or problems that will occur in the future.
Information systems professionals undergo and deal with different situations and people whenever they start to work at a new information systems plan. Their work does not only cover the development, the implementation and the maintenance of the information system for a company or business information. It has to undergo different phases or stages. However, it does not guarantee the information technology or information systems professionals that their work will go smoothly until its maintenance in the future. There are things that can be a hindrance to the success of the development and the implementation of their information systems plan. In addition, these hindrances can cause them frustrations in their line of work and somehow, might be affecting the development and the implementation of their information systems plan. Moreover, their work is not only limited in their information systems plan but it also covers the development of the product itself. Therefore, as professionals in information systems, they must plan ahead about the project that they are going to make. In order for a person to develop an information systems plan, I believe that, first, he or she must have a knowledge or understanding on what an information system is and what it does. Second is that he or she should have a basic information about his or her client. Third, he or she must identify the needs of the client and gather all the necessary information in order to come up with a good information systems plan. One way to identify the needs of the client or the company is to meet with the client. In this way, both parties will be able to discuss the needs and the things that should be done. The objectives, goals and priorities of the project must also be set. The information systems plan must coincide with the priorities and objectives that you formulated. Moreover, the information systems plan must be flexible. The importance of the flexibility of the information systems plan is to make it applicable if for instance, changes will occur. Another thing is to identify the risks that might occur during the planning until after the implementation phase of the information systems plan when the new information system plan is being used. Developing and implementing a strategic information systems plan is a major change in a company or business organization. Planning does not completely save them from frustrations but somehow, it minimizes the level of frustrations and risks that they might undergo.

Definition of Frustration
After having the words information, system, plan, information system, professional defined, I will now give a short definition for the word frustration. The word frustration can be defined or referred to as aggravation or discouragement. Frustration can be seen or experienced when something that a person or a group of people did not expect has come their way which undone all their plans or led to the nonfulfillment of their wishes or business. Here is a quick recap of the definitions. Information can also be defined as facts, data or knowledge that a person has acquired or disseminated through experience, study, it could also be in any form of inquiry or communication media that can be thought of. The word system has different components that are grouped together to form one larger component. System can also be defined as a group of ideas that are integrated together, to form a whole. . There are different types of systems that the people are dealing with in their daily lives. There is a system in the society, economics, and law. System can also be found in the world of information technology. If the word, system will be viewed as an order, it would mean that the certain system is used, for the reason that, their will be one scheme that will be followed. Information system, on the other hand, is the combination of the components of information technology plus the people and allows the company to handle large amounts of data or information. Information system is different from information technology because the former has a component that interacts with information technology components. The information system has the capability of doing the things that the human mind cannot. There are also information systems such as Decision Support Systems (DSS), Transaction Processing Systems (TPS), Office Automation System (OAS) and the Expert Information System (EIS). These information systems are all computer-based and are needed and used in the business world. The word plan can refer to the word preparation. It is also similar to the words arrangement and diagram. It is one way of preparing yourself for the future. Planning helps the person to foresee the risks that might occur. It will help him or her to prepare on how to manage those risks. Moreover, he or she will be able to measure the level of impact which will be done by the risks. A professional is someone who has great knowledge about his or her field - not only in his or her field of interest but also in his or her field of work. Moreover, the word professional can also refer to a person or someone who is engaged or employed in profession. When the word or term professional is referred to as a person, it can be a doctor, a lawyer, or an engineer. In the world of Information Technology, a lot of professionals can be found and these people are called Information Technology or Information Systems professional.

Once again, the question is what are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of Information Systems professionals and users while working on an Information Systems plan? Top on my list is the resistance to change. Before I discuss resistance to change, I will give you, first, a definition of the words resistance and change. The word change can be defined or referred to as transformation, revolution, adjust, amend or alter. Change is constant. It never stops on changing - changing people, changing economy, changing everything that you could ever imagine. Change can be good, for others, change can be bad. Some like it and some fear it. Yet, no matter how we see change, we still have a choice, either to accept and adapt to change, or to resist and remain unchanged. The truth is, change will always be there. For those who fear it, change will always haunt them. For those who like it, change will always be their sign of opportunity.

After having the word change defined, I am now going to give a definition for the word resistance. Resistance can be defined or referred to as a confrontation or a struggle. Resistance to change, for me, is one of the most common types of frustration among the Information Systems professional. Why is it so? Resistance to change has been considered as a common frustration for the reason that there are some people who do not want to adapt to change. A lot has already been said about change – that it is the only thing which is permanent, that it changes everything and that change itself is everything. Moreover, whether we like it or not, change happens rapidly. And for the record, most of the time people find themselves trying not to get left behind. The same thing happens in the world of Information Technology. Technology has come a very long way and it never stopped changing. From the very first computer man has ever built, up to the latest technologies man has never dreamed would ever be built. What is new today becomes obsolete in the next few months due to fast innovations and upgrades. Resistance to change comes when someone does not want to adapt to change. This change can be referred to the changes in the Information Technology components that they are currently using. Moreover, the end users might have resisted changing for the reason that they do not want to complicate things. The reason may be because the users are already used to the kind of technology or system that they are currently using in their company or business organization. Some people or employees will think that having a new system will only be a time waster since as users, it will only take time and effort for them to learn the new system or technology that is imposed in their company or business organization.

In addition, resistance to change may come in different ways. The Information Technology or Information and Communications Technology department in a certain company or business organization may be doing some project or an Information Systems Plan for the company or business organization. However, the management may not have supported the projects of the development team of The Information Technology or Information and Communications Technology department by not giving enough financial budget or support for the project. In our past interviews, we had an interview with the Dole’s MIS Programmer and the topic was about the barriers in implementing information systems or information technology which I think can also be thought of as common forms of frustrations among the information systems professionals. She described critical barriers that can somehow affect the information technology or information systems project implementation. These are inexperienced staff, lack of defined IS/IT implementation methodology, lack of IS/IT implementation awareness, lack of support, lack of resources, organizational politics, and time pressure.

To deal with these situation of resistance to change, first, the development I agree with what an MIS Programmer said about having the user considered before changing the system. If the user will be informed about the system change or system upgrade, they will be able to get a chance to say what kind of system they would like to use, they will be able to have a bird’s eye view and somehow be prepared or trained to use the new system. However, if the users will not be informed about the system change or upgrade, the users might have some difficulties in using the new system. They might think that they will train again for another type of system which they might not like or which seems not a comprehensible program. Moreover, they might think that they will undergo another training when they are already comfortable using the old one. A training policy for Information System or Information Technology must be established to meet the training needs. Responsibilities should be assigned to each staff member regarding IS/IT implementation activities (e.g., process design, process testing, and process deployment). A mechanism that will monitor the progress of each staff member, collect and analyze the feedback from each member and to extract the lessons learned should also be established by the organization. According top the Dole Philippines’ management information systems programmer, the involvement of the end user during the development or change of the information technology or information system is very important. For this reason, all the employees involved will have awareness about the matters and solutions.

Moreover, the implementation of information technology or information system is very expensive and is the process of adopting new practices, it is very important that the organization should give or conduct awareness activities for the stakeholders. Information technology or information system implementation is not as beneficial without sufficient awareness of its benefits which must also be promoted. The users and the staff should be able to know their duties and responsibilities within the time of the implementation or upgrading of the system. The staff must plan to organize and to make the information system a part of their organization. Other than that, they must be aware how much investment does the implementation or change of the system needs.

Another type of a barrier which I think can be thought of as a common form of frustration among Information System professionals is the Lack of Resources. The result of the company or organization’s lack of support for the implementation of the information technology or information system in the company is the lack of resources which in turn becomes a barrier for the implementation of such system. Without any investment by the company for such project, the implementation would be very impossible. Therefore, the management must have sufficient awareness with regards to the full details and benefits of information technology or information system from the planning of the project to the time frame and finally, to the cost of the implementation up to the time when the new system will be implemented in the company. The management should also provide or hire competent and knowledgeable or experienced staff in order for the company to get the best results and to enjoy the benefits of such system.

Proper planning must be done in order to provide all the required resources for the implementation of the information technology or information system. The company must be able to provide rules for the information technology or information system plan and that includes the time frame of the project. The information technology or information system plan must also be composed of experienced staff who will be working for the project. Moreover, they must make a thorough study about the information technology or information system project and the best ways on how it must be implemented to help improve the business operations of the company, to make the best out of end users and for them to be able to improve their performance for not only for their own but also for the company itself.

Another type of a barrier which I think can be thought of as a common form of frustration among Information System professionals is the Time Pressure. Time pressure happens when the people or the staff who are developing the information technology or information system implementation is having difficulty in finishing the project within the marked deadline due to the shortness of time. To address this barrier, the development staff should be committed in doing the project and should be given sufficient time to complete the information technology or information system implementation. In this way, time pressure may somehow be avoided and the project can be finished as planned.

Another type of a barrier which I think can be thought of as a common form of frustration among Information System professionals is the Organizational Politics. It affects the implementation of the information technology or information system in such a way and as what I had mentioned or discussed earlier is when other people within the company or that the company itself disagrees with the information technology or information system implementation for the reason that they might not have sufficient awareness or knowledge about such system and how important is such for the company. This disagreement also happens due to the difference of one group’s or individual’s perspective, belief, plans, capabilities and time pressures. Therefore, in order to make the information technology or information system and to make it a part of the company or organization’s culture a success, proper planning must be done and that includes trainings and seminars which tackles about the benefits, needs, purposes and the proper use of the system that are thoroughly organized or studied before the seminar or training will be handed over to the end users

In the world of information technology, there are a lot of things that can become a cause of frustrations among the information technology or information systems professional. Another common form of frustration among the information technology or information systems professionals is change itself. Again, change is constant. It never stops on changing - changing people, changing economy, changing everything that you could ever imagine. Change can be good, for others, change can be bad. Some like it and some fear it. Yet, no matter how we see change, we still have a choice, either to accept and adapt to change, or to resist and remain unchanged. Change will always be there. For those who fear it, change will always haunt them. For those who like it, change will always be their sign of opportunity. Change, it is the only thing which is permanent, that it changes everything and that change itself is everything. Moreover, whether we like it or not, change happens rapidly. And for the record, most of the time people find themselves trying not to get left behind. The same thing happens in the world of Information Technology. Technology has come a very long way and it never stopped changing. From the very first computer man has ever built, up to the latest technologies man has never dreamed would ever be built. What is new today becomes obsolete in the next few months due to fast innovations and upgrades. In the part of the information technology or information systems professionals, it is a must for them to develop an information technology or information systems plan that is, as mush as possible, flexible for a number of years.


References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plan
http://www.brainyquote.com/words/pl/plan203536.html
http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O11-informationsystem.html
http://dssresources.com/dsstypes/cdss.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transaction_processing_system
http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/transaction-processing-systems.htm
http://www.bookrags.com/research/office-automation-systems-csci-01/

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athina alorro

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Apr 11, 2010 9:34 pm

Last semester, my group was tasked to make an Information System Needs Assessment (ISNA) for a certain company as part of our requirement for the subject MIS 1. We assessed our adopted company’s current information system by conducting SWOT and STEEP analysis and provided some recommendation for their needs based on our assessment. From that experience, I concluded that establishing an information system plan is a very tedious and crucial job. It is tedious because the IS professional in-charge have to take a lot of things into considerations before making any changes in the information system infrastructure of that organization. It is a crucial job because the information system implementation would normally involve certain vital resources such as money and properties that are critical resources and should be allocated well. Basically, I can say that the information system of a company will serve as a vital investment. Just like any investment, there is always a possibility of failure especially if not planned well which will cause the organization to waste important resources and would normally mean lose financial resources. Because of this, it is expected that most IS professionals usually develop some frustrations from developing an information system plan because of the problems that they encounter.

Based on our previous discussions concerning the importance of Planning, I already learned that planning is a very crucial part of developing any kind of system. Planning is also an important part in the business process because it will describe the organization’s direction and the steps that the organization would take in order to get there. Just as what I discussed on my previous entries in my blog, an information system plan (ISP) is basically a plan concentrated on aligning the information systems of an organization to its business plan as a whole. An information system is comprised of the hardware, software and peopleware of an organization. Usually, the term information system is related to using technology as a crucial part of an organization. The term is also used to identify the computer-based system that an organization is using. In addition, an IS plan is just a part of the overall business plan of an organization. The IS plan of the organization must align with the business plan and must conform to the overall vision of an organization.

Since I’m still a student and my experience in developing an IS plan is still rudimentary, an expert opinion would help in the enlightenment of this topic. An information system professional is someone who is considered an expert and should have the experience in developing an information system plan for an organization that range from simple to complicated systems. Together with my classmates, we interviewed the MIS supervisor of Samulco for this assignment.

Based on the interview that we had with the MIS supervisor of Samulco, he identified the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professional like him and the end users while working on an IS plan.
In terms of Information System planning, there are some common problems that IS professionals encounter while working on an IS plan. Based on our interview with the MIS supervisor of Samulco last Monday (December 7) , he identified two of the most frequently experienced causes of frustrations of IS professionals like him. The first cause of frustration in IS planning that he mentioned is Budget Constraint. He said because of budget constraint, many problems arise from that problem alone. Because of budget constraint he said, there would be lack of manpower and lack of support. He cited a scenario where if the company wants a specific kind of system, but they don’t want to buy the necessary hardware for the job. This kind of problem would normally become a source of frustration of the Information System Planner. The IS planner should find a way to get what the client wants but in lesser price which in reality is a very frustrating thing to do. Another scenario that he cited is if you as a supervisor need at least three programmers but the company could only provide you with two because of budget constraint again, then that could also be a problem because it would be very hard to finish the necessary project in the allotted time if there is less manpower available for the job.

For most businesses, the requirements on the computing side at least should include:

* Hardware; the actual computers and servers.
* Software; programs and operating systems.
* Phone lines.
* Internet systems.
* Computing consumables and peripherals.
*Information Technology Support.
* Computer training, if needed, for staff.


The amount of technological requirements needed by a business will again depend on the size and type of business. This is by no means an extensive list and all companies will be different, but this does represent at least the basic technology requirements. The budget may increase or decrease depending on the sophistication of the equipment and the software needed.

Another issue that concerns budgetary factor is the decision whether to lease or buy technology. In the long run it may seem like buying is the less expensive option, but leasing is usually the cheaper option when repairs and upgrading technology are factored in. Most small businesses should take the leasing option in order to save on the capital outlay that comes with buying, and upgrading new technology.

Marc Berthiaume cited some important considerations that a company should put in mind when planning for an IT budget.
According to Berthiaume’s article, the following are some step-by-step guidelines to follow when planning your IT budget:

1. Calculate your technology costs from the previous year. Unless you are planning major changes in your IT strategy, this will give you a range to work with.

2. Most companies plan for moderate growth. These companies should set up a category for IT maintenance/support and one for new technology expenditures. (Companies should first calculate maintenance/support of existing equipment, since this number will remain approximately the same as the previous year.)

3. If you plan to purchase new systems or services, you should calculate the cost of the technology and then budget for installation and maintenance_ Depending on complexity, you also may want to budget for testing and downtime. Get estimates and make sure to pad this cost in case things take longer to install than originally expected.

4. Once you've calculated standard IT purchases and maintenance costs for the year, create a separate budget line for technology development--this is for longer-term IT planning, including new IT projects or major system upgrades.

5. Err on the conservative side and consider the possibility of leasing and outsourcing when faced with costly technology expenditures.

From those tips that I have cited from authors above, I can say that budgeting itself for an Information system (which already includes IT) is such a tedious task. Aside from the tips mentioned by article writers above, the IS planner could also develop his or her own standards on planning for the Information system based on the budget that he or she is given.

In my opinion, I do believe that budget constraint can be a real source of frustration from the IS planner’s part while working on an IS plan. The “budget” in a plan is the main means of resource to keep the system going. Without the necessary budget, it would be hard if not impossible to make the necessary activities/steps or improvements to implement the planning process as well as the implementation of the plan itself. If the necessary budget is not supplied, then it is expected that the project would require a longer time to be implemented or the output of the project itself would be not satisfying or worse would turn out to be a failure. As I mentioned above, one of the after effect of having a budget constraint is lack of manpower. From this problem alone, another problem can arise which is the extension of deadline. This problem usually arises because of the lack of manpower that would support the whole information system plan. The limited number of manpower will require a lot more time to finish a certain project compared to having more manpower to work on a certain project. If there is an extension of the deadline, another set of budget is now required to suffice the resources needed in finishing the project thus making the development of a project more costly than what was previously planned. This problem is one of the possibilities that an information system planner usually encounter that came from the budget constraint. The MIS supervisor also mentioned that budget constraint can also produce lack of support. The way I understand it, the lack of support that he means is the lack of support for the product by the top management because of the higher cost of purchasing the necessary requirements for an information system. This kind of problem could frustrate the IS planner because he or she will be restricted on the kind of information system that he wants to implement for the company.

Budget constraint is considered a frustration because of the fact that IS planners can’t do anything to make the budget bigger than what an organization can offer. It is a top management decision on how much is allocated on putting up an information system plan for their company. All the information system planner can do is make the most of what he is given and make the best plan out of the budget that was allocated for a project despite the constraint. Making a realistic technology budget will involve time and research. A long term technology budget is essential for the smooth running of any kind of business that gives importance and emphasis to technology.
The second cause of frustration among IS Planners would be the user’s resistance to a new system. He said that when you develop a system, then when it comes to the actual implementation, the end users tend to resist in using the system that you created. When we asked him, how do they solve or manage the user resistance of their system, he said that they don’t do anything at all. He said that you cannot really force someone to like your system. He said that if the user fervently denies using your system, then you could do nothing unless some big guy from the upper level would force them to use the system that you created. He also agreed when one of my co-interviewer told him (based from one of our discussions on Software Engineering), that user resistance is considered a failure of project. He added that you committed the mistake during the analysis phase when you didn’t anticipate what the end users’ reaction would be. This could happen if you didn’t planned/analyze thoroughly what the users really need and wanted the system to be. Obviously, when it comes to the user’s point of view, this could be also a source of frustration when the users are not inclined or comfortable on using the new system that the developers created.

According to the research paper made by Shari Shang and Tim Su entitled “Managing User Resistance in Enterprise Systems Implementation”, user resistance indicates a gap between change initiators and employees who try to maintain their status quo with undesirable behaviors toward change (Coch and French, 1948; Davison, 1994). Such undesirable behaviors of workers are a response to management-imposed changes in job and work methods (Piderit, 2000). Many researchers (Ginzberg, 1975; Jiang, 2000, Joshi, 1991; Keen, 1981; Kotter and Schlesinger, 1979; Markus, 1983) have identified reasons for user resistance. These reasons include loss of power, increased work, low tolerance, lack of trust and so forth. Similar circumstances can also be found with wide-scoped ES implementation. Many strategies have been suggested to manage user resistance; these strategies range from user participation, job redefinition, to some forceful actions. However, the most common mistake managers can make would be to follow only one approach or a limited set of strategies regardless of the situation.

Among the reasons for resistance that have been observed in various enterprise systems cases in the said study is the parochial self-interest which is the resistance to change to prevent losing something of value. Its contents include losing power and status; reduced scope for advancement or job security and loss of autonomy and control or specific skills. Another reason is misunderstanding and lack of trust or the misconceptions about the implications and insufficient information of the benefit and gains. Examples of this are misunderstanding the implementation of change and insufficient knowledge in using the new systems. Another reason for user resistance would be the different assessment where employees see more cost that benefits and those initiating the change see the reverse as true. Examples of this reason are disagreeing that the benefits will come with new system; and systems cannot provide real experience for decision making. Low tolerance for change is also considered to be one of the reasons for user resistance. Low tolerance for change is the fear of not sufficiently developing the skills and behavior required. Some of the practical examples of this are fear of losing certain aspects of current situation; role conflict and ambiguity within the organization; relationship alteration and bringing higher skill levels to the job. Another significant reason for user resistance is increased efforts or additional efforts or abilities are needed for the job. It includes more effort in performing tasks in view of increased monitoring and need to spend more time for work.

Indeed, the user’s resistance to a proposed information system can be a real headache for the IS planner. Trying to make people like or at least agree to change from what they’re already used to can be a real challenge for the IS planners. I also agree that user resistance can be a source of frustration for IS planners because of the fact that it is the users who will generally use the information system being planned. If the end users will not use the information system being implemented, then it would really cause the company to waste a significant amount of resources. The first instinct that an IS planner is to try to make the users appreciate the information system by letting them know how the IS plan could significantly help them and the company in the long run. If they’re still unconvinced to use the system, then this is the time to put it to the top management’s hand and let them handle those users who oppose with your plan. Of course this would be different if the ones using AND opposing the information system plan is the top management itself. If that is the case, then this is the time for the IS planner to rethink of a better strategy to convince them or go to the last resort which is to change the whole IS plan according to the top management’s preference. This could be frustrating especially when the IS planner thinks that the IS plan that he formulated is for the company’s best interest but unfortunately, the top management thinks otherwise.

During one of our Software Engineering discussions, our professor told us that she experienced having problems with communicating with the other key personnel for the system development. She said that when you are developing a certain system, (especially when it is a big or mission critical system projects like train route system which involves a very big budget with higher risks) developers needs to have a meeting with all the key person for the project. Most of the time, these key person came from different fields of expertise. They could be different kinds of engineers like CE, ECE , SE, or even EE. They could also be physicist, chemist, accountants, business managers and a lot more. Because of different expertise, problems with communication arise. The electrical engineer will have a different language compared to IT professional therefore having the problem with understanding the requirements needed for developing the project. She mentioned that you generally common ground and meet half way to successfully develop a system.

From that SE discussion, I can say that miscommunication can also be a source of frustration when developing an IS plan. This kind of frustration usually happens when the type of language that the IS planner is using to relay about the IS plan does not make sense to the management or end users. This could be a problem when the management does not appreciate the level of technicality when dealing with the IS plan. This could be a source of frustration on the side of the IS planners because he should make the extra effort to make the non-technical people to understand the technical terms which is usually learned from years in college.

When I asked the MIS supervisor of Samulco if he ever experienced having problems concerning miscommunication with the other key person in the development of the system the he created, he answered that so far in his stay in Samulco he didn’t experienced these kind of problems but he did experience it while working with one of the big companies where he worked before. I asked him on how he solved that problem, he said that he didn’t. He added that generally (according to him) Filipinos don’t argue so much specially with IT people. He said that usually when an IT person said that ‘This is the best thing that we should do for the system’ the other person would usually agree with him.

In conclusion, developing an IS plan can be a critical job for most companies and can produce possible source of frustrations on the IS planner’s part. These frustrations can be different from IS planner to another but they all provide a venue for the IS planner to think of ways to mitigate them. It is important to take note of important source of frustrations from planning an information system and develop a plan first in order to avoid them or lessen their impact on the actual planning and implementation itself. I may not be an IS planner now but from what I learned from the interviews and researches that I conducted I can generally say that the key move here is to think ahead, consider even the smallest details and consider the end users of the information system a significant part of the plan itself.

References:
Shang,S. and Su,T.(2004).Managing User Resistance in Enterprise Systems Implementation.
Berthiaume, M. (March 13, 2009). Planning an IT budget: important considerations. New Hampshire Business Review. Date Retrieved: March 04, 2010.

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Anthony Rigor Aguilar

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PostSubject: Assignment 3   Thu May 20, 2010 9:02 am

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and Users while working on an IS plan?

Life is full of frustrations. From the minor irritations of losing something to the major problem of continued failure towards a desired goal. Since many of the things we truly want require a degree of frustration, being able to manage frustration is required in order to allow us to remain happy and positive even in trying circumstances.


What is a frustration?
According to www.psychologistanywhereanytime.com: Frustration is an emotion that occurs in situations where a person is blocked from reaching a desired outcome. In general, whenever we reach one of our goals, we feel pleased and whenever we are prevented from reaching our goals, we may succumb to frustration and feel irritable, annoyed and angry. Typically, the more important the goal, the greater the frustration and resultant anger or loss of confidence.
Frustration is not necessarily bad since it can be a useful indicator of the problems in a person's life and, as a result, it can act as a motivator to change. However, when it results in anger, irritability, stress, resentment, depression, or a spiral downward where we have a feeling of resignation or giving up, frustration can be destructive. Frustration is experienced whenever the results (goals) you are expecting do not seem to fit the effort and action you are applying. Frustration will occur whenever your actions are producing less and fewer results than you think they should. The frustration we experience can be seen as the result of two types of goal blockage, i.e. internal and external sources of frustration. Internal sources of frustration usually involve the disappointment that get when we cannot have what we want as a result of personal real or imagined deficiencies such as a lack of confidence or fear of social situations. Another type of internal frustration results when a person has competing goals that interfere with one another.
The second type of frustration results from external causes that involve conditions outside the person such as physical roadblocks we encounter in life including other people and things that get in the way of our goals. One of the biggest sources of frustration in today's world is the frustration caused by the perception of wasting time. When you're standing in line at a bank, or in traffic, or on the phone, watching your day go by when you have got so much to do, that's one big frustration.
External frustration may be unavoidable. We can try to do something about it, like finding a different route if we are stuck in traffic, or choosing a different restaurant if our first choice is closed, but sometimes there is just nothing we can do about it. It is just the way life is. Our goal in dealing with external sources of frustration is to recognize the wisdom of the the Serenity Prayer..."God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change; courage to change the things I can; and wisdom to know the difference."
One can learn that while the situation itself may be upsetting and frustrating, you do not have to be frustrated. Accepting life is one of the secrets of avoiding frustration.
What is Information Systems Plan? Its is a process for developing a strategy and plans for aligning information systems with the business strategies of an organization.
In our interview with EMCOR, the IT manager indentifies the common frustrations in information systems plan are the arising barriers such as lack of support from the organizational heads involved, lack of time, and resistance from the employees which result to lack of user involvement (the employees) to the ongoing process of information assessment and planning. Sometimes the absence of the required or the desired technology on the site of location of the organization may also contribute to the frustrations to the IT professionals and users who are working on the IS plan. Information systems risk can add to the frustrations while planning.
According to this article: http://www.stevenalter.com/StevenAlter.com/.../20IS.pdf
The goal of describing risk components is to help organize risks through categories that cluster things that could go wrong. However, Figure 1 illustrates that typical risk components mentioned in the IS literature overlap substantially and therefore are not independent, as seems to be implied by the term ‘component’. For example, technical risk in a project is part of the overall project risk and contributes directly to both functionality risk and financial risk. Moreover, different articles focus on different clusters of risk components so that the risk manager is uncertain of whether any particular list is complete. Studies that focus on risk factors often list sets of risk factors without organizing them to increase their usefulness for risk managers. (But some do organize risk factors. For example, Lyytinen [1996] and Lyytinen [1998] categorize risks according to task, structure, actors, technology and interdependencies. Higuera [1996] classifies software risks by class, element, and attribute.) Risk factors may apply at many different levels. Without reading the articles listed in Table 3, it is not obvious whether many of these are risk factors for information systems in operation, for projects, or for special types of systems or projects. As is illustrated in Figure 2, many of the risk factors that apply to information systems in operation also apply to projects and also apply to any work system, regardless of whether IT is involved. For example, risk factors for any work system include lack of management support, lack of required knowledge and skill, and lack of required resources. These risk factors also apply to projects, but projects have some additional risk factors that do not apply to work systems in general, such as inadequate project schedule and inadequate clarity about project requirements. Furthermore, throughout the analysis of IS-related risks, many situations involve neither the risk factors nor the negative outcomes that are uniquely associated with information systems. Focusing solely on IS risk ignores the fact that information systems are just one component of a
manager’s business environment and that many operational risks are due to the environment in which a system is operating rather than the system itself. For example, security failures are often more related to lax security policies and lax enforcement than to technical capabilities. Limiting the discussion to information systems risk can create a “responsibility gap” in an organization if IS managers are responsible for managing IS risk, and business managers, who should be identifying, assessing, and developing strategies for overall business risk, are left in the dark.
Ideally, risk factors should help managers develop risk management strategies. But there has been little effort to organize risk factors in a manner that is meaningful for managers and that accounts for the existence of risk factors at different levels. We believe that the work system framework, which is based upon a business management model, is an effective tool not only for organizing risks associated with IS, but also as a medium for communication between IS and business managers.

USING THE WORK SYSTEM FRAMEWORK TO ORGANIZE RISK FACTORS
A work system is a system in which human participants and/or machines perform work using information, echnologies, and other resources to produce products and/or services for internal or external customers. Figure 3 is a graphical representation of the work system framework [Alter 2002; 2003], which identifies nine elements needed for even a superficial understanding of a work system. The arrows between various elements reflect the importance of mutual alignment among the elements. The work system framework represents a system in a language that is understandable by business managers, and it can be used to organize the many risk factors in the IS literature.
Table 5 demonstrates that the work system framework could serve as a framework for organizing risk factors by associating each of 30 common risk factors with a specific element of a work system Because information systems and projects are special cases of work systems [Alter, 2002; 2003], the risk factors that apply to work systems in general should also apply to information systems and projects as well. For example, a poorly designed business process (the first risk factor for work practices) increases the probability of negative outcomes regardless of whether the focus is a sales information system in operation or the development or implementation phase of an ERP project. The same can be said for the risk factors “inadequate managers and leaders” and “lack of management support and attention”.


The advantages of using the work system framework and the work system life cycle model include:

• Moving toward comprehensive risk assessment
• Organizing risk factors using the work system framework
• Using inheritance to make risk factors more accessible
• Using the work system life cycle to make risk factors more accessible in different stages
• Addressing the “responsibility gap” between IS and business managers.

Moving toward comprehensive risk assessment. As explained in our companion article [Alter and Sherer, 2004], we elieve that using work systems as a central concept overcomes some of the limitations of previous IS risk models that are limited to specific aspects of the development process (e.g. software engineering) or system operation (e.g. coordination mechanisms).

1. A work system approach provides a common denominator supporting risk assessment for information systems in operation and for projects and for special cases of each.

2. Especially as information systems are increasingly integrated with and difficult to separate from the work systems they support, it focuses attention on the main goal of risk management: achieving desired results from a work system.

3. Some of the outcomes may be internal to the specific work system being analyzed, whereas other outcomes may involve other work systems that may be information systems or projects.
4. The inclusion of the environment as one of nine work system elements makes it more likely that the surrounding environment will be considered when identifying potential negative outcomes.

Organizing risk factors using the work system framework: We identified 228 risk factors in our literature search and showed that each risk factor could be associated with one of the nine elements of a work system. We also showed that over half of the risk factors seemed valid as risk factors for work systems in general even though the original research identified them as risk factors for particular types of information systems or projects. We argued, without proof, that organizing risk factors around work system elements could make them more accessible and usable by managers. It would be of interest to test that assumption by developing a risk management tool or method that helped managers find and apply the relevant risk factors in a highly expeditious way instead of assuming they should know the risk factors intuitively or should be willing to read the IS risk literature or thumb through disorganized lists of risk factors to find those that truly apply to their situation.

Using inheritance to make risk and risk factors more accessible: The relationship between risk factors for work systems in general and risk factors for special cases such as projects and IS in operation can become the basis of a hierarchical method for classifying and using risk factors. This would provide economy in codifying and using risk factors. Organized by work system element, the hierarchy would start with risk factors for work systems in general and would identify additional risk factors for projects and information systems. The next level in the hierarchy would identify additional risk factors for special cases of projects and special cases of information systems. The organization via work system elements and the hierarchy should make risk factors more readily accessible and usable. A possible next step would be to use the hierarchy of risk factors to develop risk diagnostics and tools for improving risk management. Use of the diagnostics in any particular situation would combine relevant risks and risk factors for work systems in general plus additional risks and risk factors associated with the specific type of situation that is being managed. In developing practical risk diagnostics it would be important to verify that those diagnostics fit comfortably into risk management processes that are practical for the types of managers in the relevant situations. It would be of interest to test this assumption by creating and testing tools that use the idea of hierarchy to select and display the risk factors that are appropriate in particular situations.

Using the work system life cycle model to make risk factors more accessible: Appendix II shows that the work system life cycle model can be combined with the work system framework to categorize risks and risk factors with greater granularity. Risk factors for work systems in general apply to each phase of the work system life cycle because each phase can be viewed as a separate work system on its own right. On the other hand, some risks factors that apply in a development phase (e.g., risk factors related to the effect of programming techniques on ease of
Debugging) do not apply in implementation phases. Similarly, risk factors specifically about implementation phases do not apply directly to the other phases. The extensive listing of risks in 36 categories (nine work system elements within each of four phases) demonstrates the potential of organizing risks and risk factors in substantial detail using a model that managers can understand readily. As with the association of risk factors with work system elements and the use of hierarchy (above), future efforts should clarify how the organization of risk and risk factors around system life cycle phases could help in providing risk managers with the most relevant information in the most useful form.
Addressing the “responsibility gap” between IS and business managers. Finally, the classification of risks and risks factors could help in addressing the common “responsibility gap” between IT professionals who often justify IT projects and the business managers who are responsible for specific action steps to ensure that benefits in the organization are realized [Sheerer et al, 2002]. This article’s extensive use of work system concepts was motivated in part by the need to improve communication between business and IT professionals by using ideas and methods that are comfortable for business professionals. Many, perhaps most, risks related to systems in organizations are business risks. It is the ultimate responsibility of business professionals, not IT professionals, to insure that information systems support the business effectively. The acronyms and vocabulary of IT professionals are often confusing and sometimes impenetrable to business professionals responsible for managing organizational risks. Regardless of how clear and logical, vocabulary and methods for helping IT professionals manage software development risks in complex projects probably are not the key to better communication and understanding for business professionals. Better ways of describing risk and relating it to everyday business projects and operations could help substantially. The work system approach presented here focuses on business risks and uses vocabulary that is recognizable and understandable to business professionals. Enabling business and IT to speak the same language supports enhanced communication that is necessary for collaboration between IT and business professionals attempting to reduce IS-related business risks. Effective use of a risk model and careful organization of risk factors should help clarify responsibilities, thereby reducing responsibility gaps that exist in many situations.
Other frustrations of I.S. professionals and Users while working on an IS plan are failures: According to this document from http://www.idii.com/wp/Tse5reasonswhyprojectsfail.pdf:
The number one reason that most projects fail: Lack of Leadership.
It is difficult to believe that an organization can commit thousands and even hundreds of thousands of dollars to a project and then fail to lead that project to success. Yet, as I look at the reasons projects fail or succeed, leadership is the one common denominator. What is leadership? Professor Warren Blank provides a powerful metaphor: “Leadership and physics share a common focus. Physics explains the energy, matter, and motion that define how the universe works. In the same way, leadership is the power that galvanizes human energy and translates it into action. So the exercise of leadership can be viewed as the practice of human physics.”2 The leader is responsible for the vision of the future and inspiring a shared vision with all the people that are affected by the project. This is not easy but is critical to the success of the project. It does not necessarily have to come from the CEO but if the CEO does not share the vision, the project will fail. Last summer I was involved in a project to implement new project management software. The CEO’s vision was that this software would improve customer service by giving clients visibility into the status of a project at any time through the web. It would also provide him with a means to see how his company was doing on all projects at any time.

In fact, it included a digital dashboard that displayed the status on a daily basis in bold color. He could look on his computer and see projects that were on time designated with green lights, those that had failed to deliver a task on time were in red, and those that were close to a deadline were in yellow. Unfortunately, his engineering manager did not share his vision. In my opinion, the engineering manager did not want the CEO to see the status reports because he would no longer be able to cover his butt. They were definitely not on the same team; the project was doomed to failure and ultimately did fail to get implemented. Professor Blank goes on to say the following:

“Natural Law 1: A Leader Has Willing Followers No leader exists without gaining the support of others. Typically all glory and grandeur goes to the leader, and being a follower is usually thought of as a second-class or lower-status role. The first natural law of leadership changes our view of followers because it recognizes the collegial, partnering role they play.
Followers are allies who represent the necessary opposite side of the leadership coin. “3

My experience over the years has convinced me that for a project to succeed all parties impacted need to be a part of the project team or represented by someone on the team. And yes, this especially includes the end users! If an individual does not share the vision and is not in a partnering role, they will invariably find a way to sabotage the project.
The leader must align the team and insure that all members are on the same page and committed to the project’s success. The leader must take care of the politics and the team dynamics. George Eckes, the primary consultant for General Electric in their Six Sigma Quality initiative agrees: “Concern 4—Ignoring Team Dynamics as a Root Cause of Project Failures By far the greatest source of team failures is poor team dynamics and poor facilitative leadership behaviors. Approximately 60 percent of teams that fail have these as their major reasons. I am reminded of an old adage spoken by some of my organizational friends. "The hard stuff is the easy stuff; the easy stuff is the hard stuff." The most common problem areas we have encountered are:

• Meeting skills.
• Setting agendas.
• Determining the meeting's roles and responsibilities.
• Setting and keeping ground rules.
• Facilitative behaviors.”4

The second reason that projects fail: Lack of Clarity.
This is related to the first reason in that leadership is about providing a clear, compelling reason why a particular project or initiative should happen. And, as you will see, all of the reasons that projects fail are related. However, clarity stands n its own because projects fail to deliver the results when the results have never been specified. “In fact, it is in step 2 that many projects go wrong. I often say that projects don't fail at the end, they fail at the beginning—right here in step 2. The reason is that we take for granted that we all understand the problem perfectly, when this is not the case at all.”5 About five years ago I met with an electronics wholesale distributor that wanted to implement a bar code system. The project team had representation from the warehouse, shipping, receiving, accounting, information services (IS), an outside consultant that was an expert in their enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, and the vice president of operations, the team leader. Every group that was impacted was to be represented at all of the meetings. A conceptual design was developed that integrated bar codes with the ERP system. The system worked in such a way that when product was received it was bar coded and entered into the ERP inventory system, and when it was shipped out it was scanned and taken out of inventory. After the design was approved, a detailed functional specification was written and signed off by all team members. The system was designed and went into production; the system was tested, accepted, and the users were trained. The project came in on time and on budget. Everything seemed perfect. However, soon after implementation, the president of the company called me and asked me to meet with her. She was very upset. The bar code system was not fulfilling her expectations, and not working as she had envisioned. As such, she felt it was, “a complete waste of money”. What went wrong? The problems were many. First, she had not been present at any team meetings. As such, her vision for the goal of the technology was not communicated and the software was not programmed to do what she wanted it to do. A survey conducted by Compass for the London School of Economics reports the following:

“CEO’s felt that only 33% of their IT spending resulted in an improvement
to the bottom line.”6

“The purpose of systems is to produce added value, system functions, that none of elements alone, could produce. Indeed, the reason that systems are built at all is to achieve those results. As examples, the principal system function of an automobile is transportation; the principal system function of the human body is life. Now, although each of the elements (heart, lungs, brain and so on) has its value, none of them produce the system function and, in many cases, none of them can operate by itself. Each must be interconnected to others in order to function at all. The added value of a system, therefore, is not only in providing system functions but in also providing the infrastructure necessary for its elements to operate.”7

The third reason that projects fail: Little or no due Diligence is performed.
Sometimes we need to have a project implemented yesterday, yet we don’t have the time or resources to first do our homework. While it is certainly possible to “fast track” a project, many projects fail because somebody did not do the research necessary to make proper decisions. A few months ago I received a telephone call from an operations manager of a fulfillment company that needed a system within 30 days in order to secure new client business. He informed me of his plan to implement a software package that would produce a compliant bar code label for each package that was to be shipped. I asked him why he had chosen that particular software package and he said that it was certified and was recommended by one of his current vendors. As I asked him additional questions, I discovered that he was going to fulfill 50,000 packages at a time, in a batch. I suggested that the certified package that he was considering was designed to process packages one at a time and inquired if that was the process he really wanted. After our conversation he realized that it would have cost him a fortune in labor to go with that certified package and that a system that could produce mass quantities of labels at one time would be a much better solution. He was fortunate that we spoke because I am certain that if he had gone the other way his project would have failed. In every project there is the risk of failure. The best way to reduce risk is to do the research and discover as much as possible about the project up front. Many times we do not have the neither time nor expertise and need to consult with an expert, or a consultant that we trust. An outside, third-party observer that can add value by providing information that we don’t even know that we don’t know about a particular project. The Johari Window8, named after its creators Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, depicts aspects of a relationship that I equate to risk in an easy to understand graphic (see table 1.) Imagine a window with four panes. You are the customer and I am the expert.

1. The OPEN pane of the window are the things about the project that I know about and that you know about. Particulars such as, specific results, resources, and the budget. These are the things that are openly revealed. This corresponds to the win-win situation in game theory, because the more knowledge we have in common, the greater the chances are of a successful project/end result.
2. The BLIND pane of the window is where much of the risk is. You don’t know what you don’t know, but I know factors that could have an impact because of my experience, competence, research, and/or time that I have dedicated to the project. The advantage of utilizing an expert is that it reduces the risk of the project failing. As you gain wisdom due to my knowledge your BLIND quadrant shrinks. By the way, this is also the reason to have a project team that includes everyone potentially impacted by the implementation of the project. An end user may see something that no other person has seen or even considered. A team, with representatives from the varying disciplines, can also reduce blind spots.
3. The HIDDEN pane of the window is considerations that you, the project owner, keep to yourself. These might include your fears about whether the project will succeed your relationship with your boss, your insecurity about your competence; the conversations you may consider private. You know these things and I don’t. As we get to know and trust each other, you will then feel more comfortable disclosing more intimate details about yourself. This process is called: "Self-disclosure."
4. The "unknown" quadrant represents things that neither I know, nor you know. For example, you were working with a project team and one of the members disclosed that they knew how to place a 2 dimensional bar code on a sheet of paper with their laser printer. You didn’t know that they knew how to do this because you did not know and they did not know that it was useful or important. This enabled us to design the project in a way that neither of us imagined. As we both attempted to understand its significance, a new awareness emerged, known to neither of us before the conversation took place. This is where speculation in a spirit of openness with an intention of resolution can often reveal new possibilities, not previously known to self or others.

The fourth reason projects fail: Lack of Accountability.
Most vendors, consultants, or project managers will promise to produce a system that fulfills a functional specification - but not a specific business result. So this relates to the second reason, clarity. By accountability, I mean that there is a promise to produce the results. In other words, the project is complete when the results are visible, which means that they also have to be measurable.

Finally, the fifth reason that projects fail: Lack of a Proven Process.
In our fast food, instant answer society, we tend to skip processes. We want the answers now and we are not always patient.
Responses: Some of the "typical" responses to frustration, adapted from the ways to deal with frustration website, include anger, quitting (burn out or giving up), loss of self-esteem and self-confidence, stress and depression.
ANGER: Most of us have heard the saying, "Frustration begets anger and anger begets aggression." Direct anger and aggression is expressed toward the object perceived as the cause of the frustration. If a machine does not work, you might hit it or kick it. If someone gets in your way, you could verbally threaten them or push them aside. If the source of the frustration is too powerful or threatening for direct aggression, displaced aggression is often used. The aggression is redirected toward a less threatening and more available object.
An angry person often acts without thinking. The person has given in to the frustration and they have given up restraint. Anger can be a healthy response if it motivates us to positive action but all too often the actions we engage in when angry are destructive. Indeed, if we could see a videotape of ourselves getting angry, the humiliation might well help cure us of anger. When you feel frustration building, you have to practice learned responses that lead to healthy actions instead of destructive ones.
GIVING UP: Giving up on a goal can be productive if the goal is truly out of reach. However, more often giving up (quitting or being apathetic) is another form of giving in to frustration. When repeatedly frustrated, people can drop out of school, quit jobs, or move away. Apathy is giving up all of your goals, so you cannot be frustrated by trying to reach them.
We live in difficult time and we have to be persistent in order to accomplish. Consider how many projects you began, and then gave up, because you became frustrated and lost patience. Make a list of things you started and quit because they seemed too difficult. Now calculate the disappointment and loss you suffered by not dealing with the frustration in a more healthy way. Try to remember that quitters never win, and winners never quit. Losing your temper means you're a quitter.
LOSS OF CONFIDENCE: Loss of confidence is a terrible frequent side effect of giving up and not fulfilling your goal. A loss of self-confidence and self-esteem means that If we quit once, then the next time we plan a goal, we may not be able to accurately assess our ability to carry it out and we stop trusting ourselves and our own abilities. This became a self-fulfilling and self-destructive attitude. You need to be able to learn that when the going gets tough, you say to yourself "It is worth it!" and by following through, it not only gets the job done, but it builds self-confidence.
STRESS: Stress is the "wear and tear" our body and mind experiences as we adjust to the frustrations our continually changing environment. Too frequently, extreme or prolonged frustration and stress strains us and generates distress signals. Our body experiences distress signals in a variety of ways, often in the form of: irritability, anger, fatigue, anxiety, headaches, depression, stomachaches, hypertension, migraines, ulcers, heart attacks, or colitis.
DEPRESSION: Depression can affect almost every aspect of your life. It affects people of all ages, income, race, and cultures. Depression can affect the way you eat and sleep, the way you feel about yourself, the way one think about things, and the way you interact with others. While we all feel depression at various appropriate times in our lives, excess or inappropriate depression cannot be easily dismissed or wished away.
OTHER REACTIONS: Abuse of drugs or alcohol is self-destructive and usually futile attempt at dealing with frustration, as are many eating and weight problems and addictive behaviors. Whenever the immediate effects of the addictive behavior wear off, users find themselves back in the same, or even worse, frustrating situation.
Learning To Deal With Frustration
It is unrealistic to believe you can rid yourself of frustration forever, but you can learn to do things to minimize your frustrations and to make sure you do not engage in unhealthy responses to frustration.
You will need to learn to distinguish between what you hope will happen, what will probably happen, and what actually happened. Life inevitably has its ups and downs -- its moments of relaxation and times of tension. When you learn to truly accept this reality, you come one step closer to being able to deal with frustration in a healthy way.
There are several types of problems that we encounter in everyday living: those which you know can be solved, those which you are not sure if they can be solved or not, those you know are totally out of your control, and those you are so confused about that you do not even know what the problem is. You need to be able to accurately assess your abilities to alter situations that prevent you from solving your problems and reaching your goal. Then you will be able to assess which of the types of problems you have encountered, and you will then be able to develop a realistic plan.
Learning to take things in stride will also help you to be more content and happy which, in turn, will help you to more easily overcome anger and frustration. If you are upset, sad, anxious, or depressed you will have less patience and tolerance for everything and everybody.
Treatment: Frustration and anger are fundamental emotions that everyone experiences from time to time. From a very early age, people learn to express frustration by copying the behavior they see modeled around them, and by expressing frustration and angry behavior and seeing what they can get away with.
We all suffer from frustration, and being able to effectively deal with frustration is a very important skill to develop. Each person needs to learn how to control frustration, so that it does not control them. The following is a brief overview of types of frustration management programs and resources that have proved helpful in understanding and controlling frustration and anger.
Individual and Group Therapy for Anger Management
For some people, the easiest way to change the way they handle chronic feelings of frustration is to work with a psychologist or other licensed mental health professional in an individual or group therapy setting. A therapist, who can observe and analyze your behavior from an impartial perspective, can help you with your reality testing. An therapist knows many effective frustration and anger management strategies and will be able to help you develop a personalized set of strategies for changing both your thinking and behavior. Depending on your needs, your therapist may work with you on breathing or meditation exercises to reduce frustration, safe and appropriate emotional and physical techniques to release frustration, communication skills, or cognitive restructuring (a method for disputing and changing the way you think).
Relaxation and exercise: Simple relaxation tools such as deep breathing and relaxing imagery can help calm down feelings of frustration and anger. Breathing deeply, from your diaphragm, will help while breathing from your chest won't relax you. While breathing, you can slowly repeat a calm word or phrase such as "relax," "calm down" or "take it easy." Non-strenuous exercise, like yoga, can relax your muscles and make you feel much calmer. Strenuous and vigorous exercise can also help you to work off frustration and angry feelings.
Frustration can have a highly damaging impact on our frame of mind. It can turn a positive person into a person who sees nearly everything as a problem. It can slow you down, inhibit your progress, and at times completely immobilize you. We can become so wound up with our frustration that we do not, and cannot, think or act rationally. Our frustration can often exacerbate a situation and create a vicious circle. If we are convinced that our actions are not working, no matter how hard we try, we are much more likely to reduce, rather than increase, our chances of success.
If you feel that your degree of frustration is really out of control, if it is having an impact on your relationships and on important parts of your life, you might consider counseling to learn how to handle it better. A psychologist or other licensed mental health professional can work with you in developing a range of techniques for changing your thinking and your behavior.
Remember, you cannot eliminate frustration. In spite of all your efforts, things will happen that will cause you frustration and anger. Life is filled with frustration, pain, loss, and the unpredictable actions of others. You can't change that; but you can change the way you let such events affect you.

References:
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_information_system_plan
http://www.psychologistanywhereanytime.com/emotional_problems_psychologist/pyschologist_frustration.htm
http://www.idii.com/wp/Tse5reasonswhyprojectsfail.pdf
http://www.stevenalter.com/StevenAlter.com/Downloads___files/CAIS%2014-2%20IS%20Risk%20Factors%20-%20Are%20They%20Mostly%20About%20IS.pdf
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Jun 04, 2010 10:07 am

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan? note: you are required to interview an IS professional/s for your answer ...(at least 3000 words)

Frustration is a common emotional response to opposition. Related to anger and disappointment, it arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of individual will. The greater the obstruction, and the greater the will, the more the frustration is likely to be. Causes of frustration may be internal or external. In people, internal frustration may arise from challenges in fulfilling personal goals and desires, instinctual drives and needs, or dealing with perceived deficiencies, such as a lack of confidence or fear of social situations. Conflict can also be an internal source of frustration; when one has competing goals that interfere with one another, it can create cognitive dissonance. External causes of frustration involve conditions outside an individual, such as a blocked road or a difficult task. While coping with frustration, some individuals may engage in passive-aggressive behavior, making it difficult to identify the original cause(s) of their frustration, as the responses are indirect. A more direct, and common response, is a propensity towards aggression.

Causes:

To the individual experiencing frustration, the emotion is usually attributed to external factors which are beyond their control. Although mild frustration due to internal factors (e.g. laziness, lack of effort) is often a positive force (inspiring motivation), it is more often than not a perceived uncontrolled problem that instigates more severe, and perhaps pathological, frustration. An individual suffering from pathological frustration will often feel powerless to change the situation they are in, leading to frustration and, if left uncontrolled, further anger.

Definition of Professional
The word professional can be defined or referred to as an expert, proficient, or skilled. A professional is someone who has great knowledge about his or her field - not only in his or her field of interest but also in his or her field of work. Moreover, the word professional can also refer to a person or someone who is engaged or employed in profession. When the word or term professional is referred to as a person, it can be a doctor, a lawyer, or an engineer. In the world of Information Technology, a lot of professionals can be found and these people are called Information Technology or Information Systems professional. They are the ones who have great knowledge about the world of computers, the hardware and the software components and even the people who manage these components. There are different types of professions in Information Technology – there are computer programmers, software engineers and systems analysts, to name a few. They all have skills and characteristics that they needed to possess in order for them to become good professionals in their line of work. In our past interview with an Information Technology professional – a Management Information System or MIS supervisor, to be exact, he told us about the different characteristics and skills of a good systems analyst that he or she must possess and develop. A systems analyst is someone whose task is to solve the problems that the company faces. He or she takes a deeper examination and evaluation on the steps to be taken and the risks that will be facing them to come up with the best solution to the problem. The systems analyst must know what the business is all about, understand the business flow of the organization, have knowledge about the people he or she will be dealing with and must have knowledge about computers and CASE tools. Last December 16, 2009, we conducted an interview with the Management Information Systems Supervisor of Sta. Ana Multipurpose Cooperative also known as SAMULCO. Among the skills and characteristics he gave are the following:

1. The systems analyst should have knowledge about systems integration.
2. The systems analyst should have a skill in calculating risk.
3. Experience
4. A systems analyst should be a people’s person with good communication skills.
5. A systems analyst should have a high Adversity Quotient.
6. Flexibility

He said that, in systems analysis, especially, like if you look into a system, you put a person in the center of the circle, that person will not see everything. But once you put him/her in the middle but if you put that person on top of the platform, he/she will see the holistic view of the system. A systems analyst should have both holistic and detailed approach to watching the system. He has an experience that he usually goes into details like an accountant is presenting something and told him that something is lacking. "One mistake is on the programmer, directly", he added. What the MIS supervisor was trying to point out is that as a good systems analyst, one must be both a holistic and a systematic learner because he said that one might just be missing everything else. If the analyst is just a holistic one, then he or she will not be able to see every detail of what the system really needs. On the other hand, if the analyst is just a systematic learner, he or she might not know the things that might be affected or overlooked at every move or any decision that he or she will be making.

The second characteristic he shared is that a good systems analyst should have a skill in calculating risk. “He or she should be a risk taker in a very smart way,” he said. He also defined the word risk as a “possibility of a loss”. “You cannot stop a risk from coming but you can always prepare when it comes,” he added. He even mentioned the law of Murphy which states that “if something can go wrong, it will.” But whatever risks that the systems analyst shall be facing, he or she must have an extra plan to carry out in order for him or her to be able to prevent greater damage or loss to the project.

Third one that he shared to us is experience and he said that, “experience is the best teacher”. Experience for me is a very good asset that a systems analyst possesses. Why, is it so? That is because, if one has an experience in programming or in analyzing and designing a system, it will not be very hard for him or her to handle bigger problems. Moreover, if one has an experience, he or she will already know the ways or techniques in systems analysis, coming up with a better solution or making a decision or choice which will best address the problem. The fourth is being a people’s person with good communication skills. The fifth is having a high Adversity Quotient skill so that the analyst will not break down when a problem comes, according to the MIS Supervisor. The last is flexibility. A good systems analyst must be flexible so that he or she will be able to adjust quickly in whatever changes or problems that will occur in the future.
Information systems professionals undergo and deal with different situations and people whenever they start to work at a new information systems plan. Their work does not only cover the development, the implementation and the maintenance of the information system for a company or business information. It has to undergo different phases or stages. However, it does not guarantee the information technology or information systems professionals that their work will go smoothly until its maintenance in the future. There are things that can be a hindrance to the success of the development and the implementation of their information systems plan. In addition, these hindrances can cause them frustrations in their line of work and somehow, might be affecting the development and the implementation of their information systems plan. Moreover, their work is not only limited in their information systems plan but it also covers the development of the product itself. Therefore, as professionals in information systems, they must plan ahead about the project that they are going to make. In order for a person to develop an information systems plan, I believe that, first, he or she must have a knowledge or understanding on what an information system is and what it does. Second is that he or she should have a basic information about his or her client. Third, he or she must identify the needs of the client and gather all the necessary information in order to come up with a good information systems plan. One way to identify the needs of the client or the company is to meet with the client. In this way, both parties will be able to discuss the needs and the things that should be done. The objectives, goals and priorities of the project must also be set. The information systems plan must coincide with the priorities and objectives that you formulated. Moreover, the information systems plan must be flexible. The importance of the flexibility of the information systems plan is to make it applicable if for instance, changes will occur. Another thing is to identify the risks that might occur during the planning until after the implementation phase of the information systems plan when the new information system plan is being used. Developing and implementing a strategic information systems plan is a major change in a company or business organization. Planning does not completely save them from frustrations but somehow, it minimizes the level of frustrations and risks that they might undergo.

Frustration can be a result of blocking motivated behavior. An individual may react in several different ways. He may respond with rational problem-solving methods to overcome the barrier. Failing in this, he may become frustrated and behave irrationally. An example of blockage of motivational energy would be the case of the worker who wants time off to go fishing but is denied permission by his supervisor. Another example would be the executive who wants a promotion but finds he lacks certain qualifications. If, in these cases, an appeal to reason does not succeed in reducing the barrier or in developing some reasonable alternative approach, the frustrated individual may resort to less adaptive methods of trying to reach his goal. He may, for example, attack the barrier physically or verbally or both.


Our Interview

Challenging Our Paradigms in Work and Career
Some of our biggest frustrations in life can come from our work environment. It might be work that is unfulfilling, co-workers that we have difficulty getting along with, or demanding organizational structures that seem to strip us of our time and suffocate our passion and creativity. We so often refer to this complex and stressful situation with a blanket term like "career burnout."
In many instances we may feel that our options for true fulfillment at work arelimited and our agreements generally take us into the following three patterns of coping with the dissatisfaction and frustrations:
Change the System.
When we care very much about what we are doing there is a passion to have it done well. The organization, or the systems in an organization don’t always seem to support what we think are improvements. When our desired changes aren't implemented we are often frustrate. Our challenge then becomes to change the people who are invested in the status quo. Without support we may look like a rebel and a non-conformist. This wasn’t the result we were looking for. Aside from the possible alienation, without noticeable change this uphill battle wears us down and the next option starts to look better.
Give Up the Fight for Change.
Change is wonderful a thing when it is accepted, but when ideas do not move forward into action, they die. If we become tired of the battle for change we are tempted to drop the fight. We give up caring because caring about it just becomes too painful. If we find ourselves saying “It doesn’t matter” or “I don’t really care”, this usually isn’t exactly true. Often we do care, it is just too painful to let ourselves feel the frustration and so we cover it up and push it away with these words. The solution appears to do the minimum that is required and take your place in the system. This is a defeat of our passion, inspiration and creativity and can lead us to our third option.
Quit or Leave.
This may entail going into your own business, finding another job, career, or for the spiritually inclined, leaving all your belongings behind and entering into a commune or ashram. This is essentially the “Grass is Greener Somewhere Else” solution. I remember vividly the jokes with my co-worker about shucking it all to sell ice cream on the beach. While it may very well be “better” in some ways someplace else, it also might not be, and so change is a risk. Not to mention the amount of disruption to ones life and lifestyle is not that appealing. There is a time and a place for this option, but be very aware of why you are doing it, and perhaps first, consider an alternate path below.
An Alternate Path
While there are aspects of our professional life that are unfulfilling and unchangeable, there are many aspects that we can affect. Often the biggest factors that make our jobs unfulfilling are issues we can change. These factors have to do with what is going on inside us. If we identify and eliminate the judgments and victimizing stories that we carry around about our work, co-workers, promotion, recognition, and the nature of the work, we can alleviate many of the frustrations. If we don’t deal with the underlying stories and beliefs that our inner judge and victim bring to the workplace they will often be carried into our next work environment. It will then appear that the new place was “just like the last place”, because our perceptions and our stories go with us. Once we deal with our stories and our point of view, then we can make the decision to make changes or look elsewhere with clarity and be sure of our choices.



That was hard to see right away because it was covered over with a story and another image of all her good attributes. She then used this image to broadcast in her mind how good she was at her job, and how her boss didn’t appreciate her for what she was really good at. These last two layers were on the surface but just covered up the real problem. The whole structure of stories and compensating images was based in the stories of her judge and victim which we were able to identify and dissolve.
After her judge and victim stories were dissolved, so did her fears of judgment and rejection. Along with that she could let go of the need to project all her strengths as compensation for the lesser image in her mind. With that, the report she “hated” turned into no big deal. It seemed the real problem with the report had more to do with self judgment, perception, and fear, than the work itself.
We continued working through her stories.

All businesses share one common asset, regardless of the type of business. It does not matter if they manufacture goods or provide services. It is a vital part of any business entity, whether a sole proprietorship or a multinational corporation. That common asset is information.
Information enables us to determine the need to create new products and services. Information tells us to move into new markets or to withdraw from other markets. Without information, the goods do not get made, the orders are not placed, the materials are not procured, the shipments are not delivered, the customers are not billed, and the business cannot survive.
But information has far lesser impact when presented as raw data. In order to maximize the value of information, it must be captured, analyzed, quantified, compiled, manipulated, made accessible, and shared. In order to accomplish those tasks, an information system (IS) must be designed, developed, administered, and maintained.
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
An information system is a computer system that provides management and other personnel within an organization with up-to-date information regarding the organization's performance; for example, current inventory and sales. It usually is linked to a computer network, which is created by joining different computers together in order to share data and resources. It is designed to capture, transmit, store, retrieve, manipulate, and or display information used in one or more business processes. These systems output information in a form that is useable at all levels of the organization: strategic, tactical, and operational.
Systems that are specifically geared toward serving general, predictable management functions are sometimes called management information systems (MIS). A good example of an MIS report is the information that goes into an annual report created for the stockholders of a corporation (a scheduled report). The administration of an information system is typically the province of the MIS or information technology (IT) department within an organization.
Some applications have infringed on the familiar MIS landscape. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software and executive information systems (EIS) both provide packaged modules and programs that perform the same functions as traditional MIS, but with greater functionality, flexibility, and integration capabilities.
MAINFRAMES.
The original computerized information systems were based on mainframes. "Mainframe" is a term originally referring to the cabinet containing the central processor unit or "main frame" of a room-filling computer. After the emergence of smaller mini-computer designs in the early 1970s, the traditional large machines were described as "mainframe computers," or simply mainframes. The term carries the connotation of a machine designed for batch rather than interactive use, though possibly with an interactive time-sharing operating system retrofitted onto it.

It has been conventional wisdom in most of the business community since the late 1980s that the mainframe architectural tradition is essentially dead, having been swamped by huge advances in integrated circuit design technology and low-cost personal computing. Despite this, mainframe sales in the United States enjoyed somewhat of a resurgence in the 1990s, as prices came down and as large organizations found they needed high-power computing resources more than ever. Supporters claim that mainframes still house 90 percent of the data major businesses rely on for mission-critical applications, attributing this to their superior performance, reliability, scalability, and security compared to microprocessors.
THE INTERNET.

The Internet has opened up further developments in information systems and the exchange of information via web-based e-mail, intranets, and extranets. These technologies allow for much faster data and information exchange and greater access for more users. Web-casting and videoconferencing allow for real-time information exchanges. Mobile computing technologies accessed by handheld devices, such as multi-functional mobile phones, personal digital assistants, and podcasting (via iPods), are offering further modes of communication.

We already discussed what resistance is an the other causes of frustrations in the information systems plan process. So far the two causes stated by our interviewee. The two causes are lack of support and the resistance that the workers of the company exert towards technology. These two cause frustrations. I read about frustration and I also happened to read about how to deal on frustrations. So how do we deal with frustrations? Well, perhaps the first and most immediate thing I do is to stop and take my mind off the things that frustrate me. I conserve whatever energy is left in me and use it to recharge myself. I do what my favorite poem tells me, “Rest, if you must, but don’t you quit.” I shut down everything temporarily and go inside my sanctuary – armed with music and my favorite comfort foods; I drive around the city without a destination. Yes, this routine has been very therapeutic for me for the past years. I would spend a couple of hours without worries inside my car and let all my troubles settle at the back of my mind. Other than driving, I’ve also managed to come up with other things to do whenever I’m feeling depressed and frustrated. Some of which are spending time and talking with friends, writing my frustrations down and then burning the paper (I know, how dramatic) and sometimes, I simply jog inside our village. I guess the key here is to release the frustrations in a non-aggressive way. Of course, your problems won’t get solved by simply doing that. Chances are, it will still be in the same state when you come back from taking a break. However, what I hope to be different this time is my enthusiasm to tackle the difficulties once again. Moreover, with revitalized energy, I am now more capable to think and act towards succeeding this time. Upon my return, I take stock of everything at hand and systematically analyze the situation by asking myself such questions: Furthermore, I always keep in mind that frustration may lead to aggression and procrastination. Remembering so helps me act consciously without negativity and delay. When your goals seems to be so near yet so far, take positivity from the small accomplishments you’ve already attained and learn to also reward your efforts, not just your results. In the end, when you finally achieve, you’ll find yourself stronger in character and more ready to face greater challenges. Dealing with your finances can be frustrating at times, especially when you’ve been working so hard to save and invest and then a financial emergency would come and ruin your plans. As a blogger, I’ve also become familiar with common frustrations in having a website such as spending long hours optimizing for income and traffic only to get less than expected results. How about in your case? What has been your frustration lately and how are you dealing with it? Kindly share them below and continue the conversation
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Jun 07, 2010 5:44 pm

Based on our interview with the MIS Manager of SAMULCO, the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan are Resitance to Change and Budget and Financial Constraints.

Resistance To Change


Definition

Resistance to change is the action taken by individuals and groups when they perceive that a change that is occurring as a threat to them.
Key words here are 'perceive' and 'threat'. The threat need not be real or large for resistance to occur.
In its usual description it refers to change within organizations, although it also is found elsewhere in other forms. Resistance is the equivalent of objections in sales and disagreement in general discussions.
Resistance may take many forms, including active or passive, overt or covert, individual or organized, aggressive or timid.


Rationale for resistance

The rationale for resistance is often quite straightforward as people justify their actions to themselves. If you want to overcome resistance to change, you must be able to answer the following points.

Person wants to stay where he is because…
Even if you offer me a bowl of cherries, he may not be very concerned to take what you proffer if he is happy where he is now. People who have been in the same place for a long time are usually in this state. They do not need to change and will view any suggestion of change with distaste.

…His needs are already met here
Needs are basic drivers of action. If needs are not perceived as being particularly threatened and the current situation is relatively comfortable (particularly in comparison with the proposed change) then he will be happier to stay where he am. If people already have their needs met, then you will need to shake the carpet and provide some sort of threat to those needs so they are no longer sufficiently met for the person to want to stay where they are.

…I have invested heavily here
When I have invested a lot of time and energy in building up my position, both socially and organizationally, then any change may mean bad news. Social investment creates a person's sense of identity. Organizational investment gives them control. Sliding down the ladder that I have so painstakingly climbed over the year is a long way from my shopping list. Where people have invested heavily, you will either have to show them how to get to a similar position in the new organization or otherwise reduce the value of their investment (for example by moving the people over whom they have social influence).

...I am in the middle of something important
When I have committed to achieving a goal, either personal or emotional, then a part of my integrity and hence identity may be bound up in achieving the goal. When I have partly completed something, I am also affected by the need for completion, such that I will feel uncomfortable with stopping now. When people are busy, find ways for them to complete the work in the shorter term, perhaps by nudging their goals so they have less to do to complete. If possible, turn their work towards something that will be useful for the new organization.

I do not want to change because…
Even if I am not that happy where I am, I still may not be particularly interested in moving forward with the change.

…the destination looks worse than where I am now
Although I want to move, the final resting place of the change looks significantly worse for me than the current position. I feel it is like jumping out of the frying pan and into the fire. If you want people to voluntarily move, then it must be to somewhere better than they are now. You can create this in two ways: first by making the present position worse (though be careful with this!) and secondly by building a rosy vision to which people can then attach their dreams.

…there is nothing to attract me forwards
If the change is nothing to do with me, if the benefits are all for other people or the general organization, if I just do not buy the 'vision' as sold, then I will feel no pull and I will not buy into the change.You may offer forth a brilliant vision, but do the people buy it? Make sure your communications are clear and couched in terms that people can understand and buy into. Make your visions inclusive, such that people really can and will buy the change.

…I do not know which way to move
If I buy the vision, I may still may not know which way to jump. Some change projects sound wonderful, but people are left wondering what to do (even the managers).Grand plans need to be turned into tactical detail in which people can see and easily take the step forward.

…the journey there looks painful
The final destination may be great, but the journey from here to there looks very uncomfortable. The anticipated pain of the transition is more immediate than the distant and hazy future, and I respond more to this than to any inspiring vision. Make sure the transitional period between now and the final change does not appear so uncomfortable that people refuse to join you. In practice, it may not be that bad -- what counts, though, is the perception of the people, so design the transition well and then communicate it well.

...the destination or journey is somehow bad or wrong
If the transition or the final destination somehow transgresses my values, then I will judge it to be bad or wrong and will be very loathe to join the party.Be careful with the change in working around established organizational and general social values. If you must break an unwritten rule (such as getting rid of people) then do so with appropriate consideration and care.

…I do not trust those who are asking me to change
If my experience of you is that you have been untrustworthy in the past, then I am not likely to buy your vision of the future. If you are going on what I perceive as a perilous journey, then I will not trust you and will not join you. The integrity of leaders is a very important attribute. If you want people to follow you, then you must give them good reason to trust you.

I am not going to change because…
Even if people do not want to change, they may still have to do so, albeit truculently. Some people, how ever, have the wherewithal to refuse.

…I am able to ignore the change
One of the questions I will ask is 'What happens if I do not go along with the change?' If the negative implications for my non-compliance are negligible, then I can happily not join in. This sort of situation occurs when the person in question is so valued by the organization that the idea of them leaving is unthinkable. This is often where difficult choices around change take place. What do you do with the laggards? If this problem is not addressed, then the people around them may take their lead and before long you have a silent revolution on your hands.

…I have the power to obstruct the change
Another reason why a person can happily ignore the change is because they can stop it. People in senior positions often treat change as being a good thing -- as long as it is for someone else. When faced with change themselves, they may do whatever it takes to scupper the change, for example by refusing to give needed access or other support. This is a good test of the senior sponsor of change -- which may need to be the most senior officer in the organization. Those who actively oppose the change must be dealt with -- preferably kindly and in in an understanding way, but ultimately in a firm and final way.


The nature of opposition
When considering stakeholders who are opposing the change, do a deep analysis of their personality to give you better ability to manage their opposition and convert them to the cause of the change. This analysis should help you to decide whether and how you might convert the person to the change cause or, if they are implacable opponents, how you might control or contain their opposition.

Drivers

Beliefs
Beliefs are basic drivers of thought and behavior. If you can understand their beliefs, you can begin to change them.
• What are their beliefs about people? Their rights? Their capabilities?
• What beliefs do they have about themselves?
• How strongly do they hold these beliefs?
• What are the beliefs that they have that led them to oppose the change?
• What beliefs do they have that could be used to help convert them?

Values
Values are guides and shapers of behavior that tell what is right and wrong, good and bad, important and unimportant. Understanding a person's values tells you what they will not do as much as what they will do.
• Are any of their values being transgressed by change actions?
• What are their stress values? Are these being triggered?
• What values can you appeal to, to persuade them to change?

Goals
Goals are the deliberate objectives that we set ourselves to satisfy values and needs. By identifying these and how they are affected by change, you can
• What are their career goals?
• What are their social goals?
• What other goals do they have?
• How are any of these affected by the change?

Perceptions
The perceptions that people have of the change is based on their internal systems and the inferences they make. Perception is reality for the person, even it if is not really true. It therefore makes sense to understand how they perceive the change.
• What are their perceptions of the change? What do they think will happen?
• What are their perceptions of other stakeholders in the change? Do they think others will help them? Do they think others will gain unfair advantage?
• What are their perceptions of those implementing the change? Do they think the change agents will be fair? Do they think they are competent?

Potential
A critical question about opponents of change is what they can and are likely do to oppose the change.
• What power do they have?
• What is the source of that power? (position, expertise, social, etc.)
• How might they use that power? (blocking, persuading others, etc.)
• What would the impact of that action be? (local, widespread, etc.)
• How might their power change?

Triggers
And when you understand the power that a person who is opposing or may oppose the change, the final step is to understand their triggers, those events that would tip them into action.
• What would lead them to use that power? (events, actions, etc.)
• What would defuse them beforehand? (involvement, listening, etc.)
• What would bring them down after they had started resisting? (listening, threats, etc.)
• Who do they listen to? (friends, social leaders, senior people, etc.)
• What could other people do to contain or convert them? (words, action, etc.)

When resistance to change occurs, then it is very helpful to be able to spot it coming and hence respond appropriately to it (rather than be surprised when the change mysteriously fails).

Signs of resistance

Early signs of resistance
If you can catch resistance early, then you can respond to it before it takes hold, effectively nipping it in the bud.

Gossip
When the change is announced, the tom-toms will start beating loudly and grapevine will bear fruit of much and varied opinion. Keep your ear to the ground on what is being said around the coffee points. Listen particularly for declaration of intent and attempts to organize resistance. Grumbling and complaint are natural ways of airing discomfort, so you should not try to squash it (you would fail, anyway). The biggest danger of it is when it is allowed to ferment in an information vacuum.
Respond to gossip by opening it up, showing you are listening to concerns and taking them seriously, and providing lots of valid information that will fill the vacuum.

Testing
Just as a high school class will test a teacher's ability to maintain discipline, so also will some brave soul test out what happens when they resist change. They may, for example, not turn up to a meeting or openly challenge a decision. How you deal with such early resistance will have a significant effect on what happens next. For example you can jump on the person and squash both them and their words, or you can take an adult position, describing what they have done and assertively questioning their motives.

Collectivism of resistance
Resistance can happen both on an individual case-by-case basis or people may band together.

Individual action
Individually, people may resist, although this is generally limited to the extent of their personal power. For those with lower power, this may include passive refusals and covert action. For those with more power, it can include open challenge and criticism.
Handle individual action individually, starting with those with greater power. As necessary, you may need to make an example, and disciplining a senior executive can send a strong signal to other resistors.

Collective action
When people find a common voice in organized resistance, then their words and actions can create a significant threat to the change, even though they are individually less powerful. Trade Unions are a classic example of this.
Organized resistance is usually a sign of a deep divide. People will not go to the bother of organizing unless they have serious issues with the change. Manage collectives by negotiating with their leaders (which can be much easier than dealing with a myriad of smaller fires). You may well need to make concessions, but you at least should be able to rescue some key elements of the change. You can also 'divide and conquer' by striking deals with individual key players, although this must be done very carefully as it can cause a serious backlash.

Visibility of resistance
Sometimes resistance is out in the open, but more often it starts out in a more underhand, covert way.

Covert resistance
Covert resistance is deliberate resistance to change, but done in a manner that allows the perpetrators to appear as if they are not resisting. This may occur, for example, through sabotage of various kinds. Handle covert resistance by showing that you know what is happening and setting in place investigations designed to identify the people responsible.

Overt resistance
Overt resistance does not try to hide, and is a result either of someone comfortable with their power, someone for whom covert acts are against their values, or someone who is desperate. This may take forms such as open argument, refusal or attack.
Deal with overt resistance by first seeking to respond openly and authentically. If the resistance is blind, then you will have no alternative but to defend, for example by isolating and disciplining attackers.

Activity of resistance
Overt resistance does not need to take positive action -- sometimes it can be passive.

Passive resistance
Passive resistance occurs where people do not take specific actions. At meetings, they will sit quietly and may appear to agree with the change. Their main tool is to refuse to collaborate with the change. In passive aggression, for example, they may agree and then do nothing to fulfill their commitments. This can be very difficult to address, as resisters have not particularly done anything wrong. One way to address this is to get public commitment to an action (and you can start small on this), then follow up -- publicly if necessary -- to ensure they complete the action. Then keep repeating this until they are either bought in or give in.


Active resistance
Active resistance occurs where people are taking specific and deliberate action to resist the change. It may be overt, with such as public statements and acts of resistance, and it may be covert, such as mobilizing others to create an underground resistance movement.
Overt active resistance, although potentially damaging, is at least visible and you have the option of using formal disciplinary actions (although more positive methods should normally be used first). When it is covert, you may also need to use to covert methods to identify the source and hence take appropriate action.

Dealing with resistance
Here is a small raft of things you can do to handle resistance, starting with kind and moral approaches and ending with the harsher end of gaining compliance. This whole site has fleets other things you can do, of course.

Facilitation
The best approach to creating change is to work with them, helping them achieve goals that somehow also reach to the goals of the change project. When you work with people, they will be happier to work with you.
This is a good practice when people want to collaborate but are struggling to adjust to the situation and achieve the goals of change.

Education
When people are not really bought into the rationale for the change, they may well come around once they realize why the change is needed and what is needed of them. In particular, if new skills are required, you can provide these via a focused course of education.

Involvement
When people are not involved physically or intellectually, they are unlikely to be involved emotionally either. One of the best methods of getting people bought in is to get them involved. When their hands are dirty, they realize that dirt is not so bad, after all. They also need to justify their involvement to themselves and so persuade themselves that is the right thing to do.

Negotiation
When the other person cannot easily be persuaded, then you may need to give in order to get. Sit them down and ask what they are seeking. Find out what they want and what they will never accept. Work out a mutually agreeable solution that works just for them and just for you.

Manipulation
Manipulation means controlling a person's environment such that they are shaped by what is around them. It can be a tempting solution, but is morally questionable and, if they sense what you are doing, will lead to a very dangerous backlash. Only consider this when change is necessary in the short term and all other avenues have been explored.

Coercion
Even more extreme than subtle manipulation is overt coercion. This is where you sit them down and make overt threats, for example that if they do not comply that they will lose their jobs, perhaps in a humiliating and public sacking. This should only be used when speed is of the essence or when the other person themselves has taken to public and damaging actions.

How to cause resistance

Here are just a few of the ways you can cause people to resist the change:
• Resist the resistance, fighting back.
• Do not use your sponsors.
• Try to do everything yourself.
• Allow sponsors to be non-committal about the change.
• Use threats and aggressive language.
• Avoid talking to individual people.
• Avoid listening to people.
• Do not visit the various teams affected.
• Spend more time with your allies (and avoiding the troublemakers).
• Ignore those who resist. Keep your fingers crossed they will give up.
• Tell people about your plans and then ignore the plans.
• Give lots of rational reasons why people should do as you say.
• Dive into the details before they have bought the big picture.
• Do not test that people have understood what you have said.
• Lose faith yourself in the change.
• Be vague about what the change will be.
• Avoid being the messenger of bad news.
• Collude with the other person.
• Produce non-specific plans.
• Expect people to instantly understand what took you three weeks to figure out.
• Publicly and aggressively punish those who object.
• Shout down anyone who disagrees.
• Do not change reward systems to align with the change.
• Make 'an exception' for talented people who resist.


Responding to unexpected resistance

What happens when you are in the middle of a conversation or meeting and someone speaks out against the change?

Pause
The natural tendency of many people is to respond immediately, perhaps butting in or cutting the other person short. The voice may be authoritarian and tinged with anger. But think how this appears to other people? The message being sent is 'public disagreement is not allowed'. A likely effect is that the person resisting now has the sympathy of others (and may recruit the others to their cause). It is also very likely that the resistance will just go underground. So the very first thing is to bite your lip, hold your tongue and count to three. Take a moment to pause and assess the situation. What are others doing? Is the person speaking cautious or bold? What does the body language tell you?

Listen
The next step is to listen carefully not only to what they are saying but also to how they are saying it. Listen for the deeper messages between the lines. Listen to their fears, hopes and ambitions. Hear the tensions and emotions. Notice how they are coping. You can also draw out further information, tipping the bucket to ensure you have the whole story. Use appropriate questioning techniques to learn more.

Empathize
Make your initial response one that empathizes with their position. Show first that you understand (even though you may not agree) and respect their right to voice an honest opinion. This and other previous action will have won you many friends -- perhaps even the person in question who may have been expecting you to resist their resistance (which is just what it would be) and is preparing for a fight. When people expect a fight and find only concern, the surprise is likely to change their opinion.

Think
Before you open your mouth, think hard about what you are going to say and how you are going to say it. Done wrong, a response will show your empathy to be false and may cause a bitter backlash.

Respond
Respond in a way that offers the other person a dignified way out. Seek win-win. Use their language. Reframe their position to show a bigger picture.

The income statement is a simple and straightforward report on the proposed business's cash-generating ability. It is a score card on the financial performance of your business that reflects when sales are made and when expenses are incurred. It draws information from the various financial models developed earlier such as revenue, expenses, capital (in the form of depreciation), and cost of goods. By combining these elements, the income statement illustrates just how much your company makes or loses during the year by subtracting cost of goods and expenses from revenue to arrive at a net result -- which is either a profit or a loss.


Budget and Financial Constraints

Financial Constraints and Differential Investment Responses

Since differences in investment opportunities arising from product market exposures do not appear to explain differences in the effects of depreciations on affiliates and local firms, we now consider an alternate explanation: a differential ability to overcome financial constraints.

Local Firms and Leverage Differences

If financial constraints contribute to the relative underperformance of local firms, then the relative performance amongst local firms should be dictated by the level and composition of leverage prior to the depreciation. While data on the duration of debt is not available for multinational affiliates, data on the level and duration of debt is available for local firms. For each local firm, we compute averages of the ratio of total debt to assets and the ratio of short term debt to total debt over the three years prior to a crisis. We then use the sample median level of these averages to classify if local firms have above or below medians levels of leverage and short term debt. Dummies are included in interaction terms in the basic specifications to analyze if highly levered local firms, particularly those with short term debt, experienced the sharpest reductions in investment subsequent to depreciations. Local firms that rely heavily on short term debt are likely to face significant liquidity constraints, especially since interest rates often increase following depreciations. The specifications are presented employ the log of capital expenditures as a dependent variable and the interaction terms of interest are those that discriminate amongst local firms on the basis of the level and duration of their leverage prior to the depreciation. In these three specifications, the coefficients on the post-depreciation dummy indicate how local firms with high leverage, high amounts of short term debt or firms with both characteristics respond to the depreciations. In turn, the interaction terms indicate how the remaining local firms and how affiliates respond relative to these baseline coefficients.

The coefficients indicate that local firms with high leverage are the firms associated with the low investment response. Indeed, the coefficients on the post-depreciation dummy and that variable interacted with the low leverage dummies are of similar magnitude but opposite signs, indicating that local firms with low leverage do not experience a sharp fall in investment. The coefficient on the post-depreciation dummy interacted with the multinational dummy indicates that affiliates increase investment. The composition of debt is emphasized, and, similarly, firms with low amounts of short term debt do not experience a sharp investment drop. Finally, the roles of the level and composition of debt are jointly considered and the results are even more stark. Local firms with low leverage and low amounts of short term debt experience investment increases subsequent to the depreciation as the coefficient on the relevant interaction term is greater, in absolute value, than the coefficient on the post-depreciation dummy alone. The increase in investment experienced by this set of local firms is similar in magnitude to the increase in investment of affiliates, as indicated by the coefficient on the depreciation dummy interacted with the multinational dummy. These results are robust to the use the ratio of capital expenditure to net PPE as the dependent variable. The average investment experience of local firms obscures much heterogeneity that is associated with their level and composition of leverage prior to the depreciation.

The Financing of Multinational Affiliates During Sharp Depreciations

While more granular data on local firms is not available, a closer look at the behavior of multinational affiliates provides further evidence on precisely how they circumvent financing constraints. Table 7 presents regressions that examine growth in different components of affiliate financing subsequent to depreciations. The results demonstrate that local debt, foreign debt (debt borrowed from non-local persons), and related party debt (debt borrowed from an affiliate’s parent) all increase significantly in the year of depreciations. There are two interpretations of these results. First, new capital may flow to affiliates in one of these forms of debt. Second, if debt is denominated in foreign currency, then the reported increase in debt may simply reflect a revaluation of existing loans to reflect the depreciation. This revaluation of existing debt would not necessarily include any new flows of capital. Since increases in debt occur in the year of depreciations and are larger for debt from foreign sources (which is more likely to be denominated in foreign currency), this revaluation effect is likely to explain at least some part of the growth in debt. Examining changes in paid-in-capital provides cleaner measures of new capital infusions from the parents of affiliates. Paid-in-capital consists of the initial capital stock of an affiliate and any new equity infusions. This measure does not include retained earnings. Since this component of financing is measured in dollars, using historic exchange rates for translation when necessary, changes in the growth of paid-in-capital cannot be explained by changes in currency valuations. The data reports regression results where the dependent variable is the growth in paid-in-capital. The paid-in-capital of multinational affiliates increases in the years following depreciations, although this increase is only significant in the year after a depreciation. The coefficient estimates suggest that the paid-in-capital of multinational affiliates increases by 10.8% in the year after depreciations. This result provides direct evidence that new equity infusions from parent companies enable multinational affiliates in emerging markets to capitalize on investment opportunities after depreciations. In combination with the evidence provided on the impact of the level and composition of local firm debt, this evidence further confirms the role of internal capital markets in allowing multinational firms to overcome financial constraints that handicap local firms.

Alternative Explanations

It is also possible that the relative performance of multinational affiliates and local firms reflects other factors associated with the two types of firms. For example, as hypothesized in Blonigen, the depreciations could be accompanied by an increased incentive for foreign multinationals to purchase emerging market corporations and exploit their intangible assets abroad. This explanation of investment dynamics during depreciations, hypothesized in the context of U.S.-Japan mergers and acquisition activity, is less likely to be relevant in the emerging market setting where fewer firms have intangible assets worth exploiting in developed markets. Moreover, much of the evidence presented above is on capital expenditures and therefore is less likely to be driven by acquisitions, as hypothesized in this theory. The differential response of multinational firms could also reflect overinvestment by multinational firms in the aftermath of currency crises rather than constrained under-investment by local firms. If over-investment was operative, it is hard to explain why the analysis of operating exposures discussed above yield significant results. Moreover, analysis presented in Desai, Foley and Forbes does not indicate that multinational firms experience a decrease in operating profits relative to local firms following deprecations. More generally, it is conceivable that other differences between the two samples are driving the results. The descriptive statistics indicate that local firms are larger than multinationals, and such size differences could help explain the results. In order to consider this possibility, interactions of the lag of the log of firm sales and the depreciation dummies have been included in the specifications are presented, and the results are not substantively changed. It is also possible that non-random entry, exit or switching between multinational and local status may conflate the results. In order to consider this possibility, the specifications are presented have been performed using a balanced panel of firms and only those firms that were present two years prior to the depreciations. These analyses generate results very similar to those presented in the paper. Finally, reduced investment by local firms could reflect the corporate governance deficiencies of local firms. Johnson et al. model this possibility and, in their model, stealing increases as investment becomes less profitable in environments with weak governance. To examine the possibility of this alternative explanation, we employ the country-level governance variables used in Johnson et al., split the sample at median levels of these governance variables, and investigate if continued differential performance persists in the subsamples. Splitting the sample at the median level of judicial efficiency, rule of law, or enforceable minority shareholder rights indicates that multinationals outperform local firms in all subsamples. Only if the sample is split at the median level of accounting standards is there a subsample where multinationals do not outperform local firms, and this is the subsample of countries with low, not high, accounting standards.


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John Cesar E. Manlangit

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PostSubject: Assignment 3   Mon Jun 21, 2010 7:07 pm

Let us define first what is an Information System. An Information System (IS) is any combination of information technology and people's activities using that technology to support operations, management, and decision-making.[1] In a very broad sense, the term information system is frequently used to refer to the interaction between people, algorithmic processes, data and technology. In this sense, the term is used to refer not only to the information and communication technology (ICT) an organization uses, but also to the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes. Some make a clear distinction between information systems, ICT and business processes. Information systems are distinct from information technology in that an information system is typically seen as having an ICT component. Information systems are also different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes [3].
Alter argues for an information system as a special type of work system. A work system is a system in which humans and/or machines perform work using resources (including ICT) to produce specific products and/or services for customers. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to processing (capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying) information. Part of the difficulty in defining the term information system is due to vagueness in the definition of related terms such as system and information. Beynon-Davies argues for a clearer terminology based in systemics and semiotics. He defines an information system as an example of a system concerned with the manipulation of signs. An information system is a type of socio-technical system. An information system is a mediating construct between actions and technology [5].
As such, information systems inter-relate with data systems on the one hand and activity systems on the other. An information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and are processed as a form of social memory. An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action.
Information systems are the primary focus of study for the information systems discipline and for organisational informatics. Information systems are important tools for effectively meeting organizational objectives. Readily available, complete, and accurate information is essential for making informed and timely decisions. Being unable to obtain needed data, wading through unneeded data, or inefficiently processing needed data wastes resources. The organization must identify its information needs on the basis of a systematic identification and analysis of its mission and functions to be performed, who is to perform them, the information and supporting data needed to perform the functions, and the processes needed to most usefully structure the information. Successful information system development and acquisition must include a rigorous and disciplined process of data gathering, evaluation, and analysis prior to committing significant financial and human resources to any information system development. While implementing such an approach may not preclude all information system acquisition problems, it should produce detailed knowledge of organizational missions and operations, user information needs and alternatives to address those needs, and an open and flexible architecture that is expandable or that can be upgraded to meet future needs. The purpose and use of information system in the beginning was targeted towards reducing manual labor and increasing efficiency and thus reducing cost of doing business. Cost has thus been the ‘primal instinct’ justification for the usage of Information system in companies. Management seems to still use this justification even in today’s day and age because the IT salesman still thinks it’s the best and only way to get management buy-in. Moreover, as most other rationales used for IS have proved hard to sell, both the IT sales teams and their customers find a comfort zone in cost savings. This could also be because both sides (from all their previous experiences) are convinced of their failure before they even start out on a different track. The past experiences, in most cases were times they tried, half heartedly probably, without enough experience and failed. These failures have resulted in the baby being thrown out along with the dirty water.
Characteristics of a Quality ISP
A quality ISP must exhibit five distinct characteristics before it is useful.
Timely- The ISP must be timely. An ISP that is created long after it is needed is useless. In almost all cases, it makes no sense to take longer to plan work than to perform the work planned.
Useable- The ISP must be useable. It must be so for all the projects as well as for each project. The ISP should exist in sections that once adopted can be parceled out to project managers and immediately started.
Maintainable- The ISP must be maintainable. New business opportunities, new computers, business mergers, etc. all affect the ISP. The ISP must support quick changes to the estimates, technologies employed, and possibly even to the fundamental project sequences. Once these changes are accomplished, the new ISP should be just a few computer program executions away.
Quality- While the ISP must be a quality product, no ISP is ever perfect on the first try. As the ISP is executed, the metrics employed to derive the individual project estimates become refined as a consequence of new hardware technologies, code generators, techniques, or faster working staff. As these changes occur, their effects should be installable into the data that supports ISP computation. In short, the ISP is a living document. It should be updated with every technology event, and certainly no less often than quarterly.
Reproducible- The ISP must be reproducible. That is, when its development activities are performed by any other staff, the ISP produced should essentially be the same. The ISP should not significantly vary by staff assigned.
The information systems plan project determines the sequence for implementing specific information systems. The goal of the strategy is to deliver the most valuable business information at the earliest time possible in the most cost-effective manner.
The end product of the information systems project is an information systems plan (ISP). Once deployed, the information systems department can implement the plan with confidence that they are doing the correct information systems project at the right time and in the right sequence. The focus of the ISP is not one information system but the entire suite of information systems for the enterprise. Once developed, each identified information system is seen in context with all other information systems within the enterprise.
IT projects are accomplished within distinct development environments. The two most common are: discrete project and release. The discrete project environment is typified by completely encapsulated projects accomplished through a water-fall methodology.
In release environments, there are a number of different projects underway by different organizations and staff of varying skill levels. Once a large number of projects are underway, the ability of the enterprise to know about and manage all the different projects degrades rapidly. That is because the project management environment has been transformed from discrete encapsulated projects into a continuous flow process of product or functionality improvements that are released on a set time schedule. Figure 3 illustrates the continuous flow process environment that supports releases. The continuous flow process environment is characterized by:
• Multiple, concurrent, but differently scheduled projects against the same enterprise resource
• Single projects that affect multiple enterprise resources
• Projects that develop completely new capabilities, or changes to existing capabilities within enterprise resources
It is precisely because enterprises have transformed themselves from a project to a release environment that information systems plans that can be created, evolved, and maintained on an enterprise-wide basis are essential.
There are four major sets of activities within the continuous flow process environment. The user/client is represented at the top in the small rectangular box. Each of the ellipses represents an activity targeted to a specific need. The four basic needs are:
• Need Identification
• Need Assessment
• Design
• Deployment
Last December 14, we have interviewed the MIS Supervisor of Samulco or Sta. Ana Multipurpose Cooperative. We asked him what are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan. And he answered these:

1. Lack of Budget- the company only has limited budget for the system or it does not have any budget for the system.

A budget is generally a list of all planned expenses and revenues. It is a plan for saving and spending. The purpose of budgeting is to:
1. Provide a forecast of revenues and expenditures i.e. construct a model of how our business might perform financially speaking if certain strategies, events and plans are carried out.
2. Enable the actual financial operation of the business to be measured against the forecast.

The budget of a company is often compiled annually, but may not be. A finished budget, usually requiring considerable effort, is a plan for the short-term future, typically one year. While traditionally the Finance department compiles the company's budget, modern software allows hundreds or even thousands of people in various departments (operations, human resources, IT etc) to list their expected revenues and expenses in the final budget.
If the actual figures delivered through the budget period come close to the budget, this suggests that the managers understand their business and have been successfully driving it in the intended direction. On the other hand, if the figures diverge wildly from the budget, this sends an 'out of control' signal, and the share price could suffer as a result.
Not only is the Lack of Budget can make a system not implement, lack of budget can also
Lack of Budget is one of the dangerous factors in a company. Here is an article about how lack of budget really is dangerous to a company. This is from eweek.com:
“Enterprise Strategy Group conducted a survey of IT decision makers and discovered that more than half of respondents reported their organization had experienced a data breach in the last 12 months. The most commonly cited barrier to database security was a lack of budget – a troubling indicator with current economic conditions. A survey of IT decision makers by the Enterprise Strategy Group is enough to make those concerned about database security tremble slightly.
While 58 percent of the 179 respondents reported the database is where most confidential data is located, more than half said their organizations suffered a data breach in the last 12 months. Some 54 percent said a lack of internal processes and controls hinder the effectiveness of their database security efforts. The statistics don’t get much better from there. According to the survey, 15 percent of respondents said that their organization suffered “several confidential data breaches” in the past year, while another 41 percent claimed that their organization had experienced only one. Forty percent of the respondents cited a “lack of budget” as the major inhibitor of their database security efforts. Other common responses were “lack of senior management sponsorship”; “we do not have an accurate inventory of our enterprise databases”; and “we aren’t sure what types of database security technologies and controls we need” – all cited by 21 percent of respondents. Another challenge, the study pointed out, is that responsibility for database security is spread across several areas in an enterprise, including security administrators, IT operations, data center managers and system administrators. Forty-two percent laid the responsibility at the feet of database administrators (DBAs). At some enterprises, this has led to the creation of the position of database security specialist. But whether putting database security in the hands of one person is best depends on the size of the organization's environment, said Tom Bain, director of marketing and communications at Application Security. Application Security sponsored the survey. “2009 may be the year we really start to see the database security administrator,” he said. “But another key factor is collaboration – departments within IT need to get on the same page, and they need to identify where they’re lacking the resources, assess what they feel is priority and start working from the inside out at the data core to ensure the safeguards are in place, as well as the policies and processes. The DBA can’t really be the only person with visibility into the database – access controls are absolutely critical here.” A checks-and-balances approach is integral to ensuring high levels of security across an organization, he said. However, he added that there still must be a department or group of individuals that has ultimate responsibility for database security – and it needs to be supported by the senior management team. When it comes to that, Enterprise Strategy Group analyst Jon Oltsik said senior managers need to be educated on the specific vulnerabilities and security needs associated with databases. “I think there is an education gap that needs attention,” he said. “Often times, security people are afraid to ask for more money and senior managers equate each security dollar equally - a dollar spent for firewalls is no different than a database security dollar.”
In the report, Oltsik recommends enterprises start with a full database inventory and look for integrated database security product suites with multiple capabilities such as user monitoring, database discovery and vulnerability scanning. He also suggested businesses define policies and best practices as if they had unlimited resources, and then work backward to prioritize what they need. “ An IS plan could not really be implemented due to the lack of budget to support the system.


2. Resistance to Change- Resistance to change is the action taken by individuals and groups when they perceive that a change that is occurring as a threat to them.

Most people don't like change because they don't like being changed. When change comes into view, fear and resistance to change follow – often despite its obvious benefits. People fight against change because they:
• fear to lose something they value, or
• don't understand the change and its implications, or
• don't think that the change makes sense, or
• find it difficult to cope with either the level or pace of the change.

Resistance emerges when there s a threat to something the individual values. The threat may be real or it may be just a perception. It may arise from a genuine understanding of the change or from misunderstanding, or even almost total ignorance about it.
For some people resisting change, there may be multiple reasons. Adding to this complexity is the fact that sometimes the stated reason hides the real, more deeply personal reason. You will also need to recognize that people work through a psychological change process as they give up the old and come to either embrace or reject the new.
Typically, they may experience an initial denial, then begin to realize that the change cannot be ignored. Strong feelings may emerge, such as fear, anger, helplessness and frustration. Finally, the person accepts the change either negatively, with feelings of resignation and complacency, or positively, with renewed enthusiasm to capitalize on the changes. Watch out for employees who get “stuck” in one phase. Offer your support. Allow space for people to work through the stages. Give employees time to draw breath and listen with empathy.

Resistance to Change in the Workplace: Main Reasons

• Fear of the unknown. Change implies uncertainty, and uncertainty is uncomfortable. Not knowing what may potentially happen often leads to heightened anxiety. Resisting change is one of the anxiety-reducing actions.1
• Fear of failure. The new order may require skill and abilities that may be beyond our capabilities. There is resistance to trying a new approach as people know how to operate in the existing order, but fear they will not be able to the new skills and behavior that will be required of them.
• Disagreement with the need for change. Associates may feel that the new direction is a wrong direction.
• Losing something of value. All associates want to know how the change will affect them. If people believe they will wind up losing as a result of the change, they will resist.
• Leaving a comfort zone. People are afraid to go after what they want because it would force them to stretch their comfort zones. It's only natural to put off things that scare us, to sidestep goals that require us to leave our comfort zone and take a risk.
• False beliefs. To put themselves at ease and avoid taking the risk, many people fool themselves into believing everything will all work out someday by itself.
• Misunderstanding and lack of trust. People resist change when they do not understand its implications and perceive that it might cost them much more than they gain. Such situations often occur when trust is lacking between the person initiating the change and the employees.2
• Inertia. All organizations suffer from inertia to some degree and try to maintain status quo. Change requires effort, oftentimes, a significant one. So, don't underestimate the power of fatigue and burnout.
Some reasons
1. THE RISK OF CHANGE IS SEEN AS GREATER THAN THE RISK OF STANDING STILL
Making a change requires a kind of leap of faith: you decide to move in the direction of the unknown on the promise that something will be better for you. But you have no proof. Taking that leap of faith is risky, and people will only take active steps toward the unknown if they genuinely believe – and perhaps more importantly, feel – that the risks of standing still are greater than those of moving forward in a new direction. Making a change is all about managing risk. If you are making the case for change, be sure to set out in stark, truthful terms why you believe the risk situation favors change. Use numbers whenever you can, because we in the West pay attention to numbers. At the very least, they get our attention, and then when the rational mind is engaged, the emotional mind (which is typically most decisive) can begin to grapple with the prospect of change. But if you only sell your idea of change based on idealistic, unseen promises of reward, you won’t be nearly as effective in moving people to action. The power of the human fight-or-flight response can be activated to fight for change, but that begins with the perception of risk.
2. PEOPLE FEEL CONNECTED TO OTHER PEOPLE WHO ARE IDENTIFIED WITH THE OLD WAY
We are a social species. We become and like to remains connected to those we know, those who have taught us, those with whom we are familiar – even at times to our own detriment. Loyalty certainly helped our ancestors hunt antelope and defend against the aggressions of hostile tribes, and so we are hard wired, I believe, to form emotional bonds of loyalty, generally speaking. If you ask people in an organization to do things in a new way, as rational as that new way may seem to you, you will be setting yourself up against all that hard wiring, all those emotional connections to those who taught your audience the old way - and that’s not trivial. At the very least, as you craft your change message, you should make statements that honor the work and contributions of those who brought such success to the organization in the past, because on a very human but seldom articulated level, your audience will feel asked to betray their former mentors (whether those people remain in the organization or not). A little good diplomacy at the outset can stave off a lot of resistance.
3. PEOPLE HAVE NO ROLE MODELS FOR THE NEW ACTIVITY
Never underestimate the power of observational learning. If you see yourself as a change agent, you probably are something of a dreamer, someone who uses the imagination to create new possibilities that do not currently exist. Well, most people don’t operate that way. It’s great to be a visionary, but communicating a vision is not enough. Get some people on board with your idea, so that you or they can demonstrate how the new way can work. Operationally, this can mean setting up effective pilot programs that model a change and work out the kinks before taking your innovation “on the road.” For most people, seeing is believing. Less rhetoric and more demonstration can go a long way toward overcoming resistance, changing people’s objections from the “It can’t be done!” variety to the “How can we get it done?” category.
4. PEOPLE FEAR THEY LACK THE COMPETENCE TO CHANGE
This is a fear people will seldom admit. But sometimes, change in organizations necessitates changes in skills, and some people will feel that they won’t be able to make the transition very well. They don’t think they, as individuals, can do it. The hard part is that some of them may be right. But in many cases, their fears will be unfounded, and that’s why part of moving people toward change requires you to be an effective motivator. Even more, a successful change campaign includes effective new training programs, typically staged from the broad to the specific. By this I mean that initial events should be town-hall type information events, presenting the rationale and plan for change, specifying the next steps, outlining future communications channels for questions, etc., and specifying how people will learn the specifics of what will be required of them, from whom, and when. Then, training programs must be implemented and evaluated over time. In this way, you can minimize the initial fear of a lack of personal competence for change by showing how people will be brought to competence throughout the change process. Then you have to deliver.
5. PEOPLE FEEL OVERLOADED AND OVERWHELMED
Fatigue can really kill a change effort, for an individual or for an organization. If, for example, you believe you should quit smoking, but you’ve got ten projects going and four kids to keep up with, it can be easy to put off your personal health improvement project (until your first heart attack or cancer scare, when suddenly the risks of standing still seem greater than the risks of change!). When you’re introducing a change effort, be aware of fatigue as a factor in keeping people from moving forward, even if they are telling you they believe in the wisdom of your idea. If an organization has been through a lot of upheaval, people may resist change just because they are tired and overwhelmed, perhaps at precisely the time when more radical change is most needed! That’s when you need to do two things: re-emphasize the risk scenario that forms the rationale for change (as in my cancer scare example), and also be very generous and continuously attentive with praise, and with understanding for people’s complaints, throughout the change process. When you reemphasize the risk scenario, you’re activating people’s fears, the basic fight-or-flight response we all possess. But that’s not enough, and fear can produce its own fatigue. You’ve got to motivate and praise accomplishments as well, and be patient enough to let people vent (without getting too caught up in attending to unproductive negativity).
6. PEOPLE HAVE A HEALTHY SKEPTICISM AND WANT TO BE SURE NEW IDEAS ARE SOUND
It’s important to remember that few worthwhile changes are conceived in their final, best form at the outset. Healthy skeptics perform an important social function: to vet the change idea or process so that it can be improved upon along the road to becoming reality. So listen to your skeptics, and pay attention, because some percentage of what they have to say will prompt genuine improvements to your change idea (even if some of the criticism you will hear will be based more on fear and anger than substance).
7. PEOPLE FEAR HIDDEN AGENDAS AMONG WOULD-BE REFORMERS
Let’s face it, reformers can be a motley lot. Not all are to be trusted. Perhaps even more frightening, some of the worst atrocities modern history has known were begun by earnest people who really believed they knew what was best for everyone else. Reformers, as a group, share a blemished past . . . And so, you can hardly blame those you might seek to move toward change for mistrusting your motives, or for thinking you have another agenda to follow shortly. If you seek to promote change in an organization, not only can you expect to encounter resentment for upsetting the established order and for thinking you know better than everyone else, but you may also be suspected of wanted to increase your own power, or even eliminate potential opposition through later stages of change.

I saw this in a recent change management project for which I consulted, when management faced a lingering and inextinguishable suspicion in some quarters that the whole affair was a prelude to far-reaching layoffs. It was not the case, but no amount of reason or reassurance sufficed to quell the fears of some people. What’s the solution? Well, you’d better be interested in change for the right reasons, and not for personal or factional advantage, if you want to minimize and overcome resistance. And you’d better be as open with information and communication as you possibly can be, without reacting unduly to accusations and provocations, in order to show your good faith, and your genuine interest in the greater good of the organization. And if your change project will imply reductions in workforce, then be open about that and create an orderly process for outplacement and in-house retraining. Avoid the drip-drip-drip of bad news coming out in stages, or through indirect communication or rumor. Get as much information out there as fast as you can and create a process to allow everyone to move on and stay focused on the change effort.
8. PEOPLE FEEL THE PROPOSED CHANGE THREATENS THEIR NOTIONS OF THEMSELVES
Sometimes change on the job gets right to a person’s sense of identity. When a factory worker begins to do less with her hands and more with the monitoring of automated instruments, she may lose her sense of herself as a craftsperson, and may genuinely feel that the very things that attracted her to the work in the first place have been lost. I saw this among many medical people and psychologists during my graduate training, as the structures of medical reimbursement in this country changed in favor of the insurance companies, HMO’s and managed care organizations. Medical professionals felt they had less say in the treatment of their patients, and felt answerable to less well trained people in the insurance companies to approve treatments the doctors felt were necessary. And so, the doctors felt they had lost control of their profession, and lost the ability to do what they thought best for patients.

My point is not to take sides in that argument, but to point out how change can get right to a person’s sense of identity, the sense of self as a professional. As a result, people may feel that the intrinsic rewards that brought them to a particular line of work will be lost with the change. And in some cases, they may be absolutely right. The only answer is to help people see and understand the new rewards that may come with a new work process, or to see how their own underlying sense of mission and values can still be realized under the new way of operating. When resistance springs from these identity-related roots, it is deep and powerful, and to minimize its force, change leaders must be able to understand it and then address it, acknowledging that change does have costs, but also, (hopefully) larger benefits.
9. PEOPLE ANTICIPATE A LOSS OF STATUS OR QUALITY OF LIFE
Real change reshuffles the deck a bit. Reshuffling the deck can bring winners . . . and losers. Some people, most likely, will gain in status, job security, quality of life, etc. with the proposed change, and some will likely lose a bit. Change does not have to be a zero sum game, and change can (and should) bring more advantage to more people than disadvantage. But we all live in the real world, and let’s face it – if there were no obstacles (read: people and their interests) aligned against change, then special efforts to promote change would be unnecessary.

Some people will, in part, be aligned against change because they will clearly, and in some cases correctly, view the change as being contrary to their interests. There are various strategies for minimizing this, and for dealing with steadfast obstacles to change in the form of people and their interests, but the short answer for dealing with this problem is to do what you can to present the inevitability of the change given the risk landscape, and offer to help people to adjust. Having said that, I’ve never seen a real organizational change effort that did not result in some people choosing to leave the organization, and sometimes that’s best for all concerned. When the organization changes, it won’t be to everyone’s liking, and in that case, it’s best for everyone to be adult about it and move on.
10. PEOPLE GENUINELY BELIEVE THAT THE PROPOSED CHANGE IS A BAD IDEA
I’ll never forget what a supervisor of mine said to be, during the year after I had graduated from college, secure as I was in the knowledge of my well earned, pedigreed wisdom at age twenty-two. We were in a meeting, and I made the comment, in response to some piece of information, “Oh, I didn’t know that!” Ricky, my boss, looked at me sideways, and commented dryly, “Things you don’t know . . . fill libraries.” The truth is, sometimes someone’s (even – gasp! – my) idea of change is just not a good idea. Sometimes people are not being recalcitrant, or afraid, or muddle-headed, or nasty, or foolish when they resist. They just see that we’re wrong. And even if we’re not all wrong, but only half wrong, or even if we’re right, it’s important not to ignore when people have genuine, rational reservations or objections.

Not all resistance is about emotion, in spite of this list I’ve assembled here. To win people’s commitment for change, you must engage them on both a rational level and an emotional level. I’ve emphasized the emotional side of the equation for this list because I find, in my experience, that this is the area would-be change agents understand least well. But I’m also mindful that a failure to listen to and respond to people’s rational objections and beliefs is ultimately disrespectful to them, and to assume arrogantly that we innovative, change agent types really do know best. A word to the wise: we’re just as fallible as anyone.
The six phases personal or professional change
1. Anticipation. The waiting stage. They really don't know what to expect so they wait, anticipating what the future holds.
2. Confrontation. People begin to confront reality. The realize that change is really going to happen or is happening.
3. Realization. Post change - Realizing that nothing is ever going to be as it once was.
4. Depression. Often a necessary step in the change process. This is the stage where a person mourns the past. Not only have they realized the change intellectually, but now they are beginning to comprehend it emotionally as well.
5. Acceptance. Aacceptance of the change emotionally. Although they may still have reservations, they are not fighting the change at this stage. They may even see some of the benefits even if they are not completely convinced.
6. Enlightenment. In Phase 6, people completely accept the new change. In fact, many wonder how they ever managed the "old" way. Overall, they feel good about the change and accept it as the status quo from here forward.
It is important to note that people in the organizations will proceed through the different phases at different rates of speed. One person may require two months to reach Phase 6 while another may require twelve. To make things even more complex, the cycle of change is not linear. In other words, a person does not necessarily complete Phase 1 through 6 in order. It is much more common for people to jump around. One person may go from Phase 4 to Phase 5 and then back to Phase 2 again. That is why there is no easy way to determine how long a change will take to implement. However, by using the skills we've outlined above, you increase your chances of managing the change as effectively as possible.
Most people prefer predictability and stability in both their personal and professional lives. People typically avoid situations that upset order, threaten their self-interests, increase stress or involve risk. When faced with changes to the status quo, people usually resist initially. The resistance continues and, in some cases increases, until they are able to recognize the benefits of change and perceive the gains to be worth more than the risk or threats to their self-interests. James O'Toole points out in his book, Leading Change, that people resist change due to the fundamental human objection to having the will of others imposed upon them.
Overcoming Resistance to Change: Most Common Ways
• Education and communication
• Participation and involvement
• Facilitation and support
• Negotiation and agreement
• Manipulation and co-optation
• Explicit and implicit coercion

Leaders should anticipate resistance to any change effort, prepare for it, and make special efforts to assess and deal with individual reactions to change.
Leaders must develop the proper attitude toward resistance to change and realize that it is neither good nor bad. In fact, resistance can serve as a signal that there are ways in which the change effort should be modified and improved. The following steps should help leaders faced with resistance to their change attempts:
• Actively seek out people's thoughts and reactions to the proposed changes.
• Listen carefully. Do not launch into lengthy diatribes justifying the change - in the early stages, people are not interested in that. They want to be heard and have their concerns attended to. Recognize that it takes time to work through reactions to change.
• Engage people in dialogue about the change. Leaders should do this only after fully understanding the specific concerns of others.
• Involve Others
There is no better way to minimize resistance to change than to involve those responsible for implementing it and those affected by it. If there is no involvement early on in the planning, during the implementation and throughout perpetuation, the change effort will fail. When people feel that they are valued participants in planning and implementing the change, they are more likely to be motivated toward successful completion. The following techniques are effective ways to get people involved and gain their commitment to change efforts:
• Determine who must be involved in planning the change and include them in the decision making process. Err on the side of involving more people rather than fewer. If there is a question as to whether or not a certain person's support will be needed, include them.
• Ensure that people from all levels of the organization are involved in planning the change process. This means involving the people that are at the on the floor level as well. It will be these people who will make the change process succeed or fail.
• Consult with employees from the areas affected by the change when determining the steps needed for change.
• Seek input from people at all levels to establish realistic time frames for specific actions.
• When possible, run a test program with a selected work unit and solicit feedback on what is working well, where the problem areas are and how to work out any difficulties.
• Publicly recognize any employees whose suggestions are used in the change process.
• Design a mechanism that provides ongoing feedback from employees throughout the change effort. Involved people are an effective barometer of what is working well and what is not working well. Ask them to suggest improvements.


http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/resistance_change/resistance_change.htm
http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/change_resistance.html
http://www.newfoundations.com/OrgTheory/Bolognese721.html
http://www.businessperform.com/change-management/resistance_to_change.html
http://www.managingchange.biz/manage_change_resistance.html
http://www.schulersolutions.com/resistance_to_change.html
http://archive.gao.gov/d32t10/146630.pdf
http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Security/Lack-of-Controls-IT-Budget-Hurting-Database-Security-Efforts/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_system
http://www.tdan.com/view-articles/5262
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Jovylin O. Sandoval

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 3 (Due: before December 06, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Fri Jun 25, 2010 2:37 pm

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan? Note: you are required to interview an IS professional/s for your answer

Last December 6, 2009, we had given again the chance to interview the MIS supervisor of SAMULCO (Sta. Ana Multipurpose Cooperative), which happened to be our adopted company before in MIS1. Fortunately, the MIS supervisor is so good and too accommodating onto us especially when we are going to interview him as for these things. Anyways, regarding on the two most frequently experienced of a company that cause their frustrations will be given below. But before that, I will just first discuss what is the IS Plan and Frustration are all about and it will be followed with the further discussions pertaining to it. Afterwards, the cause of frustrations of the company will now be discussed.

Information Systems Planning

Information Systems Planning (ISP) is the process of aligning an organization's business strategy with effective computer-based information systems to achieve critical business objectives. SISP is a top concern of major executives and considerable resources (time and money) are spent in SISP activities. Many SISP initiatives are not successful due to the difficulty of implementing the recommendations. A significant problem is the Specification Gap between the description of the recommended systems and the detail needed for actual system implementation. Existing SISP methods do not provide sufficiently rigorous representations to specify detailed system recommendations. Box structures are proposed as a solution to this problem and a SISP process with embedded box structure methods is presented. We have used this innovative process in two SISP projects with large organizations. Partial results from one of the projects are presented as a case study to illustrate the use of box structures and their benefits.

In order to gain competitive advantage in the knowledge-based economy, businesses are focusing on the value creation along the demand and supply chains. Information systems plan have also evolved from the focus of automation of discrete transactions to the enablement of the optimization of the value chain. The new paradigm requires the alignment of information systems plan with business strategies across the entire value chain. An integrated model is required to allow the coordination of activities and sharing of information amongst different organizations and systems through various processes across the extended enterprise. This work proposes an enterprise framework for the development of information systems strategies and plans. It further presents an approach for IS planning that has been practiced and refined through many IS/IT planning projects.

Moreover, developing an IS plan and in implementing this type of plan is done by a group or a team not by a solo individual. In a team may include project manager, systems analyst, programmers and design. It would be very nice if the persons belong on a certain group and even with the employees in the company work together and it will be frustrating if they will not work in tandem. When working on an IS plan, different heads with dissimilar ideas interacts at the same time. It isn’t healthy if all the people belong in one company are not unified due to office politics, jealousies, personal conflicts and etc. If we try to observe, emotions are still in there and we can’t perform our job because of some personal conflicts. Work is work. People are not paid by the company for their personal conflicts and dislikes, it’s their job and responsibilities are needed. The only person who can help in overcoming this cause of frustration is through us. Discipline ourselves and try to separate job or work with personal feelings. Be congeniality and perform every task that was given well. A discipline to one’s self is a good start to avoid frustrations at work or in the company.

When working on an Information System Plan, there are two essential actors that we always consider. They are the IS professionals and the users or end-users. The success of the organization’s Information System plan depends on those two actors. As what I have understood with information system plan definitely starts with identifying the needs of every end-users and as well as the company itself. When you plan an information system strategically, consequently it can be considered as a critical issue. It is a serious challenge that will be faced by the IS professionals. When a company aims to develop a computer-based system to be competitive with other bigger companies and be updated with the latest trend of technologies, it is necessary that every type of computer-based system must response to what the company and its end-users need. It is vital to know what the firm is planning for the next years that are why it must be specific enough, easy to understand, flexible and useful for the identifying the best way of purchasing and installing new information systems to maximize the return on its information technology investment. Once you’re done with your strategic information system plan, you could proceed with an action plan to illustrate the desired path and outputs that will be essential in aligning the use and need of information with the strategic direction of the firm.

An information system professional plays a big and vital role in planning, development and implementation of information technology in a firm. Information System professionals includes System’s Analyst, Project Manager, programmers, web designers, and IT specialist. They are just few of the professions present in developing a plan for the information system of a firm. An IS professional are able to analyze the company’s information and different processes using all the given business information models and specifically, IS professionals should capture and evaluate the possible risk that may occur during the planning, development and implementation part. The later should manage to know the current needs of its company and may gather all the valuable and necessary requirements needed for the success of the information system plan. As an IS professional, there are a lot of things that you need to consider such as how you will serve the firm’s business goals, how will you create a competitive advantage against the other company, and are you able to meet the firm’s data processing and management information needs. Organization’s information system plan is not only for the sake of having a tool to lessen the cost and expense of the firm but to add a value wherein every end user will be valued by the organization.



Frustration

Men are also emotional. We can’t deny the fact that often times in our life we face a scenario wherein we failed or unable to reach up to mark, and with this it brings frustration. Frustration is a common emotional response to opposition. Related to anger and disappointment, it arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of individual will. The greater the obstruction, and the greater the will, the more the frustration is likely to be. Causes of frustration may be internal or external. In people, internal frustration may arise from challenges in fulfilling personal and desires, instinctual drives and needs, or dealing with perceived deficiencies, such as a lack of confidence or fear ofsocial situations. Conflict can also be an internal source of frustration; when one has competing goals that interfere with one another, it can create cognitive dissonance. External causes of frustration involve conditions outside an individual, such as a blocked road or a difficult task. While coping with frustration, some individuals may engage in passive-aggressive behavior, making it difficult to identify the original cause(s) of their frustration, as the responses are indirect. A more direct, and common response, is a propensity towards aggression.

There are different reasons why we, human, feel frustrations. At school, in friends, family and especially our personal emotion can be the cause of frustration. At school, if we feel we don’t have some learning abilities may often frustrate students. In friends, when we feel betrayed and fails to keep its promises can be the reason of our frustrations too. In the family, when we feel we don’t belong and never been taken care of it will be very frustrating. And in our own personal emotion, what brings frustration in our life is on the way we handle our pride, how we understand the things poorly, suspicions and arrogance. At work or in our daily activities, stress can cause frustration. Stress marks due to some reasons such us busy schedules, demanding work, urgent jobs.

Sometimes, a failure n the development of an information system plan is due to the frustrations felt by both IS professionals and as well as the users. Doing a strategic information system plan is not an easy task thus IS professionals become frustrated for some reasons. The said reasons may include resistance to change, fast organizational change, budget and cost, lack of teamwork, top management’s decision. As what I have said earlier, in doing an IS plan there are a lot of things that we need to consider such as the needs of the company and the end-users, the cost, the expertise of every IS professionals, the predicted and unexpected risks, and especially the feelings of both IS professionals and end-users. Though we are familiar that doing an IS plan is more concern on planning how to convert every processes into a computer-based system but we should also consider the feelings of every person that will be involve for this for the success of the plan and will last on the estimated length of time that the plan will be effective.

When frustrations have occurred, it is well worth getting to the source so that you can handle it once and for all. What often leaves us frustrated is when the same problems come up time and time again. Get to the source of your frustration and from that, learn what needs to change or needs to be done differently in the future. Frustrations can also present an opportunity, although it may not feel like it at the time. They're an opportunity for growth and improvement. Next time you feel frustrated, I invite you to see it as an opportunity.

The given descriptions below are just example situations relating with the frustration that makes them an opportunity as well.

a. People have No role Models for the new activity.
Never underestimate the power of observational learning. If you see yourself as a change agent, you probably are something of a dreamer, someone who uses the imagination to create new possibilities that do not currently exist. Well, most people don’t operate that way. It’s great to be a visionary, but communicating a vision is not enough. Get some people on board with your idea, so that you or they can demonstrate how the new way can work. Operationally, this can mean setting up effective pilot programs that model a change and work out the kinks before taking your innovation “on the road.” For most people, seeing is believing. Less rhetoric and more demonstration can go a long way toward overcoming resistance, changing people’s objections from the “It can’t be done!” variety to the “How can we get it done?” category.

b. People anticipate a loss of status or quality of life.
Real change reshuffles the deck a bit. Reshuffling the deck can bring winners . . . and losers. Some people, most likely, will gain in status, job security, quality of life, etc. with the proposed change,
and some will likely lose a bit. Change does not have to be a zero sum game, and change can (and should) bring more advantage to more people than disadvantage. But we all live in the real world, and let’s face it– if there were no obstacles (read: people and their interests) align ed against change, then special efforts to promote change would be unnecessary.

c. The risk of change is seen as greater than the risk of standing still.
Making a change requires a kind of leap of faith: you decide to move in the direction of the unknown on the promise that something will be better for you. But you have no proof. Taking that leap of faith is risky, and people will only take active steps toward the unknown if they genuinely believe – and perhaps more importantly, feel – that the risks of standing still are greater than those of moving forward in a new direction. Making a change is all about managing risk. If you are making the case for change, be sure to set out in stark, truthful terms why you believe the risk situation favors change. Use numbers whenever you can, because we in the West pay attention to numbers. At the very least, they get our attention, and then when the rational mind is engaged, the emotional mind (which is typically most decisive) can begin to grapple with the prospect of change. But if you only sell your idea of change based on idealistic, unseen promises of reward, you won’t be nearly as effective in moving people to action.


Furthermore, here are some tips or things to know in order to lessen the frustrations:

a. Challenging Our Paradigms in Work and Career
Some of our biggest frustrations in life can come from our work environment. It might be work that is unfulfilling, co-workers that we have difficulty getting along with, or demanding organizational structures that seem to strip us of our time and suffocate our passion and creativity. We so often refer to this complex and stressful situation with a blanket term like "career burnout."
In many instances we may feel that our options for true fulfillment at work arelimited and our agreements generally take us into the following three patterns of coping with the dissatisfaction and frustrations.

b. Change the System
When we care very much about what we are doing there is a passion to have it done well. The organization, or the systems in an organization don’t always seem to support what we think are improvements. When our desired changes aren't implemented we are often frustrate. Our challenge then becomes to change the people who are invested in the status quo. Without support we may look like a rebel and a non-conformist. This wasn’t the result we were looking for. Aside from the possible alienation, without noticeable change this uphill battle wears us down and the next option starts to look better.

c. Give up the Fight for Change
Change is wonderful a thing when it is accepted, but when ideas do not move forward into action, they die. If we become tired of the battle for change we are tempted to drop the fight. We give up caring because caring about it just becomes too painful. If we find ourselves saying “It doesn’t matter” or “I don’t really care”, this usually isn’t exactly true. Often we do care, it is just too painful to let ourselves feel the frustration and so we cover it up and push it away with these words. The solution appears to do the minimum that is required and take your place in the system. This is a defeat of our passion, inspiration and creativity and can lead us to our third option.

d. Quit or Leave
This may entail going into your own business, finding another job, career, or for the spiritually inclined, leaving all your belongings behind and entering into a commune or ashram. This is essentially the “Grass is Greener Somewhere Else” solution. I remember vividly the jokes with my co-worker about shucking it all to sell ice cream on the beach. While it may very well be “better” in some ways someplace else, it also might not be, and so change is a risk. Not to mention the amount of disruption to ones life and lifestyle is not that appealing. There is a time and a place for this option, but be very aware of why you are doing it, and perhaps first, consider an alternate path below.

e. An Alternate Path
While there are aspects of our professional life that are unfulfilling and unchangeable, there are many aspects that we can affect. Often the biggest factors that make our jobs unfulfilling are issues we can change. These factors have to do with what is going on inside us. If we identify and eliminate the judgments and victimizing stories that we carry around about our work, co-workers, promotion, recognition, and the nature of the work, we can alleviate many of the frustrations. If we don’t deal with the underlying stories and beliefs that our inner judge and victim bring to the workplace they will often be carried into our next work environment. It will then appear that the new place was “just like the last place”, because our perceptions and our stories go with us. Once we deal with our stories and our point of view, then we can make the decision to make changes or look elsewhere with clarity and be sure of our choices.


However, even if frustration would exist to everyone, this would not mean that we cannot avoid or block this existence. How to deal this issue?

1. Ask Yourself, “What Is Working in This Situation?”
Even if feels like nothing is working, look closely and you will probably find at least something that is going right. So, that’s good. You’ve found something that’s working. Now, how do you improve it? By asking this question, you’ve taken yourself out of the negative mindset of “it’s hopeless” and are back to focusing on the positive. There's something that’s working and that will give you a clue of what direction to focus on. You may find that even if your previous issues come up you’ll be able to resolve them in the process of concentrating on your improvements.

2. Keep Accomplishments Log.
Write down everything you accomplish in a log. If you do it in a monthly format you will be able to see all that you have accomplished in just one month. You may be surprised by how much you have done. If you realize there’s not much on the list, it may open your eyes to the fact that you may be procrastinating more than working or that you are using too much of your energy going in too many directions and that you need to focus more. Hopefully, you will have lots of items on your list then you can see that even though it may not feel like it, you are moving forwards. The log will also help to highlight where you were the most effective and where you need to work harder.

3. Focus On What You Want to Happen.
Go back to the big picture. What is the desired outcome? Sometimes, we get so wrapped up in one problem and trying to solve it that we forget what we were originally trying to accomplish. Try not to ask yourself, “Why did this happen?” Asking questions like that will keep you rooted in the past. It doesn’t offer a solution to the problem.
The important thing is knowing the answer to the following two questions:
- What do you want to happen differently this time?”
- What do you need to do in order to get there?

4. Remove the “Noise” and Simplify.
When you’re trying to solve a problem, you can get so wrapped up in trying to find a solution that you add unnecessary clutter, noise, and tasks to a project because you thought they “might” be a solution. Working on this website, I get bombarded by offer after offer of “easy ways to run your website”, “get more traffic”, “make more money” etc. They’re just noise though and usually a waste of my time even reading them. These people are just trying to make money off of me. They have no interest in whether I succeed or not. When people are frustrated by how slow the hard work process is taking, they get tempted by these “here’s what you’ve been missing” and “I’ll make it easy for you” offers. Usually, it ends up that if you do get tempted by the offers you discover 6 months down the road that if you had just stuck with your first plan and just kept working at it, you’d be a lot further ahead by now. Not to mention richer from not having spent money on the Get Rich Quick schemes. Believe in yourself. Simplify and go back to the basics. Determine what is really necessary and remove everything else. Anything that takes your time and effort that isn’t adding value should be eliminated.

5. Multiple Solutions.
You always have options. You just need to brainstorm and figure them out. Tell yourself you need to come up with 8 possible options to what you’re dealing with. Just knowing that you have lots of options will help to make you feel better. You won’t feel like you are trapped in one negative situation. From your list, figure out the best direction and go for it.

6. Take Action.
When you get into serious frustration with a problem, you tend not to want to work on it anymore. It’s hard, it’s frustrating, and you’re not getting anywhere. So, anything to avoid having to be in that situation may be far more attractive. Procrastination may start to set in. If you can keep taking steps forwards, you will probably make it past this temporary hump. As Thomas Edison said, “Many of life's failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up” and “Surprises and reverses can serve as an incentive for great accomplishment.”

The other thing that can happen is that you start to spend a lot of time worrying. Worrying is a definite way of energy and does not move you in a forwards direction. Only taking action will. Once you start moving forwards again, you will most likely find that you worried for no reason.

7. Visualize a Positive Outcome to the Situation.
A lot of times you can get stuck on focusing on what you don’t want to happen or fearing the absolute worst thing that could happen. The top athletes of the world will imagine themselves competing flawlessly over and over again. There is no room for failure in their minds. This is what you need to focus on as well. See yourself achieving your desired outcome. What will it look like? What will it feel like? What will you say? How will you feel? Take the time to visualize it and really feel it. It will inspire you to keep moving forwards.

8. Stay Positive.
Things are usually not as bad as they first appear. Sometimes, things seem much worse simply because we’re tired or mentally drained. Taking a break and remembering to keep your sense of humor can also help. This time of frustration will pass. A positive mind is far more open to solutions and answers than a negative one that thinks it’s just “hopeless” and thinks “what’s the use?” A closed mind will not be able to see the possible solutions when they do come along. Stay positive.

Likewise, in relating to the Information System Plan there are also different frustrations that can be encountered in working with it:

1. Cost – see to that the system costing would depend on the quality of a project. Making a system is impossible without financial support. From the hardware to software, all of this has a cost. That's the reason why a company must have good financial capacity to cater expense of systems.

2. Mood - it refers to the behavioral condition of a programmer. Moods might influence the quality and performance of programmers while programming. It is evident from literature that positive and negative moods influence divergent thinking, quantity/quality of ideas and creative problem solving. The programmers' performance and the quality of their work could be affected by their moods when they develop or test an application.

3. Limitation (restriction) – it refers to the time allocated for the system to be finished.

4. System flow or manual procedure - see to it that whatever the customer wants, it is pertinent that he/she must prepare the important things or data needed in a particular project. For an instance, customer wishes for a quality and easy system, it is important to consider the following like manual procedure had been set, there is legal contract between you (programmer) and customer and finalize first the data and reports needed.

On the other hand, here I will discuss the two most frequently cause of frustration when they are working with an Information System Plan. As what the MIS Supervisor said to us, for him the two most causes of their frustrations in the company are the resistance to change and the budget or cost.

a. Resistance to change

The Management Information System Department of SAMULCO is managed by two personnel and one of those was our interviewee. The first thing that they frequently experienced while working with an IS plan is the resistance to change. As what he have explained to us, there are costumers who don’t want to use the system or they prefer and comfortable on the old system or they choose to do the manual system. I would agree when he said that we can’t force a costumer if he/she is not interested to adopt with the change, specifically on the change of the technology and the systems used to process the data. As what I have understood and stated above, an Information System Plan or a Strategic Information System Plan is developing a computer-based system that will help the needs of the company and its end-users, which includes the costumers and staff. It is about using applications that would be critical for the future success of the firm. Those computer-based applications is used to assist the cooperative in performing their business plans in correspond to their business goals. That is why Information Technology (IT) has been considered as one of the most effective and common ways to improve the performance of every business. And with that, it would be quite necessary to be updated with the latest trends of technology that would be useful for the company because it can be considered as an asset and advantage of a firm. But even if you manage to deliver a good information system plan and still not all of its users will embrace on to it, it will hinder the success of the IS plan. Resistance to change does not focus on the costumers or the users but also on the top management. In a firm, personnel belongs to the top management has a big right especially in deciding what will be best for the company. If the top management is not interested to adopt with the change, even if you create a good and maybe effective plan to help the company grow thus the top management don’t want to still the conclusion would be “NO”. In my own opinion, it would be nicer if all the end-users and even the top management will allow the change and will try to cope up with those changes. Planning for the information system of a company would be very effective if everyone will support for it.

According to my research, the other reasons why there is a resistant to changes are the following:

1. Creatures of habit
The usual things we did seems more comfortable. And changing the way people will operate or think is asking them to move outside their comfort zone. "We've always done it this way, so why do we need to change?" becomes the rallying cry for people who have difficulty changing their routines. In some cases, employees may ignore or deny the change simply because it requires them to experience something beyond their normal method of operation.

2. Fear of personal impact
Viewing change from a personal standpoint, some employees may respond by asking how the change will benefit them directly. Will it make their job easier? Will they have to work harder? Will the change put their job security in jeopardy? Will the change force them to work with different people or learn a new job?

3. Fear of the unknown
Employees may resist change simply because it is something unfamiliar. Not knowing much about the specifics of the change, they may imagine a worst case scenario, which can be very scary. They let fear of the unknown become their rationale for not giving the change a chance. These employees may acknowledge that a problem exists and agree that a change might improve it. However, they worry that the proposed change might actually make things worse! Their fear causes them to place roadblocks in the movement toward change.

4. Fear that the new way may not be better
If things have been going well, some employees may resist change because they fear that the change will not result in improvement. Focusing only on their part of the operation, they fail to realize that change is needed in order for the organization to stay competitive. They may resist forward movement because they are satisfied with the way things are going. Their current status is quite sufficient, and they wish to maintain business as usual.

5. Unwillingness to learn
Some employees, hesitant to try new routines, express an unwillingness to learn anything new. They may say, "I already know all that I need to know." Like resistant employees who have already made up their minds that the change won't be productive, employees reluctant to learn something new impede the organization's growth and adaptation to change. They also hinder their own personal growth and development.

6. Closed mind
Some employees seem to have the attitude, "Please don't confuse me with any facts or supporting documentation about this change--I've already made up my mind!" Employees with this attitude approach the change process with their minds firmly made up, muttering, "No way!" during discussions and explanations of the future.

7. Concern about support system
Employees operating within predictable routines know their support system will back them up during challenging times. Changing the organizational structures may shake their confidence in their support system. They may worry about working for a new supervisor, with new employees or on unfamiliar projects because they fear that if they try and fail, there will be no one there to support them.

8. Loss of control
Familiar routines help employees develop a sense of control over their work environment. They feel they know what works and what doesn't, and this makes them confident about their contribution to the organization. Being asked to change the way they operate may make employees feel powerless and confused.

9. No obvious need
Some employees may see a change only from the perspective of the impact it has on them and their particular jobs. Not seeing the big picture, they may fail to recognize the positive impact of the change on the organization as a whole. Thus they may find the change disruptive and totally unnecessary. Their attitude may be, "If things have been working well all this time, why do we need to change?" or, in other words, “If it ain’t broke, why fix it?”

10. Fear of failure
Fear maybe the root of resistance to change. During this period, some employees may feel the need to cling to the past because it was a more secure, predictable time. If what they did in the past worked well for them, they may resist changing their behavior out of fear that they will not achieve as much in the future.

Additionally, there’s also Top Ten Reasons why People Resist Change:
1. The risk of change is seen as greater than the risk of standing still
2. People feel connected to other people who are identified with the old way
3. People have no role models for the new activity
4. People fear they lack the competence to change
5. People feel overloaded and overwhelmed
6. People have a healthy skepticism and want to be sure new ideas are sound
7. People fear hidden agendas among would-be reformers
8. People feel the proposed change threatens their notions of themselves
9. People anticipate a loss of status or quality of life
10. People genuinely believe that the proposed change is a bad idea



b. Budget and Cost

The second cause of frustration of the MIS supervisor in developing an IS plan is the cost and budget.
A budget is one of those pivotal tools that is used across many departments within a company. For the developers, it dictates how much time to spend on specific areas of the application. For the project manager, it's a baseline used to determine whether the project is on track. For sales or the client, it correlates directly to the success of the effort. It's no surprise that one of the biggest issues in creating a budget is interpretation.

Based on their organization, there are certain situations that the budget for a particular project is not properly allocated. Thus, giving a perspective for them on not continuing the project since they have given limited resources and eventually could make the project fail. This is really a frustration to the Software developer’s side especially if the system is already in the process of User Acceptance Test. It is already hard for them to continue for they have insufficient funds.

Regardless of how close you come to reality, a client will be much happier if your project comes in below budget than over it; however, too high a risk value can create sticker shock, revealing inexperience and creating misgivings about your management abilities. By following the guidelines we've suggested and applying some common sense, you can be assured that your team, project drivers, and client will enjoy the benefits of a well-estimated project.
At the same time the user will be more frustrated because the deliverables are not being given to them properly and on time. The time problem could also be included in this frustration for if less budget is allocated to a certain project, there will be a tendency for the developer to cram if it already in the period of presenting it to its client. As I have said, the users are expecting for the said project to be deliver on that time then because of some delays, the developers tend to commit mistakes and in the end, ensuing to a project failure. And another big cost is at stake for this letdown.

In addition, the cost and the budget is vital and essential to be prioritize before you plan for a strategic information system plan because in planning, development and implementation of the IS plan the cost matters and everything would rely on how much the firm allocates for a certain project. The higher the budget the better IS plan will be developed. If we try to calculate, doing an IS plan needs a higher budget from planning to its implementation plan. When we plan we consider the technologies or gadgets that will be used during its implementation and even the budget for the experts that will handle the project. If I will put myself as one of the IS professionals that will work for an information system plan, the hardest part is on planning what will be the best way to manage the different needs of the users if the firm only allocates an amount that will not be enough for the project. Every IS professionals wants to cater all the needs of the end-users so they manage to think for another option that will lessen the cost that everyone will benefit.

And also I guess the main cause of frustration is when the IS professionals are unsuccessful in managing and coping the needs and if he/she fails to work with an IS plan that is flexible and effective even in a minimum budget. One basis why the IS professional develop an IS plan is to know what are the needs of the users and the company itself and be aware what’s lacking on their system for them to improve it. It would be disappointing if they fail to cater one’s needs. And it would be impressive if an IS professional manage to develop a good and effective IS plan even if the budget is not that big.

References:
http://www.life-with-confidence.com/how-to-stay-positive.html
http://www.charminghealth.com/applicability/frustration.htm
http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/HICSS.2000.926735
http://www.schulersolutions.com/resistance_to_change.html
http://www.stanford.edu/group/siqss/itandsociety/v01i03/v01i03a02.pdf
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PostSubject: Assignment # 3   Tue Jun 29, 2010 11:03 pm

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?
note: you are required to interview an IS professional/s for your answer ...

An Information System Plan or ISP, on the other hand, is basically a plan concentrated on aligning the information systems of an organization to its business plan as a whole. An information system is comprised of the hardware, software and peopleware of an organization. Usually, the term information system is related to using technology as a crucial part of an organization. The term is also used to identify the computer-based system that an organization is using. According to Michael M. Gorman, the information systems plan project determines the sequence for implementing specific information systems. The goal of the strategy is to deliver the most valuable business information at the earliest time possible in the most cost-effective manner. The end product of the information systems project is an information systems plan (ISP). Once deployed, the information systems department can implement the plan with confidence that they are doing the correct information systems project at the right time and in the right sequence. The focus of the ISP is not one information system but the entire suite of information systems for the enterprise. Once developed, each identified information system is seen in context with all other information systems within the enterprise. Gorman has also identified some of the characteristics that an ISP should have and these are the following:
An ISP should be timely. An ISP that is created long after it is needed is useless. In almost all cases, it makes no sense to take longer to plan work than to perform the work planned. The ISP must be useable. It must be so for all the projects as well as for each project. The ISP should exist in sections that once adopted can be parceled out to project managers and immediately started. The ISP must be maintainable. New business opportunities, new computers, business mergers, etc. all affect the ISP. The ISP must support quick changes to the estimates, technologies employed, and possibly even to the fundamental project sequences. Once these changes are accomplished, the new ISP should be just a few computer program executions away. While the ISP must be a quality product, no ISP is ever perfect on the first try. As the ISP is executed, the metrics employed to derive the individual project estimates become refined as a consequence of new hardware technologies, code generators, techniques, or faster working staff. As these changes occur, their effects should be installable into the data that supports ISP computation. In short, the ISP is a living document. It should be updated with every technology event, and certainly no less often than quarterly. The ISP must be reproducible. That is, when its development activities are performed by any other staff, the ISP produced should essentially be the same. The ISP should not significantly vary by staff assigned.
An Information System (IS) is any combination of information technology and people's activities using that technology to support operations, management, and decision-making.[1] In a very broad sense, the term information system is frequently used to refer to the interaction between people, algorithmic processes, data and technology. In this sense, the term is used to refer not only to the information and communication technology (ICT) an organization uses, but also to the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes. Some make a clear distinction between information systems, ICT and business processes. Information systems are distinct from information technology in that an information system is typically seen as having an ICT component. Information systems are also different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes. Alter argues for an information system as a special type of work system. A work system is a system in which humans and/or machines perform work using resources (including ICT) to produce specific products and/or services for customers. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to processing (capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying) information. Part of the difficulty in defining the term information system is due to vagueness in the definition of related terms such as system and information. Beynon-Davies argues for a clearer terminology based in systemics and semiotics. He defines an information system as an example of a system concerned with the manipulation of signs. An information system is a type of socio-technical system. An information system is a mediating construct between actions and technology. As such, information systems inter-relate with data systems on the one hand and activity systems on the other. An information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and are processed as a form of social memory. An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action. Information systems are the primary focus of study for the information systems discipline and for organizational informatics. Information systems are important tools for effectively meeting organizational objectives. Readily available, complete, and accurate information is essential for making informed and timely decisions. Being unable to obtain needed data, wading through unneeded data, or inefficiently processing needed data wastes resources. The organization must identify its information needs on the basis of a systematic identification and analysis of its mission and functions to be performed, who is to perform them, the information and supporting data needed to perform the functions, and the processes needed to most usefully structure the information. Successful information system development and acquisition must include a rigorous and disciplined process of data gathering, evaluation, and analysis prior to committing significant financial and human resources to any information system development. While implementing such an approach may not preclude all information system acquisition problems, it should produce detailed knowledge of organizational missions and operations, user information needs and alternatives to address those needs, and an open and flexible architecture that is expandable or that can be upgraded to meet future needs. The purpose and use of information system in the beginning was targeted towards reducing manual labor and increasing efficiency and thus reducing cost of doing business. Cost has thus been the ‘primal instinct’ justification for the usage of Information system in companies. Management seems to still use this justification even in today’s day and age because the IT salesman still thinks it’s the best and only way to get management buy-in. Moreover, as most other rationales used for IS have proved hard to sell, both the IT sales teams and their customers find a comfort zone in cost savings. This could also be because both sides (from all their previous experiences) are convinced of their failure before they even start out on a different track. The past experiences, in most cases were times they tried, half heartedly probably, without enough experience and failed. These failures have resulted in the baby being thrown out along with the dirty water.
For most businesses, the requirements on the computing side at least should include:
* Hardware; the actual computers and servers.
* Software; programs and operating systems.
* Phone lines.
* Internet systems.
* Computing consumables and peripherals.
*Information Technology Support.
* Computer training, if needed, for staff.
The amount of technological requirements needed by a business will again depend on the size and type of business. This is by no means an extensive list and all companies will be different, but this does represent at least the basic technology requirements. The budget may increase or decrease depending on the sophistication of the equipment and the software needed. Another issue that concerns budgetary factor is the decision whether to lease or buy technology. In the long run it may seem like buying is the less expensive option, but leasing is usually the cheaper option when repairs and upgrading technology are factored in. Most small businesses should take the leasing option in order to save on the capital outlay that comes with buying, and upgrading new technology. Marc Berthiaume cited some important considerations that a company should put in mind when planning for an IT budget. According to Berthiaume’s article, the following are some step-by-step guidelines to follow when planning your IT budget:
1. Calculate your technology costs from the previous year. Unless you are planning major changes in your IT strategy, this will give you a range to work with.
2. Most companies plan for moderate growth. These companies should set up a category for IT maintenance/support and one for new technology expenditures. (Companies should first calculate maintenance/support of existing equipment, since this number will remain approximately the same as the previous year.)
3. If you plan to purchase new systems or services, you should calculate the cost of the technology and then budget for installation and maintenance_ Depending on complexity, you also may want to budget for testing and downtime. Get estimates and make sure to pad this cost in case things take longer to install than originally expected.
4. Once you've calculated standard IT purchases and maintenance costs for the year, create a separate budget line for technology development--this is for longer-term IT planning, including new IT projects or major system upgrades.
5. Err on the conservative side and consider the possibility of leasing and outsourcing when faced with costly technology expenditures.
I can say that budgeting itself for an Information system (which already includes IT) is such a tedious task. Aside from the tips mentioned by article writers above, the IS planner could also develop his or her own standards on planning for the Information system based on the budget that he or she is given.
We have interviewed the MIS Supervisor of Samulco or Sta. Ana Multipurpose Cooperative last December 14. We asked him what are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration of IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan. And he answered these:
1. Lack of Budget- the company only has limited budget for the system or it does not have any budget for the system. A budget is generally a list of all planned expenses and revenues. It is a plan for saving and spending. The purpose of budgeting is to: Provide a forecast of revenues and expenditures i.e. construct a model of how our business might perform financially speaking if certain strategies, events and plans are carried out. And enable the actual financial operation of the business to be measured against the forecast.
The budget of a company is often compiled annually, but may not be. A finished budget, usually requiring considerable effort, is a plan for the short-term future, typically one year. While traditionally the Finance department compiles the company's budget, modern software allows hundreds or even thousands of people in various departments (operations, human resources, IT etc) to list their expected revenues and expenses in the final budget. If the actual figures delivered through the budget period come close to the budget, this suggests that the managers understand their business and have been successfully driving it in the intended direction. On the other hand, if the figures diverge wildly from the budget, this sends an 'out of control' signal, and the share price could suffer as a result. Not only is the Lack of Budget can make a system not implement, lack of budget can also Lack of Budget is one of the dangerous factors in a company.
2. Resistance to Change- Resistance to change is the action taken by individuals and groups when they perceive that a change that is occurring as a threat to them. Most people don't like change because they don't like being changed. When change comes into view, fear and resistance to change follow – often despite its obvious benefits. People fight against change because they:
• fear to lose something they value, or
• don't understand the change and its implications, or
• don't think that the change makes sense, or
• find it difficult to cope with either the level or pace of the change.
Resistance emerges when there s a threat to something the individual values. The threat may be real or it may be just a perception. It may arise from a genuine understanding of the change or from misunderstanding, or even almost total ignorance about it.
For some people resisting change, there may be multiple reasons. Adding to this complexity is the fact that sometimes the stated reason hides the real, more deeply personal reason. You will also need to recognize that people work through a psychological change process as they give up the old and come to either embrace or reject the new. Typically, they may experience an initial denial, then begin to realize that the change cannot be ignored. Strong feelings may emerge, such as fear, anger, helplessness and frustration. Finally, the person accepts the change either negatively, with feelings of resignation and complacency, or positively, with renewed enthusiasm to capitalize on the changes. Watch out for employees who get “stuck” in one phase. Offer your support. Allow space for people to work through the stages. Give employees time to draw breath and listen with empathy.

Resistance to Change in the Workplace: Main Reasons
Fear of the unknown. Change implies uncertainty, and uncertainty is uncomfortable. Not knowing what may potentially happen often leads to heightened anxiety. Resisting change is one of the anxiety-reducing actions. Fear of failure. The new order may require skill and abilities that may be beyond our capabilities. There is resistance to trying a new approach as people know how to operate in the existing order, but fear they will not be able to the new skills and behavior that will be required of them. Disagreement with the need for change. Associates may feel that the new direction is a wrong direction. Losing something of value. All associates want to know how the change will affect them. If people believe they will wind up losing as a result of the change, they will resist. Leaving a comfort zone. People are afraid to go after what they want because it would force them to stretch their comfort zones. It's only natural to put off things that scare us, to sidestep goals that require us to leave our comfort zone and take a risk. False beliefs. To put themselves at ease and avoid taking the risk, many people fool themselves into believing everything will all work out someday by itself. Misunderstanding and lack of trust. People resist change when they do not understand its implications and perceive that it might cost them much more than they gain. Such situations often occur when trust is lacking between the person initiating the change and the employees. Inertia. All organizations suffer from inertia to some degree and try to maintain status quo. Change requires effort, oftentimes, a significant one. So, don't underestimate the power of fatigue and burnout.

Additional Reason to Resistance to Change
The Risk Of Change Is Seen As Greater Than The Risk Of Standing Still. Making a change requires a kind of leap of faith: you decide to move in the direction of the unknown on the promise that something will be better for you. But you have no proof. Taking that leap of faith is risky, and people will only take active steps toward the unknown if they genuinely believe – and perhaps more importantly, feel – that the risks of standing still are greater than those of moving forward in a new direction. Making a change is all about managing risk. If you are making the case for change, be sure to set out in stark, truthful terms why you believe the risk situation favors change. Use numbers whenever you can, because we in the West pay attention to numbers. At the very least, they get our attention, and then when the rational mind is engaged, the emotional mind (which is typically most decisive) can begin to grapple with the prospect of change. But if you only sell your idea of change based on idealistic, unseen promises of reward, you won’t be nearly as effective in moving people to action. The power of the human fight-or-flight response can be activated to fight for change, but that begins with the perception of risk. People Feel Connected To Other People Who Are Identified With The Old Way. We are a social species. We become and like to remains connected to those we know those who have taught us, those with whom we are familiar – even at times to our own detriment. Loyalty certainly helped our ancestors hunt antelope and defend against the aggressions of hostile tribes, and so we are hard wired, I believe, to form emotional bonds of loyalty, generally speaking. If you ask people in an organization to do things in a new way, as rational as that new way may seem to you, you will be setting yourself up against all that hard wiring, all those emotional connections to those who taught your audience the old way - and that’s not trivial. At the very least, as you craft your change message, you should make statements that honor the work and contributions of those who brought such success to the organization in the past, because on a very human but seldom articulated level, your audience will feel asked to betray their former mentors (whether those people remain in the organization or not). A little good diplomacy at the outset can stave off a lot of resistance. People Have No Role Models For The New Activity. Never underestimate the power of observational learning. If you see yourself as a change agent, you probably are something of a dreamer, someone who uses the imagination to create new possibilities that do not currently exist. Well, most people don’t operate that way. It’s great to be a visionary, but communicating a vision is not enough. Get some people on board with your idea, so that you or they can demonstrate how the new way can work. Operationally, this can mean setting up effective pilot programs that model a change and work out the kinks before taking your innovation “on the road.” For most people, seeing is believing. Less rhetoric and more demonstration can go a long way toward overcoming resistance, changing people’s objections from the “It can’t be done!” variety to the “How can we get it done?” category. People Fear They Lack The Competence To Change. This is a fear people will seldom admit. But sometimes, change in organizations necessitates changes in skills, and some people will feel that they won’t be able to make the transition very well. They don’t think they, as individuals, can do it. The hard part is that some of them may be right. But in many cases, their fears will be unfounded, and that’s why part of moving people toward change requires you to be an effective motivator. Even more, a successful change campaign includes effective new training programs, typically staged from the broad to the specific. By this I mean that initial events should be town-hall type information events, presenting the rationale and plan for change, specifying the next steps, outlining future communications channels for questions, etc., and specifying how people will learn the specifics of what will be required of them, from whom, and when. Then, training programs must be implemented and evaluated over time. In this way, you can minimize the initial fear of a lack of personal competence for change by showing how people will be brought to competence throughout the change process. Then you have to deliver. People Feel Overloaded And Overwhelmed. Fatigue can really kill a change effort, for an individual or for an organization. If, for example, you believe you should quit smoking, but you’ve got ten projects going and four kids to keep up with, it can be easy to put off your personal health improvement project (until your first heart attack or cancer scare, when suddenly the risks of standing still seem greater than the risks of change!). When you’re introducing a change effort, be aware of fatigue as a factor in keeping people from moving forward, even if they are telling you they believe in the wisdom of your idea. If an organization has been through a lot of upheaval, people may resist change just because they are tired and overwhelmed, perhaps at precisely the time when more radical change is most needed! That’s when you need to do two things: re-emphasize the risk scenario that forms the rationale for change (as in my cancer scare example), and also be very generous and continuously attentive with praise, and with understanding for people’s complaints, throughout the change process. When you reemphasize the risk scenario, you’re activating people’s fears, the basic fight-or-flight response we all possess. But that’s not enough, and fear can produce its own fatigue. You’ve got to motivate and praise accomplishments as well, and be patient enough to let people vent (without getting too caught up in attending to unproductive negativity). People Have A Healthy Skepticism And Want To Be Sure New Ideas Are Sound. It’s important to remember that few worthwhile changes are conceived in their final, best form at the outset. Healthy skeptics perform an important social function: to vet the change idea or process so that it can be improved upon along the road to becoming reality. So listen to your skeptics, and pay attention, because some percentage of what they have to say will prompt genuine improvements to your change idea (even if some of the criticism you will hear will be based more on fear and anger than substance).
People Fear Hidden Agendas Among Would-Be Reformers. Let’s face it, reformers can be a motley lot. Not all are to be trusted. Perhaps even more frightening, some of the worst atrocities modern history has known were begun by earnest people who really believed they knew what was best for everyone else. Reformers, as a group, share a blemished past . . . And so, you can hardly blame those you might seek to move toward change for mistrusting your motives, or for thinking you have another agenda to follow shortly. If you seek to promote change in an organization, not only can you expect to encounter resentment for upsetting the established order and for thinking you know better than everyone else, but you may also be suspected of wanted to increase your own power, or even eliminate potential opposition through later stages of change. I saw this in a recent change management project for which I consulted, when management faced a lingering and inextinguishable suspicion in some quarters that the whole affair was a prelude to far-reaching layoffs. It was not the case, but no amount of reason or reassurance sufficed to quell the fears of some people. What’s the solution? Well, you’d better be interested in change for the right reasons, and not for personal or factional advantage, if you want to minimize and overcome resistance. And you’d better be as open with information and communication as you possibly can be, without reacting unduly to accusations and provocations, in order to show your good faith, and your genuine interest in the greater good of the organization. And if your change project will imply reductions in workforce, then be open about that and create an orderly process for outplacement and in-house retraining. Avoid the drip-drip-drip of bad news coming out in stages, or through indirect communication or rumor. Get as much information out there as fast as you can and create a process to allow everyone to move on and stay focused on the change effort. People Feel The Proposed Change Threatens Their Notions Of Themselves. Sometimes change on the job gets right to a person’s sense of identity. When a factory worker begins to do less with her hands and more with the monitoring of automated instruments, she may lose her sense of herself as a craftsperson, and may genuinely feel that the very things that attracted her to the work in the first place have been lost. I saw this among many medical people and psychologists during my graduate training, as the structures of medical reimbursement in this country changed in favor of the insurance companies, HMO’s and managed care organizations. Medical professionals felt they had less say in the treatment of their patients, and felt answerable to less well trained people in the insurance companies to approve treatments the doctors felt were necessary. And so, the doctors felt they had lost control of their profession, and lost the ability to do what they thought best for patients. My point is not to take sides in that argument, but to point out how change can get right to a person’s sense of identity, the sense of self as a professional. As a result, people may feel that the intrinsic rewards that brought them to a particular line of work will be lost with the change. And in some cases, they may be absolutely right. The only answer is to help people see and understand the new rewards that may come with a new work process, or to see how their own underlying sense of mission and values can still be realized under the new way of operating. When resistance springs from these identity-related roots, it is deep and powerful, and to minimize its force, change leaders must be able to understand it and then address it, acknowledging that change does have costs, but also, (hopefully) larger benefits. People Anticipate A Loss Of Status Or Quality Of Life. Real change reshuffles the deck a bit. Reshuffling the deck can bring winners . . . and losers. Some people, most likely, will gain in status, job security, quality of life, etc. with the proposed change, and some will likely lose a bit. Change does not have to be a zero sum game, and change can (and should) bring more advantage to more people than disadvantage. But we all live in the real world, and let’s face it – if there were no obstacles (read: people and their interests) aligned against change, then special efforts to promote change would be unnecessary. Some people will, in part, be aligned against change because they will clearly, and in some cases correctly, view the change as being contrary to their interests. There are various strategies for minimizing this, and for dealing with steadfast obstacles to change in the form of people and their interests, but the short answer for dealing with this problem is to do what you can to present the inevitability of the change given the risk landscape, and offer to help people to adjust. Having said that, I’ve never seen a real organizational change effort that did not result in some people choosing to leave the organization, and sometimes that’s best for all concerned. When the organization changes, it won’t be to everyone likes, and in that case, it’s best for everyone to be adult about it and move on. People Genuinely Believe That The Proposed Change Is A Bad Idea. I’ll never forget what a supervisor of mine said to be, during the year after I had graduated from college, secure as I was in the knowledge of my well earned, pedigreed wisdom at age twenty-two. We were in a meeting, and I made the comment, in response to some piece of information, “Oh, I didn’t know that!” Ricky, my boss, looked at me sideways, and commented dryly, “Things you don’t know . . . fill libraries.” The truth is, sometimes someone’s (even – gasp! – my) idea of change is just not a good idea. Sometimes people are not being recalcitrant, or afraid, or muddle-headed, or nasty, or foolish when they resist. They just see that we’re wrong. And even if we’re not all wrong, but only half wrong, or even if we’re right, it’s important not to ignore when people have genuine, rational reservations or objections. Not all resistance is about emotion, in spite of this list I’ve assembled here. To win people’s commitment for change, you must engage them on both a rational level and an emotional level. I’ve emphasized the emotional side of the equation for this list because I find, in my experience, that this is the area would-be change agents understand least well. But I’m also mindful that a failure to listen to and respond to people’s rational objections and beliefs is ultimately disrespectful to them, and to assume arrogantly that we innovative, change agent types really do know best. A word to the wise: we’re just as fallible as anyone.
The six phases personal or professional change
1. Anticipation. The waiting stage. They really don't know what to expect so they wait, anticipating what the future holds.
2. Confrontation. People begin to confront reality. The realize that change is really going to happen or is happening.
3. Realization. Post change - Realizing that nothing is ever going to be as it once was.
4. Depression. Often a necessary step in the change process. This is the stage where a person mourns the past. Not only have they realized the change intellectually, but now they are beginning to comprehend it emotionally as well.
5. Acceptance. Aacceptance of the change emotionally. Although they may still have reservations, they are not fighting the change at this stage. They may even see some of the benefits even if they are not completely convinced.
6. Enlightenment. In Phase 6, people completely accept the new change. In fact, many wonder how they ever managed the "old" way. Overall, they feel good about the change and accept it as the status quo from here forward.
It is important to note that people in the organizations will proceed through the different phases at different rates of speed. One person may require two months to reach Phase 6 while another may require twelve. To make things even more complex, the cycle of change is not linear. In other words, a person does not necessarily complete Phase 1 through 6 in order. It is much more common for people to jump around. One person may go from Phase 4 to Phase 5 and then back to Phase 2 again. That is why there is no easy way to determine how long a change will take to implement. However, by using the skills we've outlined above, you increase your chances of managing the change as effectively as possible. Most people prefer predictability and stability in both their personal and professional lives. People typically avoid situations that upset order, threaten their self-interests, increase stress or involve risk. When faced with changes to the status quo, people usually resist initially. The resistance continues and, in some cases increases, until they are able to recognize the benefits of change and perceive the gains to be worth more than the risk or threats to their self-interests. James O'Toole points out in his book, Leading Change, that people resist change due to the fundamental human objection to having the will of others imposed upon them. Overcoming Resistance to Change: Most Common Ways:
• Education and communication
• Participation and involvement
• Facilitation and support
• Negotiation and agreement
• Manipulation and co-optation
• Explicit and implicit coercion
Leaders should anticipate resistance to any change effort, prepare for it, and make special efforts to assess and deal with individual reactions to change. Leaders must develop the proper attitude toward resistance to change and realize that it is neither good nor bad. In fact, resistance can serve as a signal that there are ways in which the change effort should be modified and improved. The following steps should help leaders faced with resistance to their change attempts:
• Actively seek out people's thoughts and reactions to the proposed changes.
• Listen carefully. Do not launch into lengthy diatribes justifying the change - in the early stages, people are not interested in that. They want to be heard and have their concerns attended to. Recognize that it takes time to work through reactions to change.
• Engage people in dialogue about the change. Leaders should do this only after fully understanding the specific concerns of others.
• Involve Others
There is no better way to minimize resistance to change than to involve those responsible for implementing it and those affected by it. If there is no involvement early on in the planning, during the implementation and throughout perpetuation, the change effort will fail. When people feel that they are valued participants in planning and implementing the change, they are more likely to be motivated toward successful completion. The following techniques are effective ways to get people involved and gain their commitment to change efforts:
• Determine who must be involved in planning the change and include them in the decision making process. Err on the side of involving more people rather than fewer. If there is a question as to whether or not a certain person's support will be needed, include them.
• Ensure that people from all levels of the organization are involved in planning the change process. This means involving the people that are at the on the floor level as well. It will be these people who will make the change process succeed or fail.
• Consult with employees from the areas affected by the change when determining the steps needed for change.
• Seek input from people at all levels to establish realistic time frames for specific actions.
• When possible, run a test program with a selected work unit and solicit feedback on what is working well, where the problem areas are and how to work out any difficulties.
• Publicly recognize any employees whose suggestions are used in the change process.
• Design a mechanism that provides ongoing feedback from employees throughout the change effort. Involved people are an effective barometer of what is working well and what is not working well. Ask them to suggest improvements.
In conclusion, developing an IS plan can be a critical job for most companies and can produce possible source of frustrations on the IS planner’s part. These frustrations can be different from IS planner to another but they all provide a venue for the IS planner to think of ways to mitigate them. It is important to take note of important source of frustrations from planning an information system and develop a plan first in order to avoid them or lessen their impact on the actual planning and implementation itself. I may not be an IS planner now but from what I learned from the interviews and researches that I conducted I can generally say that the key move here is to think ahead, consider even the smallest details and consider the end users of the information system a significant part of the plan itself.
We should know how to face and handle frustrations because we do not know when we might encounter it. If we do not know how to handle frustrations then we might end up sulking in a corner because we feel rejected. Frustrations can cause downfall and sometimes complete failure on a man, an organization or a company. In the world of information technology, there are a lot of things that can become a cause of frustrations among the information technology or information systems professional. Another common form of frustration among the information technology or information systems professionals is change itself. Again, change is constant. It never stops on changing - changing people, changing economy, changing everything that you could ever imagine. Change can be good, for others, change can be bad. Some like it and some fear it. Yet, no matter how we see change, we still have a choice, either to accept and adapt to change, or to resist and remain unchanged. Change will always be there. For those who fear it, change will always haunt them. For those who like it, change will always be their sign of opportunity. Change, it is the only thing which is permanent, that it changes everything and that change itself is everything. Moreover, whether we like it or not, change happens rapidly. And for the record, most of the time people find themselves trying not to get left behind. The same thing happens in the world of Information Technology. Technology has come a very long way and it never stopped changing. From the very first computer man has ever built, up to the latest technologies man has never dreamed would ever be built. What is new today becomes obsolete in the next few months due to fast innovations and upgrades. In the part of the information technology or information systems professionals, it is a must for them to develop an information technology or information systems plan that is, as mush as possible, flexible for a number of years. Frustration can have a highly damaging impact on our frame of mind. It can turn a positive person into a person who sees nearly everything as a problem. It can slow you down, inhibit your progress, and at times completely immobilize you. We can become so wound up with our frustration that we do not, and cannot, think or act rationally. Our frustration can often exacerbate a situation and create a vicious circle. If we are convinced that our actions are not working, no matter how hard we try, we are much more likely to reduce, rather than increase, our chances of success. If you feel that your degree of frustration is really out of control, if it is having an impact on your relationships and on important parts of your life, you might consider counseling to learn how to handle it better. A psychologist or other licensed mental health professional can work with you in developing a range of techniques for changing your thinking and your behavior. Remember, you cannot eliminate frustration. In spite of all your efforts, things will happen that will cause you frustration and anger. Life is filled with frustration, pain, loss, and the unpredictable actions of others. You can't change that; but you can change the way you let such events affect you.
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