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 Assignment 9 (Due: February 12, 2010, before 01:00pm)

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basith_jumat

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: February 12, 2010, before 01:00pm)   Sun Jun 13, 2010 4:22 pm

The change in processes, corporate culture, systems management and operational objectives that result from information technology and organizational change requires careful and dedicated planning. Organizations that do not take the time to plan appropriately risk compromising their operational goals and objectives. Well how will those companies accept the changes may take place as information technology is concern? A company is required to hire personnel who have the skills to work with the new technology processes

Innovation

Innovation is a new way of doing something or "new stuff that is made useful". It may refer to incremental and emergent or radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations. Following Schumpeter (1934), contributors to the scholarly literature on innovation typically distinguish between invention, an idea made manifest, and innovation, ideas applied successfully in practice. In many fields, such as the arts, economics and government policy, something new must be substantially different to be innovative. In economics the change must increase value, customer value, or producer value. The goal of innovation is positive change, to make someone or something better. Innovation leading to increased productivity is the fundamental source of increasing wealth in an economy.

Innovation is an important topic in the study of economics, business, design, technology, sociology, and engineering. Colloquially, the word "innovation" is often synonymous with the output of the process. However, economists tend to focus on the process itself, from the origination of an idea to its transformation into something useful, to its implementation; and on the system within which the process of innovation unfolds. Since innovation is also considered a major driver of the economy, especially when it leads to new product categories or increasing productivity, the factors that lead to innovation are also considered to be critical to policy makers. In particular, followers of innovation economics stress using public policy to spur innovation and growth.

In order to be effective, the use of technology in education must involve not only the provision of equipment such as computer hardware and software, but also the human aspects of essential content, engaging presentation, effective pedagogy, appropriate evaluation, and widespread dissemination. Communication and computing provide dynamic tools, placing nearly continuous demands on financial reserves and human resources as equipment and professional training are revised and upgraded. The NSF-hosted workshop presented in these proceedings addressed these and other issues in order to define unique perspectives, concerns, and desirable benefits of educational technology to a broad spectrum of constituents. The notion of widespread, uniform access to information technology is not a trivial problem. As more adults, paraprofessionals, and part-time students utilize the classroom or laboratory to seek skills in the use of generic or specialized technology, we see that the traditional purviews of academe now extend deep into the entire community. Regardless of the rapidity or direction of change offered by exciting and revolutionary new technologies, the true challenge for developing guiding principles for their appropriate implementation lies in the inclusion of all students at all types of academic institutions, with secure and tangible links to the public and private sectors. Again, while access for all, coherence in underlying infrastructure, and compliance between the skills taught in school and those necessary in the workplace are fundamental to this discussion, it is the collective effort of our human capital that will ensure these powerful tools do not instead widen the gulf between the haves and the have-nots. As this vast endeavor is begun, the cross-divisional and multidisciplinary activities will encourage projects that create effective learning environments with the broadest possible access to them.” This I find as an inspiration for this institution to at least conceive an act or a program like this.


http://www.ewita.com/earlywork/itb.htm
http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2003/2003313.pdf
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Michael George Guanzon

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PostSubject: assign #9   Sun Jun 20, 2010 9:42 pm

The pace of change seems to increase relentlessly, especially changes involving information technology. Using your crystal ball, identify and discuss three changes likely to have substantial impact on your school services in the next three years. (1500 words)

For how many years did we knew that the changes brought by technology greatly affect the entire universe, we could think of the probabilities and experiences that what we do not have or do in the past are the things that occupy our attention now. Likewise, the way we are living today might not be similar in the future in some ways. And because technology is the catalyst of these fast variations, things that we anticipate in the forthcoming years might be the effects of the changes in the trends of information technology (IT).

Changes involving Information technology nowadays is really fast. Information technology has been used in all companies and establishments, especially in schools. The use Information Technology in schools is very important so that the students can know what the latest trends in IT are nowadays and also to help the students in sufficing their needs.

For me, these are the three changes likely to have substantial impact on the school services in the next three years:

1.) RFID stands for Radio-Frequency Identification for Student’s ID

Radio frequency identification is a powerful emerging technology that enables companies to achieve total business visibility. By knowing the identity, location and conditions of assets, tools, inventory, people and more, companies can optimize business processes and reduce operational costs.

The acronym refers to small electronic devices that consist of a small chip and an antenna. The chip typically is capable of carrying 2,000 bytes of data or less. The RFID device serves the same purpose as a bar code or a magnetic strip on the back of a credit card or ATM card; it provides a unique identifier for that object. And, just as a bar code or magnetic strip must be scanned to get the information, the RFID device must be scanned to retrieve the identifying information. Its advantages are: RFID tags are very simple to install/inject inside the body of animals, thus helping to keep a track on them. This is useful in animal husbandry and on poultry farms. The installed RFID tags give information about the age, vaccinations and health of the animals; RFID technology is better than bar codes as it cannot be easily replicated and therefore, it increases the security of the product.; Supply chain management forms the major part of retail business and RFID systems play a key role by managing updates of stocks, transportation and logistics of the product; Barcode scanners have repeatedly failed in providing security to gems and jewelries in shops. But nowadays, RFID tags are placed inside jewelry items and an alarm is installed at the exit doors; The RFID tags can store data up to 2 KB whereas, the bar code has the ability to read just 10-12 digits.

History and technology background

An RFID tag used for electronic toll collection.
In 1945 Léon Theremin invented an espionage tool for the Soviet Union which retransmitted incident radio waves with audio information. Sound waves vibrated a diaphragm which slightly altered the shape of the resonator, which modulated the reflected radio frequency. Even though this device was a covert listening device, not an identification tag, it is considered to be a predecessor of RFID technology, because it was likewise passive, being energized and activated by electromagnetic waves from an outside source.

Similar technology, such as the IFF transponder invented in the United Kingdom in 1915, was routinely used by the allies in World War II to identify aircraft as friend or foe. Transponders are still used by most powered aircraft to this day. Another early work exploring RFID is the landmark 1948 paper by Harry Stockman, titled "Communication by Means of Reflected Power" (Proceedings of the IRE, pp 1196–1204, October 1948). Stockman predicted that "... considerable research and development work has to be done before the remaining basic problems in reflected-power communication are solved, and before the field of useful applications is explored."

Mario Cardullo's U.S. Patent 3,713,148 in 1973 was the first true ancestor of modern RFID; a passive radio transponder with memory. The initial device was passive, powered by the interrogating signal, and was demonstrated in 1971 to the New York Port Authority and other potential users and consisted of a transponder with 16 bit memory for use as a toll device. The basic Cardullo patent covers the use of RF, sound and light as transmission media. The original business plan presented to investors in 1969 showed uses in transportation (automotive vehicle identification, automatic toll system, electronic license plate, electronic manifest, vehicle routing, vehicle performance monitoring), banking (electronic check book, electronic credit card), security (personnel identification, automatic gates, surveillance) and medical (identification, patient history).

An early demonstration of reflected power (modulated backscatter) RFID tags, both passive and semi-passive, was performed by Steven Depp, Alfred Koelle, and Robert Freyman at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1973.[2] The portable system operated at 915 MHz and used 12-bit tags. This technique is used by the majority of today's UHFID and microwave RFID tags.

The first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles Walton in 1983 U.S. Patent 4,384,288.
The largest deployment of active RFID is the US Department of Defense use of Savi [3] active tags on every one of its more than a million shipping containers that travel outside of the continental United States (CONUS). The largest passive RFID deployment is the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) deployment across 72 facilities implemented by ODIN [4] who also performed the global roll-out for Airbus [5] consisting of 13 projects across the globe.

2.) Wifi (Wireless Fidelity)

Wi-fi is the name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance, the organization that owns the Wi-Fi (registered trademark) term specifically defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local areanetwork (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards."

Initially, Wi-Fi was used in place of only the 2.4GHz 802.11b standard, however the Wi-Fi Alliance has expanded the generic use of the Wi-Fi term to include any type of network or WLAN product based on any of the 802.11 standards, including 802.11b, 802.11a, dual-band, and so on, in an attempt to stop confusion about wireless LAN interoperability.

Wi-Fi works with no physical wired connection between sender and receiver by using radio frequency (RF) technology, a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. When an RF current is supplied to an antenna, an electromagnetic field is created that then is able to propagate through space. The cornerstone of any wireless network is an access point (AP). The primary job of an access point is to broadcast a wireless signal that computers can detect and "tune" into. In order to connect to an access point and join a wireless network, computers and devices must be equipped with wireless network adapters (See "How Wireless Networks Work" in the "Did You Know..." section of Webopedia).

Wi-Fi is supported by many applications and devices including video game consoles, home networks, PDAs, mobile phones, major operating systems, and other types of consumer electronics. Any products that are tested and approved as "Wi-Fi Certified" (a registered trademark) by the Wi-Fi Alliance are certified as interoperable with each other, even if they are from different manufacturers. For example, a user with a Wi-Fi Certified product can use any brand of access point with any other brand of client hardware that also is also "Wi-Fi Certified". Products that pass this certification are required to carry an identifying seal on their packaging that states "Wi-Fi Certified" and indicates the radio frequency band used (2.5GHz for 802.11b, 802.11g, or 802.11n, and 5GHz for 802.11a).

A common misconception is that the term Wi-Fi is short for "wireless fidelity," however this is not the case. Wi-Fi is simply a trademarked term meaning IEEE 802.11x.

Operational advantages

Wi-Fi allows the deployment of local area networks (LANs) without wires for client devices, typically reducing the costs of network deployment and expansion. Spaces where cables cannot be run, such as outdoor areas and historical buildings, can host wireless LANs.

As of 2010 manufacturers are building wireless network adapters into most laptops. The price of chipsets for Wi-Fi continues to drop, making it an economical networking option included in even more devices.[citation needed] Wi-Fi has become widespread in corporate infrastructures.

Different competitive brands of access points and client network-interfaces can inter-operate at a basic level of service. Products designated as "Wi-Fi Certified" by the Wi-Fi Alliance are backwards compatible. "Wi-Fi" designates a globally operative set of standards: unlike mobile phones, any standard Wi-Fi device will work anywhere in the world.

Wi-Fi uses both single-carrier direct-sequence spread spectrum radio technology (part of the larger family of spread spectrum systems) and multi-carrier orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) radio technology. The deregulation of certain radio-frequencies[by whom?] for unlicensed spread spectrum deployment enabled the development of Wi-Fi products, Wi-Fi's onetime competitor HomeRF, Bluetooth, and many other products such as some types of cordless telephones.

In the US, the FCC first made unlicensed spread spectrum available in rules adopted on May 9, 1985.
Many other countries later adapted these FCC regulations, enabling use of this technology in all major countries.[citation needed] The FCC action was proposed by Michael Marcus of the FCC staff in 1980 and the subsequent regulatory action took 5 more years. It was part of a broader proposal to allow civil use of spread spectrum technology and was opposed at the time by mainstream equipment manufacturers and many radio system operators.

Wi-Fi technology has its origins in a 1985 ruling by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission that released several bands of the radio spectrum for unlicensed use.[5] In 1991 NCR Corporation/AT&T (later Lucent Technologies and Agere Systems) invented the precursor to 802.11 / Wi-Fi in Nieuwegein, The Netherlands. The inventors initially intended to use the technology for cashier systems; the first wireless products were brought on the market under the name WaveLAN with raw data rates of 1 Mbit/s and 2 Mbit/s. Vic Hayes, who held the chair of IEEE 802.11 for 10 years and has been called the "father of Wi-Fi" was involved in designing the initial 802.11b and 802.11a standards within the IEEE.

In 1992, the CSIRO obtained a patent in Australia for their wireless data transfer technology. In 1996, they obtained a patent for the same technology in the US.[6] WiFi uses the mathematical formula in the patents. In 2000, CSIRO demonstrated the world's first wireless local area network internet connection.[7]
In April 2009, 14 tech companies including Intel, Microsoft, HP, Dell, agreed to pay CSIRO $250 million for their Wi-Fi patent infringements.

Europe leads overall in uptake of wireless-phone technology,[citation needed] but the US leads in Wi-Fi systems partly because it leads in laptop computer usage. As of July 2005, there were at least 68,643 Wi-Fi locations worldwide, a majority in the US, followed by the UK and Germany. The US and Western Europe have about 80% of the worldwide Wi-Fi users. Plans are underway in metropolitan areas of the US to provide free public Wi-Fi coverage. Even with these large numbers and more expansion, the extent of actual Wi-Fi usage is lower than expected. Jupiter Research found that only 15% of people have used Wi-Fi and only 6% in a public place.

Internet access


A roof-mounted Wi-Fi antenna
A Wi-Fi enabled device such as a personal computer, video game console, mobile phone, MP3 player or personal digital assistant can connect to the Internet when within range of a wireless network connected to the Internet. The coverage of one or more (interconnected) access points — called hotspots — can comprise an area as small as a few rooms or as large as many square miles. Coverage in the larger area may depend on a group of access points with overlapping coverage. Wi-Fi technology has been used in wireless mesh networks, for example, in London, UK.

In addition to private use in homes and offices, Wi-Fi can provide public access at Wi-Fi hotspots provided either free-of-charge or to subscribers to various commercial services. Organizations and businesses - such as those running airports, hotels and restaurants - often provide free-use hotspots to attract or assist clients. Enthusiasts or authorities who wish to provide services or even to promote business in selected areas sometimes provide free Wi-Fi access. As of 2008 more than 300 metropolitan-wide Wi-Fi (Muni-Fi) projects had started. As of May 2008 the Czech Republic had 879 Wi-Fi based Wireless Internet service providers.

Routers that incorporate a digital subscriber line modem or a cable modem and a Wi-Fi access point, often set up in homes and other premises, can provide Internet-access and internetworking to all devices connected (wirelessly or by cable) to them. One can also connect Wi-Fi devices in ad-hoc mode for client-to-client connections without a router. Wi-Fi also connects places that would traditionally not have network access, for example bathrooms, kitchens and garden sheds.

Future directions

As of 2010 Wi-Fi technology has spread widely within business and industrial sites. In business environments, just like other environments, increasing the number of Wi-Fi access points provides network redundancy, support for fast roaming and increased overall network-capacity by using more channels or by defining smaller cells. Wi-Fi enables wireless voice-applications (VoWLAN or WVOIP). Over the years, Wi-Fi implementations have moved toward "thin" access points, with more of the network intelligence housed in a centralized network appliance, relegating individual access points to the role of "dumb" transceivers. Outdoor applications may utilize mesh topologies. As of 2007 Wi-Fi installations can provide a secure computer networking gateway, firewall, DHCP server, intrusion detection system, and other functions.

3.) Optical Mark Recognition (OMR)

Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) is used for standardized testing as well as course enrollment and attendance in education. Human resource departments across industries use OMR for applications such as benefits enrollment, employee testing, change of employee status, payroll deductions, and user training. Healthcare providers use the technology for registration and surveys, and medical labs for patient evaluations and tracking supply orders and lab services. OMR is also used for time and attendance, labor tracking, inventory management, voting applications, exit surveys, polling, and all manner of questionnaires and evaluation studies. Because it is easy to use and cost effective for opinion tracking, the technology has become a tool for on-location and direct-mail marketing.

Optical mark recognition (OMR) is the scanning of paper to detect the presence or absence of a mark in a predetermined position.[18] Optical mark recognition has evolved from several other technologies. In the early 1800’s and 1900’s patents were given for machines that would aid the blind.[19]
OMR is now used as an input device for data entry. Two early forms of OMR are paper tape and punch cards which use actual holes punched into the medium instead of pencil filled circles on the medium. Paper tape was used as early as 1857 as an input device for telegraph.[20] Punch cards were created in 1890 and were used as input devices for computers. The use of punch cards declined greatly in the early 1970’s with the introduction of personal computers.[21] With modern OMR, where the presence of a pencil filled in bubble is recognized, the recognition is done via an optical scanner.

The first mark sense scanner was the IBM 805 Test Scoring Machine; this read marks by sensing the electrical conductivity of graphite pencil lead using pairs of wire brushes that scanned the page. In the 1930s, Richard Warren at IBM experimented with optical mark sense systems for test scoring, as documented in US Patents 2,150,256 (filed in 1932, granted in 1939) and 2,010,653 (filed in 1933, granted in 1935). The first successful optical mark-sense scanner was developed by Everett Franklin Lindquist as documented in US Patent 3,050,248 (filed in 1955, granted in 1962). Lindquist had developed numerous standardized educational tests, and needed a better test scoring machine than the then-standard IBM 805. The rights to Lindquist's patents were held by the Measurement Research Center until 1968, when the University of Iowa sold the operation to Westinghouse Corporation.

During the same period, IBM also developed a successful optical mark-sense test-scoring machine, as documented in US Patent 2,944,734 (filed in 1957, granted in 1960). IBM commercialized this as the IBM 1230 Optical mark scoring reader in 1962. This and a variety of related machines allowed IBM to migrate a wide variety of applications developed for its mark sense machines to the new optical technology. These applications included a variety of inventory management and trouble reporting forms, most of which had the dimensions of a standard punched card.

While the other players in the educational testing arena focused on selling scanning services, Scantron Corporation, founded in 1972,[22] had a different model; it would distribute inexpensive scanners to schools and make profits from selling the test forms.[23] As a result, many people came to think of all mark-sense forms (whether optically sensed or not) as scantron forms. Scantron operates as a subsidiary of M&F Worldwide(MFW)[24] and provides testing and assessment systems and services and data collection and analysis services to educational institutions, businesses and government.

Westinghouse Learning Corporation was acquired by National Computer Systems in 1983. In 2000, Pearson Education acquired NCS; the OMR technology formed the core of Pearson's Data Management group. In February 2008, Pearson sold this group to M&F Worldwide, and it is now part of the Scantron brand[25].

OMR has been used in many situations as mentioned below. The use of OMR in inventory systems was a transition between punch cards and bar codes and is not used as much for this purpose.[26] OMR is still used extensively for surveys and testing though.

Capabilities/requirements

In the past and presently, some OMR systems require special paper, special ink and a special input reader (Bergeron, 1998). This restricts the types of questions that can be asked and does not allow for much variability when the form is being input. Progress in OMR now allows users to create and print their own forms and use a scanner (preferably with a document feeder) to read the information (Bergeron, 1998). The user is able to arrange questions in a format that suits their needs while still being able to easily input the data (LoPresti, 1996). OMR systems approach one hundred percent accuracy and only take .005 seconds on average to recognize marks (Bergeron, 1998). Users can use squares, circles, ellipses and hexagons for the mark zone. The software can then be set to recognize filled in bubbles, x’s or check marks (“Intelligence in Document Imaging”, n.d.).

OMR can also be used for personal use. There are all-in-one printers in the market that will print the photos the user selects by filling in the bubbles for size and paper selection on an index sheet that has been printed. Once the sheet has been filled in, the individual places the sheet on the scanner to be scanned and the printer will print the photos according to the marks that were indicated (M. Meek, personal communication, February 11, 2006).
Disadvantages
There are also some disadvantages and limitations to OMR. If the user wants to gather large amounts of text, then OMR complicates the data collection (Green, 2000). There is also the possibility of missing data in the scanning process, and incorrectly or unnumbered pages can lead to their being scanned in the wrong order. Also, unless safeguards are in place, a page could be rescanned providing duplicate data and skewing the data (Bergeron, 1998).
For the most part OMR provides a fast, accurate way to collect and input data; however, it is not suited for everyone’s needs.

As a result of the widespread adoption and ease of use of OMR, standardized examinations consist primarily of multiple-choice questions, changing the nature of what is being tested.



References:

http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/Wi_Fi.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio-frequency_identification
http://www.aimglobal.org/technologies/othertechnologies/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_mark_recognition
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leah_saavedra

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: February 12, 2010, before 01:00pm)   Mon Jun 21, 2010 1:03 pm

The pace of change seems to increase relentlessly, especially changes involving information technology. Using your crystal ball, identify and discuss three changes likely to have substantial impact on your school services in the next three years.

Since the school recently have Wi-Fi spots but there are some area are exclusive for personnel only. But I do believe that this coming 3 years, the University has a Wi-fi connection. This is very helpful to the students and visitor also to access the net even they are in school. Wi-Fi, which stands for wireless fidelity, in a play on the older term Hi-Fi, is a wireless networking technology used across the globe. Wi-Fi refers to any system that uses the 802.11 standard, which was developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and released in 1997. The term Wi-Fi, which is alternatively spelled WiFi, Wi-fi, Wifi, or wifi, was pushed by the Wi-Fi Alliance, a trade group that pioneered commercialization of the technology. In a Wi-Fi network, computers with wifi network cards connect wirelessly to a wireless router. The router is connected to the Internet by means of a modem, typically a cable or DSL modem. Any user within 200 feet or so (about 61 meters) of the access point can then connect to the Internet, though for good transfer rates, distances of 100 feet (30.5 meters) or less are more common. Retailers also sell wireless signal boosters that extend the range of a wireless network.

Wifi networks can either be "open", such that anyone can use them, or "closed", in which case a password is needed. An area blanketed in wireless access is often called a wireless hotspot. There are efforts underway to turn entire cities, such as San Francisco, Portland, and Philadelphia, into big wireless hotspots.
There is an especially effective technology that surrounds ID cards today and one that is slipping into greater use among companies and employers. This technology is called RFID, and the cards it powers are called ‘contactless smart cards.’

The technology behind the card is Radio frequency identification, or RFID. Wikipedia defines Radio-frequency identification (RFID)as an object (typically referred to as an RFID tag) applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.

RFID is a broad term that encompasses the span of technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects and work with a microchip to store information. The most common way of storing information is to store a serial number that identifies a person, object, or information on a microchip. The microchip is attached to an antenna and imbedded between the layers of the card. Information can be written, erased, and rewritten, and is stored on the microchip and transmitted by the antenna.

Instead of inserting your card into a card acceptor or scanning it through, all you have to do is passing within range of the radio frequency acceptor and you are done. You usually have to be within a few inches of the machine for it to operate, but it still saves a ton of time and headache. The greatest benefit of this card is its inherent security. Forging a card like RFID is very difficult and it greatly minimizes security risks. RFID cards can be used by anyone, and are most effective in every environment from the very large to the very small. Therefore, using this object as a student ID it will have a substantial impact to the university because it makes the lives of the student and faculty easier.
As we can observe, WIFI connection is spreading like wild fire. Almost everywhere we go there is WIFI connection especially in restaurants and coffee shops. I am predicting that the whole Philippines would be a WIFI hotspot. Too bad the ZTE broadband plan of the Philippines was covered with controversy because as far as I know the plan includes making most of the Philippines a WIFI hotspot (Correct me if I am wrong). But with or without ZTE, I would predict that almost the whole Philippines would be WIFI connected. As a result of unlimited Internet access anywhere, I would also predict that Web Based Systems would overrun Stand-Alone Systems. Stand-alone system doesn’t need other system in able to function. An example of this is our university’s enrollment system. Although it is networked it still is a stand-alone system because data within the system stays inside the system. Stand-alone systems may use networked computers or computers that are totally isolated from other computer. Stand-alone systems are disadvantageous in terms of access because the user must be on the place where the system is to access the services of the system while Web Based Systems are accessible anywhere if there is Internet connection. Easy access to services offered by a system is one of the most important feature of a system thus making Web based systems advantageous.

Why do I believe that having Internet access anywhere is substantial to the university? It is simple. Imagine accessing a web based enrollment system that is kilometers away from you. This could be very convenient for the actual user of the system, the employees of the school and other users of the system. It is convenient for the actual user because it spares him of the hassle of going to school, the cost of traveling to school and it saves the precious time that we would dedicate if he goes to school to enroll. It is also convenient for the employees because it minimizes their workload and focus on more development for the school. It is also convenient to other users because a Web Based System would mean lesser people doing their transactions inside the school. Although developing a web based enrollment system is hard, the thought of convenience for all the involved would push system analyst to develop such system. There is a wide range of Web Based services that could be developed for the benefit of the university.

Finally I foresee that Web Based Systems would overrun Stand-Alone Systems if and only if there would be an unlimited access of Internet anywhere we may go in our country.

A virtual learning environment (VLE) is a set of teaching and learning tools designed to enhance a student's learning experience by including computers and the Internet in the learning process. The principal components of a VLE package include curriculum mapping (breaking curriculum into sections that can be assigned and assessed), student tracking, online support for both teacher and student, electronic communication (e-mail, threaded discussions, chat, Web publishing), and Internet links to outside curriculum resources. Its advantages are: learning without any restriction as to time or space; courses based on modules with flexible time schemes, which take individual learning needs into account; and greater responsibility taken by students in the learning process.
Although the university already has its own enrollment system which for years have been developed, involved parties seem not really satisfied. With this, I consider the improvement of the said system to take place in the next three years. With the goal of minimizing the cost and time spent among the students, faculty and staff, the enrollment system is expected to be developed in a way that it is being efficiently utilized.

According to (Malone and Crowston, the increasing speed pace of change require more flexible and adaptive organizations. Rockart and Short cites the ballooning need for the interdependence of organizational structure to IT in managing competitive pressures that included globalization, time-based competition, increased market risk, and a greater emphasis on customer service and cost reduction. Bennis states that "the organization's response to the environment will continue to be the crucial determinant for its effectiveness."

As organizations use information, effective usage of Information Technology likely results to the organizations development and growth.

It is apparent that IT has great impact in the university, and whatever changes in IT has the university as an IT-reliant organization has to go with the changes in order not to be behind. As Keen (1991) noted that IT increasingly and continuously affects the organizations operations as well as its behavior including issues as on how the organization organize, transact business, and contend with other organization
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John Cesar E. Manlangit

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PostSubject: Assignment 9   Mon Jun 21, 2010 7:25 pm

Changes involving Information technology nowadays is really fast. Information technology has been used in all companies and establishments, especially in schools. The use Information Technology in schools is very important so that the students can know what the latest trends in IT are nowadays and also to help the students in sufficing their needs.
For me, these are the three changes likely to have substantial impact on the school services in the next three years:

Wifi for all students of the university

Wi-fi is the name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance, the organization that owns the Wi-Fi (registered trademark) term specifically defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local areanetwork (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards."Initially, Wi-Fi was used in place of only the 2.4GHz 802.11b standard, however the Wi-Fi Alliance has expanded the generic use of the Wi-Fi term to include any type of network or WLAN product based on any of the 802.11 standards, including 802.11b, 802.11a, dual-band, and so on, in an attempt to stop confusion about wireless LAN interoperability.Wi-Fi works with no physical wired connection between sender and receiver by using radio frequency (RF) technology, a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. When an RF current is supplied to an antenna, an electromagnetic field is created that then is able to propagate through space. The cornerstone of any wireless network is an access point (AP). The primary job of an access point is to broadcast a wireless signal that computers can detect and "tune" into. In order to connect to an access point and join a wireless network, computers and devices must be equipped with wireless network adapters (See "How Wireless Networks Work" in the "Did You Know..." section of Webopedia).Wi-Fi is supported by many applications and devices including video game consoles, home networks, PDAs, mobile phones, major operating systems, and other types of consumer electronics. Any products that are tested and approved as "Wi-Fi Certified" (a registered trademark) by the Wi-Fi Alliance are certified as interoperable with each other, even if they are from different manufacturers. For example, a user with a Wi-Fi Certified product can use any brand of access point with any other brand of client hardware that also is also "Wi-Fi Certified". Products that pass this certification are required to carry an identifying seal on their packaging that states "Wi-Fi Certified" and indicates the radio frequency band used (2.5GHz for 802.11b, 802.11g, or 802.11n, and 5GHz for 802.11a). A common misconception is that the term Wi-Fi is short for "wireless fidelity," however this is not the case. Wi-Fi is simply a trademarked term meaning IEEE 802.11x.Wi-Fi allows the deployment of local area networks (LANs) without wires for client devices, typically reducing the costs of network deployment and expansion. Spaces where cables cannot be run, such as outdoor areas and historical buildings, can host wireless LANs. As of 2010 manufacturers are building wireless network adapters into most laptops. The price of chipsets for Wi-Fi continues to drop, making it an economical networking option included in even more devices.[citation needed] Wi-Fi has become widespread in corporate infrastructures. Different competitive brands of access points and client network-interfaces can inter-operate at a basic level of service. Products designated as "Wi-Fi Certified" by the Wi-Fi Alliance are backwards compatible. "Wi-Fi" designates a globally operative set of standards: unlike mobile phones, any standard Wi-Fi device will work anywhere in the world. Wi-Fi operates in more than 220,000 public hotspots and in tens of millions of homes and corporate and university campuses worldwide. The current version of Wi-Fi Protected Access encryption (WPA2) as of 2010 is considered[by whom?] secure, provided users employ a strong passphrase. New protocols for quality-of-service (WMM) make Wi-Fi more suitable for latency-sensitive applications (such as voice and video); and power saving mechanisms (WMM Power Save) improve battery operation.I think the students who have laptops will not need to go to internet cafes anymore if the students will have an access on the Wi-fi of the university.

Ebooks for learning-

An e-book (short for electronic book and also known as a digital book, ebook, and eBook) is an e-text that forms the digital media equivalent of a conventional printedbook, sometimes restricted with a digital rights management system. An e-book, as defined by the Oxford Dictionary of English, is "an electronic version of a printed book which can be read on a personal computer or hand-held device designed specifically for this purpose".[1] E-books are usually read on dedicated hardware devices known as e-Readers or e-book devices. Personal computers and some cell phones can also be used to read e-books.

Advantages
 Availability- There are over 2 million free books available for download as of August 2009.[11] Mobile availability of e-books may be provided for users with a mobile data connection, so that these e-books need not be stored on the device. An e-book can be offered indefinitely, without ever going "out of print".
 Portability and Storage- In the space that a comparably sized print book takes up, an e-reader can potentially contain thousands of e-books, limited only by its memory capacity. If space is at a premium, such as in a backpack or at home, it can be an advantage that an e-book collection takes up little room or weight.
 Language Accessibility- E-book websites can include the ability to translate books into many different languages, making the works available to speakers of languages not covered by printed translations.
 E-Reader Attributes- Depending on the device, an e-book may be readable in low light or even total darkness. Many newer readers have the ability to display motion, enlarge or change fonts[12], use Text-to-speech software to read the text aloud, search for key terms, find definitions, or allow highlighting bookmarking and annotation. Devices that utilize E Ink can imitate the look and ease of readability of a printed work while consuming very little power, allowing continuous reading for weeks at time.
 Costs- While an e-book reader costs much more than one book, the electronic texts are generally cheaper. Moreover, a great share of books are available free of charge. For example, all fiction from before the year 1900 is in the public domain. Free samples are also available of many publications, and there are lending models being piloted as well. E-books can be printed for less than the price of traditional new books using new on-demand book printers.
 Security- Depending on possible digital rights management, e-books can be backed up to recover them in the case of loss or damage and it may be possible to recover a new copy without cost from the distributor.
 Distribution- Compared to printed publishing, it is cheaper and easier for authors to self-publish e-books. Also, the dispersal of a free e-book copy can stimulate the sales of the printed version.[13] An e-book can be purchased, downloaded, and used immediately, whereas when one buys a book one has to go to a bookshop, or wait for a delivery.
 Environmental Concerns- The production of e-books does not consume paper, ink, etc. Printed books use 3 times more raw materials and 78 times more water to produce

Drawbacks
 Changing Technologies- The formats and file types that e-books are stored and distributed in change over time, for instance from advances in technology or the introduction of new proprietary formats. While printed books remain readable for many years, e-books may need to be copied to a new carrier over time. PDF and epub are growing standards, but are not universal.
 Availability of Works- Not all books are available as e-books.
 Aesthetic Appeal- Paper books can be bought and wrapped for a present and a library of books can provide visual appeal, while the digital nature of e-books makes them non-visible or tangible. E-books cannot provide the physical feel of the cover, paper, and binding of the original printed work.
 Power and Shelf Life- A book will never turn off or be unusable. The shelf life of a printed book exceeds that of an e-book reader, as over time the reader's battery will drain and require recharging. Additionally, "As in the case of microfilm, there is no guarantee that [electronic] copies will last. Bits become degraded over time. Documents may get lost in cyberspace...Hardware and software become extinct at a distressing rate." [15]
 Durability- E-book readers are more susceptible to damage from being dropped or hit than a print book. Due to faults in hardware or software, e-book readers may malfunction and data loss can occur. As with any piece of technology, the reader must be protected from the elements (such as extreme cold, heat, water, etc.), while print books are not susceptible to damage from electromagnetic pulses, surges, impacts, or extreme temperates.
 Artistry and Author's Vision- An author who publishes a book often puts more into the work than simply the words on the pages. E-books may cause people "to do the grazing and quick reading that screens enable, rather than be by themselves with the author's ideas." [16]. They may use the e-books simply for reference purposes rather than reading for pleasure and leisure.[17]
 Costs- The cost of an e-book reader far exceeds that of a single book, and e-books often cost the same as their print versions. Due to the high cost of the initial investment in some form of e-reader, e-books are cost prohibitive to much of the world's population. Furthermore, there is no used e-book market, so consumers will neither be able to recoup some of their costs by selling an unwanted title they have finished, nor will they be able to buy used copies at significant discounts, as they can now easily do with printed books through Amazon's marketplace and other online retailers.
 Security- Because of the high-tech appeal of the e-reader, they are a greater target for theft than an individual print book. Along with the theft of the physical device, any e-books it contains also become stolen. E-books purchased from vendors like Amazon or Barnes & Noble.com are stored "in the cloud" on servers and "digital lockers" and have the benefit of being easily retrieved if an e-reading device is lost. Not all e-booksellers are cloud based; if an e-book is stolen, accidentally lost, or deleted, in the absence of a backup it may have to be repurchased.
 Limitations of Readers- The screen resolutions of reading devices are currently lower than actual printed materials.[18] Because of proprietary formats or lack of file support, formatted e-books may be unusable on certain readers. Additionally, the reader's interaction with the reader may cause discomfort, for example glare on the screen or difficulty holding the device.
 Digital Rights Management and Piracy- Due to digital rights management, customers typically cannot resell or loan their e-books to other readers.[19] However, some Barnes & Noble e-books are lendable for two weeks via their 'LendMe' technology.[20] Additionally, the potential for piracy of e-books may make publishers and authors reluctant to distribute digitally.[21]
 Environmental Concerns- E-book readers require various toxic substances to produce, are non-biodegradable, and the disposal of their batteries in particular raises environmental concerns. As technologies rapidly change and old devices become obsolete, there will be larger amounts of toxic wastes that are not easily biodegradable like paper.
 Privacy Concerns - E books and software can easily track data, times, usage, pages, and details about what one is reading and how often. Similar to this is the growing amount of data available through Google search engines, Facebook, and through data mining. For the first time in history it is now far more easy to track and record what specific people might be reading. The notions of privacy, private writing, solitude, and personal reading are changing.
 Picture Books - Books with large pictures (such as children's books) or diagrams are more inconvenient for viewing and reading.
I have heard from a staff of the library that ebooks will also be available in the university library.

Barcode

A barcode is an optical machine-readable representation of data, which shows certain data on certain products. Originally, barcodes represented data in the widths (lines) and the spacings of parallel lines, and may be referred to as linear or 1D (1 dimensional) barcodes or symbologies. They also come in patterns of squares, dots, hexagons and other geometric patterns within images termed 2D (2 dimensional) matrix codes or symbologies. Although 2D systems use symbols other than bars, they are generally referred to as barcodes as well. Barcodes can be read by optical scanners called barcode readers, or scanned from an image by special software.

Benefits
In point-of-sale management, the use of barcodes can provide very detailed up-to-date information on key aspects of the business, enabling decisions to be made much more quickly and with more confidence. For example:
 Fast-selling items can be identified quickly and automatically reordered to meet consumer demand,
 Slow-selling items can be identified, preventing a build-up of unwanted stock,
 The effects of repositioning a given product within a store can be monitored, allowing fast-moving more profitable items to occupy the best space,
 Historical data can be used to predict seasonal fluctuations very accurately.
 Items may be repriced on the shelf to reflect both sale prices and price increases.
 This technology also enables the profiling of individual consumers, typically through a voluntary registration of discount cards. While pitched as a benefit to the consumer, this practice is considered to be potentially dangerous by privacy advocates.
Besides sales and inventory tracking, barcodes are very useful in shipping/receiving/tracking.
 When a manufacturer packs a box with any given item, a Unique Identifying Number (UID) can be assigned to the box.
 A relational database can be created to relate the UID to relevant information about the box; such as order number, items packed, qty packed, final destination, etc.
 The information can be transmitted through a communication system such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) so the retailer has the information about a shipment before it arrives.
 Shipments that are sent to a Distribution Center (DC) are tracked before being forwarded to the final destination. When the shipment gets to the final destination, the UID gets scanned, so the store knows where the order came from, what's inside the box, and how much to pay the manufacturer.
The reason barcodes are business-friendly is that the scanners are relatively low cost and extremely accurate compared to key-entry, with only about 1 substitution error in 15,000 to 36 trillion characters entered.[14] The exact error rate depends on the type of barcode.
Use
Barcodes—especially the UPC—have slowly become an essential[citation needed] part of modern civilization. Their use is widespread, and the technology behind barcodes is constantly improving. Some modern applications of barcodes include:
 Almost every item purchased from a grocery store, department store, and mass merchandiser has a UPC barcode on it. This greatly helps in keeping track of a large number of items in a store and also reduces instances of shoplifting involving price tag swapping, although shoplifters can now print their own barcodes. Since the adoption of barcodes, both consumers and retailers have benefited from the savings generated.
 Barcodes are widely used in shop floor control applications software where employees can scan work orders and enter the time spent on a job.[10]
 Retail chain membership cards (issued mostly by grocery stores and specialty "big box" retail stores such as sporting equipment, office supply, or pet stores) use bar codes to uniquely identify a consumer. Retailers benefit by being able to offer customized marketing and greater understanding of individual consumer shopping patterns. Shoppers typically get special offers at the point of sale (coupons, product discounts) or special marketing offers through the address or e-mail address provided at registration.

Example of barcode on a patient identification wristband
 When used on patient identification, barcodes permit clinical staff to instantly access a wealth of vital patient data, including medical history, allergy warnings and other potentially life-saving medical information.
 Document Management tools often allow for barcoded sheets to facilitate the separation and indexing of documents that have been imaged in batch scanning applications.

Barcoded parcel sent from the Ukraine
 The tracking of item movement, including rental cars, airline luggage, nuclear waste, mail, express mail and parcels.
 In 2003 Paul Hebert suggested using bar coding techniques for organization of species. The barcode assigned is based on the CO1 gene.[11]
 Since 2005, airlines use an IATA-standard 2D barcode on boarding passes (BCBP), and since 2008 2D barcodes sent to mobile phones enable electronic boarding passes.[12]
 Recently, researchers have placed tiny barcodes on individual bees to track the insects' mating habits.
 Entertainment event tickets can have barcodes that need to be validated before allowing the holder to enter sports arenas, cinemas, theatres, fairgrounds, transportation etc. This can allow the proprietor to identify duplicate or fraudulent tickets more easily.
 Used on automobiles, can be located on front or back.
 Joined with in-motion checkweighers to identify the item being weighed in a conveyor line for data collection
 Some 2D barcodes embed a hyperlink to a web page. A capable cellphone might be used to read the barcode and browse the linked website.
 In the 1970s and 1980s, software source code was occasionally encoded in a barcode and printed on paper. Cauzin Softstrip and Paperbyte[13] are barcode symbologies specifically designed for this application.
 The 1991 Barcode Battler computer game system, which used any standard barcode to generate combat statistics.
 1992, Veterans Health Administration developed Bar Code Medication Administration system (BCMA).
 At the turn of the century, many artists started using barcodes in art, such as Scott Blake's Barcode Jesus.
I have also heard from a staff of the university library that if the university id will have barcodes, the students don’t need to have two different id’s for the university and the library. Students can also enter the library if the university ID will have barcodes because these will be the ones to be used in borrowing books from the library.

http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/Wi_Fi.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-book
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barcode
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wi-Fi
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Jovylin O. Sandoval

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: February 12, 2010, before 01:00pm)   Fri Jun 25, 2010 3:47 pm

The pace of change seems to increase relentlessly, especially changes involving information technology. Using your crystal ball, identify and discuss three changes likely to have substantial impact on your school services in the next three years.


The world is rapidly changing into something that no one can easily predict and rather difficult to calculate. Change is a thing that we must all face. Some changes are due to the advancement in technology, particularly information technology. The fast change in our environment affects every organization, even in our own university. That is why organizations nowadays want to create an organizational environment that is accessible to change in order to survive and grow and be competitive with the others.

Information Technology or “infotech” is simply the combination of computers and communication technologies. Information Technology deals with the use of electronic computers and software to manage information, to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and securely retrieve those information. According to Wikipedia, it was defined by the ITAA or Information Technology Association of America as the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. Information Technology is becoming persistent and having a great impact on all industries in terms of services and in manufacturing as well. As what I have read, as I surf the internet, information technology is a term used to refer an entire industry. In some organization, they have a Management Information system department or simply an IT department. And IT department is responsible for the storing, processing, protecting, transmitting and retrieving of the information. IT departments are handled by IT professional and those people perform a variety of tasks, and this may include data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, database and software design, and especially managing the entire system.

Every organization should be more flexible and adaptive due to the increasing global interdependencies and the accelerating pace of change. Information Technology is one solution to environmental change. An effective implementation of information technology would reduce the organization’s weaknesses through cutting the cost of expected and predicted failures and improve its flexibility by moderately reduce the rate of adjustments. The changes in information technology would lead to the evolution of new innovations and organizational structures. If an organization would successfully adopt the changes in information technology, it would lead a firm to an increasing competitiveness and success.

Talking about information technology and its changes, as a student and as part of the university, a change in the information technology affects not only the school but even the students and faculties. Since change is increasing relentlessly, our university is trying their best to cope up with that change. Honestly, in terms of technology, our university is not that competitive and innovative. Still, we don’t have enough computers that would cater more students at the same time. There are some services of the university that not all students can participate. If we look around the university, there are a lot of problems and some of those problems can be solved and lessen through the use of information technology. One thing that triggers the university to successfully adapt the changes is the cost. Though the university aims to be competitive with the other big schools and as the vision of the university, “premier university in the Asian region”, budget is an intruder to that dream. An implementation of new information technology needs a sufficient budget, especially on the hardware to the software that will be used. Resistance to change is one reason why a certain organization doesn’t want to implement a new information technology. Those organizations are left behind in the modern way of business since every process and transactions are manually done. But as I observe on our school, resistance to change is not a big risk. Everyone wants to be updated with the latest information technology but we fail to achieve this because of the cost.


How Technology Effects Education

The best method for improving educational standards is to utilize every tool available, including state-of-the-art technology. Computers and the Internet have expanded the way in which information can be delivered to the students of today. Today's networking technologies provide a valuable opportunity to practice new learning techniques.

Educators are discovering that computers are facilitating learning. Computer based communications, or Telecommunications, can offer many educational opportunities; therefore, educators will need to adapt current teaching methods to incorporate this new media into the classroom.

Computers have made a fundamental impact in most industries, providing a competitive advantage that has come to be essential to many businesses. Therefore, schools must also use technology to improve the educational process. School systems often consider purchasing a computer network,
and justify its purchase by applying it to routine administrative tasks, such as attendance records and grading. While these tasks are very important, they only show a small part of what technology can do for a school.

Technology must go further than simply keeping attendance; it must focus on keeping students interested and productive.

Since computers and the Internet have expanded in such a way in which education can be delivered to students, it is currently possible to engage in "distance education through the Internet.


Technological Change

Furthermore, Technological change (TC) is a term that is used to describe the overall process of invention, innovation and diffusion of technology or processes. The term is redundant with technological development, technological achievement, and technological progress. In essence TC is the invention of a technology (or a process), the continuous process of improving a technology (in which it often becomes cheaper) and its diffusion throughout industry or society. It its earlier days, technological change was illustrated with the 'Linear Model of Innovation', which has now been largely discarded to be replaced with a model of technological change that involves innovation at all stages of research, development, diffusion and use.


There 3 stages of technological change, these are the following:

Invention
It is a term used for creating something new.

Innovation
Innovation is a new way of doing something or "new stuff that is made useful". It may refer to incremental and emergent or radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations. Following Schumpeter (1934), contributors to the scholarly literature on innovation typically distinguish between invention, an idea made manifest, and innovation, ideas applied successfully in practice. In many fields, such as the arts, economics and government policy, something new must be substantially different to be innovative. In economics the change must increase value, customer value, or producer value. The goal of innovation is positive change, to make someone or something better. Innovation leading to increased productivity is the fundamental source of increasing wealth in an economy.

Innovation is an important topic in the study of economics, business, design, technology, sociology, and engineering. Colloquially, the word "innovation" is often synonymous with the output of the process. However, economists tend to focus on the process itself, from the origination of an idea to its transformation into something useful, to its implementation; and on the system within which the process of innovation unfolds. Since innovation is also considered a major driver of the economy, especially when it leads to new product categories or increasing productivity, the factors that lead to innovation are also considered to be critical to policy makers. In particular, followers of innovation economics stress using public policy to spur innovation and growth.

Diffusion
The spread of a technology through a society or industry. The diffusion of a technology generally follows an S-shaped curve as early versions of technology are rather unsuccessful, followed by a period of successful innovation with high levels of adoption, and finally a dropping off in adoption as a technology reaches its maximum potential in a market. In the case of a personal computer, it has made way beyond homes and into business settings, such as office workstations and server machines to host websites.

On the other hand, with the pace of changes that we are in right now in our generation, we all know and observe too that the changes involving the information technology is really so fast. So, because of that, in relating to it, when I have the chance to use my own crystal ball, the three most changes that I would identify and discuss that I likely to have which substantially impact on our school services in the next three years are the following:

a. IT Infrastructural

If I have that crystal ball, I want to make changes on the information technology infrastructure of the University for a Better Service on students. We do have a centralize container on all records and information of all the students, faculty and staff but the physical process on getting those information is redundant.

In today’s complex business environment, new opportunities constantly emerge, which can challenge a company’s ability to quickly and successfully respond. These new opportunities often stem from a company’s ability to “connect with and know” their customers, suppliers and partners in order to be successful in the world of e-business. Driving these opportunities may be changing technology or market, social and legislative issues. Too often companies may want to capitalize on these new opportunities but are delayed or even prohibited by the changes required to their information technology (IT) systems. No CEO wants to hear that the company’s information technology systems and networks are so complex that making changes to foster customer service, enable a new sales channel or improve supply chain dynamics is an extremely costly and lengthy process. Or even worse, that after these changes are made, the IT infrastructure is unable to meet the new capacity, performance and availability demands. To be successful today, you must be able to respond rapidly to changing conditions, and this means that your IT infrastructure is key. No longer do you have the luxury of implementing changes to your infrastructure after a new initiative is clearly defined. Instead, you must ensure that your current IT infrastructure is flexible and ready for future needs. You cannot have your business stymied by an oppressive IT environment that is a hindrance to success. Instead, you must be able to implement new business functions or change existing ones as quickly and painlessly as possible.

Need for change in your IT infrastructure

Companies earnings outstrip forecasts, consumer confidence is retuning and city bonuses are back. What does this mean for business? Growth! After the recent years of cost cutting in IT budgets, there is the sudden fear induced from increased demand. Pre-existing trouble points in IT infrastructures that have lain dormant will suddenly be exposed. Monthly reporting and real time analytics will suffer as data grows. IT departments across the land will be crying out “The engine canna take no more captain”. What can be done?

What we need is a scalable system that grows with the business. A system that can handle sudden increases in data growth without falling over. There are two core principles to a scalable system (1) Users experience constant QoS as demand grows (2) System Architects can grow system capacity proportionally with the available resources. In other words, if demand increases twofold, it is “enough” to purchase twice the hardware.

This is linear growth. Is it enough to satisfy CEOs IT demands? Generally, the achievement of linear growth is favorable. In computational science, software problems are characterized by their complexity denoted as O(n). Trivial problems to solve are O(n). An example, is the simple summing of employee salaries. With increasing problem complexity we can observe O(n2), O(n3), or O(2(n)). How does this relate to ensuring I get the same performance as my data grows? Well, an O(n3) problem means that if the number of database records grows 3x, the amount of hardware needs to grow 27x to maintain QoS.

Computational complexity can be minimized using code level techniques, especially if the code is badly written. However, the fact is that with certain problems, their complexity will never be lowered. For instance, NP-complete problems require non polynomial computation time. In other words, only small datasets can be processed due to their massive computation times - optimization of cargo storage is one such example.

However, if badly implemented, the simple summing of employee salaries can become NP-complete! What can be learnt? Consider your-self lucky if the problem grows linearly.

So, are we cursed to buying X times hardware each time our domain grows X items? No. Polynomials have many parameters (y=a+ b*x + c * x*x…). “a” indicates the starting barrier. “b, c” indicate the steepness of the curve. For small sets, it is possible that the problem of a cubic complexity grows slower than linear. For large sets, it is impossible.

Need for change

The spiraling growth in data can be anticipated and planned for. The need can be predicted based on (1) past experience, (2) known amount of data, eg by market impact, (3) complexity calculations. Take Facebook, which has 850 million photos and 7 million videos that need storing per month. To cope with exponential data increase, expenditure on its data centers has risen from $30 million, 2007 to $100 billion, 2009.

Facebook's rapid expansion was only achieved with a clear and forward thinking IT strategy. Successful IT planning needs (1) responsible people (2) brave decision makers. A culture of responsibility needs to be instilled within businesses. Underlying problems of the IT infrastructure must not be hidden from upper management. Decision makers need to know about problems. Only then, can pro-active decisions be made that guarantee an agile response to growth. IT cannot be allowed to block business.

Often, warning signs are ignored and the need for change comes too late: “We need our new system tomorrow”. Tomorrows systems only add up to more steel. This is better known as “save your ass tactics” - a quick fix with poor ROI.



b. RFID as New Student’s ID

RFID or Radio Frequency Identification is currently being used around the world. Philippines tried to implement a system with Radio Frequency Identification as their tool but unfortunately it’s implementation is being suspended (As Far As I know ) because some motorist in our country are complaining on the extra cost of installing a RFID on their vehicle and some people are concerned of privacy issues. RFID works like an identification card where every RFID is distinct and unique from each other. A gadget is pointed towards the RFID sticker and then data would be retrieved from the said RFID stickers. This is a big help to the authorities as they can know the driver of the vehicle even though they are far away from the field.

So how does this technology be useful to our school? It is simple. Give RFID cards to students instead of the normal plastic cards. This may sound useless but think of the relief that it could give to the authorities of the school. The security of the school would be improved if this technology would be utilized by the university. How could I say that the security may improve? Imagine a gadget similar to a close circuit television camera that could read RFID would be installed on the gate for example and a live feed of the entrance of the gate is being displayed on the guards monitor. If you have an RFID card clipped on your uniform, a mark would be put onto you by the system saying that you are a student of the university and people without marks could be easily identified as outsiders. Breach of security on the university would be minimized. Another possible use of this technology is could be a database of information for a specific student. Flashing your card to a gadget would easily retrieve your unique information and perform processes that a system may provide. For example, instead of lining up on the student’s account section of the finance division and asking how much your balance is but instead you may just flash your card on the gadget and after that a slip would be printed with all your liabilities to the school. This process could really hasten the process as you don’t have to wait for the personnel to check, compute and write your liabilities. (This could take up time especially if there is a long queue).

I foresee that processes around the school would be hastened with the help of RFID. It may replace all Identification Card being used inside the school such as our school identification card, library card, scholarship card and other cards that are being used inside the university. RFID cards are useful because it could serve as your walking database of school information.

c. Wireless fidelity (WI-Fi)

A communication technology that uses the 'Direct-sequence spread spectrum radio technology' and the 'Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing radio technology', Wi-Fi is the trademark used by a trade group known as Wi-fi Alliance. The essence of the Wi-Fi technology is that, it acts as a bridge between wireless devices that operate on different technologies. So what does Wi-Fi stand for? The term Wi-Fi is used for wireless fidelity. Although the word, Wi-Fi is used as a substitute for 'wireless LAN', every single LAN (Local Area Network) is not necessarily certified by the Wi-Fi Alliance.

How Does Wi-Fi Work
Radio waves are used for the working of Wi-Fi technology. The wireless adapter of the computer and the wireless router play an important role in its working. The adapter receives data from the computer in digital form. This data, after its conversion in radio waves is sent to the router by means of an antenna. The router decodes the signal and sends it to the Internet. The process is reversed when information is sent from the Internet to a computer.
The difference between the radio waves sent by Wi-Fi and those sent by walkie-talkies and cell phones is that Wi-Fi uses high frequency waves of 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz. The Wi-Fi technology operates on the platform of IEEE 802.11 networking standards. Implemented by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standard Committee, the 802.11 networking standards have different forms such as 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n.

References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innovation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technological_change.
http://bigdatamatters.com/bigdatamatters/2009/10/need-for-infrastructure-change.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio-frequency_identification
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wi-Fi
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PostSubject: MIS – Assignment 9   Tue Jun 29, 2010 10:56 pm

The pace of change seems to increase relentlessly, especially changes involving information technology. Using your crystal ball, identify and discuss three changes likely to have substantial impact on your school services in the next three years. (1500 words)

As we have seen and notice right now technology is expanding all over the world and we can’t deny that almost a hundred percent of the people rely in the technology for sustaining their everyday work of living. Our world today has changed a great deal with the aid of information technology. Things that were once done manually or by hand have now become computerized operating systems, which simply require a single click of a mouse to get a task completed. With the aid of IT we are not only able to stream line our business processes but we are also able to get constant information in 'real time' that is up to the minute and up to date. The significance of IT can be seen from the fact that it has penetrated almost every aspect of our daily lives from business to leisure and even society. Today personal PCs, cell phones, fax machines, pagers, email and internet have all not only become an integral part of our very culture but also play an essential role in our day to day activities. With such a wide scope for the purpose of this article we shall focus on the impact of the internet in information technology.
Technology, in this fast-changing world is very important in our daily existence. The world has never been the same with technology around. Every year, technological advancements are made to make us live with ease. However, technology has its share of adverse effects to humanity as well. With new technology, countries have been destroyed and thousands of lives are lost. Some people take advantage of technology, using it for personal gain. Out of greed, people use high-powered technology to get ahead of others. This should never be the case. Technology was invented to make life easier for all of us, not to destroy us. Advertising and marketing has played a big role in the influence of technology to humanity. Information technology has a great impact in our daily lives, as our environment changes also the technology changes rapidly. People need to adopt those rapid changes and fast innovation of information technology. The role of digital technology in the evolving knowledge society is comparable to that of the railroad during the Industrial Revolution. With the aid of information-technology “tracks”—high-speed computer and telecommunications systems—now inter-connecting so much of the world, reaching into the marketplace, government, and our homes and lives, we often learn about events virtually as soon as they occur and we are able to process the information in a myriad of increasingly useful ways. Changes involving information technology nowadays is really fast. Information technology has been used in all companies and establishments, especially in school. The use of information technology in school is very important so that the students can know what the latest trends in IT are nowadays and also to help the students in sufficing their need.
In the near future, there would be more expansion on technology as what have said that technology nowadays is fast changing. Technology development plays a major role in the society, organizations, process and also in the institutions or shall we say in schools. With the fast- pace of technology, schools should cope with it to equip the students with new technology and to continue improve for the better future. Since, students or youth is the hope of the country, students should endow and expose with these new technologies to have a better education for the young minds. If there are changes most likely to happen within the university probably there would be a great emphasis on the upgrades of hardware and software components, supplementary trainings and empowerment of more IS/IT personnel, the use of technology as a method of instruction, and students’ access to computers and internet in learning.
Since, Information technology means the use of technologies from computing, electronics, and telecommunications to process and distribute information in digital and other forms. Information technology includes two distinct components. These components are the hardware and software components of a computer system. Since, information technology covers two components, improvements in those two areas would see slowly in the next three years to be enacted. In terms of hardware components, it would be a great contribution for the expansion and improvement of the technology offered to the students of the school. There would be improvement not only on the outside appearance of the computer but also in its inner components. Higher capacity and specifications for hardware components will provide a faster processing that will, of course evident if the software component also goes along with its high specification. Moreover, new and sufficient amount of equipments or gadgets for the school instructors, staff and especially to the students should be satisfied.
But of course, with the computer components it should be accompanied in promoting green computing. With the energy shortage that the country is experiencing right now and the abnormal fluctuations of the earth’s temperature, more and more people are already aware of the significance of protecting our environment and conserving energy. Because of this, the university should consider the environmental effects of the hardware components that will be bought in the future.

IT Infrastructure
Next change would be the IT infrastructure. Infrastructure defined by Wikipedia is the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. Having a change on the infrastructure of the university specially the IT infrastructure could also have a big impact on the university services. If there would be changes I hope these would be additions on the facilities that the students would make use of not deduction of this. To wrap it up changes would not mean there would be additions all the time it could sometime mean removing some services. Changes could have positive impact to which it concerns but not all the time it could be for improvement, there are times negative outputs come out of the new implementations or changes that are made. According to (Malone and Crowston, the increasing speed pace of change require more flexible and adaptive organizations. Rockart and Short cites the ballooning need for the interdependence of organizational structure to IT in managing competitive pressures that included globalization, time-based competition, increased market risk, and a greater emphasis on customer service and cost reduction. Bennis states that "the organization's response to the environment will continue to be the crucial determinant for its effectiveness." As organizations use information, effective usage of Information Technology likely results to the organizations development and growth. It is apparent that IT has great impact in the university, and whatever changes in IT has the university as an IT-reliant organization has to go with the changes in order not to be behind. As Keen (1991) noted that IT increasingly and continuously affects the organizations operations as well as its behavior including issues as on how the organization organize, transact business, and contend with other organization.


Free internet (Wi-Fi) access
Wi-fi is the name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance, the organization that owns the Wi-Fi (registered trademark) term specifically defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local areanetwork (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards."Initially, Wi-Fi was used in place of only the 2.4GHz 802.11b standard, however the Wi-Fi Alliance has expanded the generic use of the Wi-Fi term to include any type of network or WLAN product based on any of the 802.11 standards, including 802.11b, 802.11a, dual-band, and so on, in an attempt to stop confusion about wireless LAN interoperability.Wi-Fi works with no physical wired connection between sender and receiver by using radio frequency (RF) technology, a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation.

Recently, I have been noticing that more and more students are now using portable computers like laptops and notebooks even those students whose courses are not even computer related. This is now quite evident maybe because of the fact that laptops nowadays are more affordable compared to laptops before. How much more in the future? With the increasing population of students that are using laptops, it is a shame that up to now there is still no free wifi access in the university for the students. I can still notice some students with laptops are sneaking near offices and faculty rooms within the university just to have free wifi access. To make it worse, there are security restrictions which prevent the student from accessing the wifi connection. The university admin may say that there is no need for a free wifi access because the university already has a virtual laboratory to suffice the internet needs of the students. This may be true for those students who don’t have personal computers. But what about those students who literally use their laptops as personal notebooks that they even use during classes. And let’s all face it, the computers provided by the computer laboratories are not that satisfactory when it comes to data processing and the computer laboratory cannot accommodate all the students because of the scarcity of computers. The least the university can do is provide a free wifi service in which the students who has laptops can access free internet by just staying inside the campus. I believe that this kind of change will be a “substantial change for the good” because I believe that it will really help the students in particular to stay inside the campus than go outside just to access the internet.

Process Automation
In the next three years, considering the rapid changes including the changes on information technology I can say that almost all of the services that can be adopt into automated system will be innovated into automated one. Using internet services, computers, data storage servers, the student’s knowledge on information technology, and the teacher’s guidance and administration, full service automation can be achieved. Nowadays some services in the university still use a manual system, in the next three years all of those services will be change into an automated one. Through automated services, faster performance and services will be achieve and satisfy the needs of service takers. To cope with the new trend in the technology, automation of the processes should be done. Processes provided by the university to the students and processes that are made by the school. Processes mean many things in regard to the school. School ID system using barcodes, is one of many other processes. As I have observed, most universities in Davao already adapted the technology of using the school id system to facilitate and improve their services. It is unfortunate that up until now, the university hasn’t taken the advantage of using our school ids to improve student services. Three years from now, I can see that there is a significant improvement in the school services through the use of embedded bar codes in our school ids. Through bar codes, student ID cards can act as a "portable database" where we can store digital photographs, signatures, schedule data, emergency contact information and even biometric data in a single code the size of a magnetic stripe - all at virtually no extra cost. Automation also includes library automation, such as borrowing of books would also be possible by using barcodes. As well as, science laboratory automation of equipments for more accurate inventory of available equipments. Class scheduling system would also be among with it and much other automation of processes that can offer great improvement to the school and to its students. Barcode technology is most accurate and least expensive way to identify and get data into the computer. The extent of achievement in the library after introduction of barcode technology is quite high. The following are the benefits of the barcode technology: Improved operational efficiency: Manual charging/ discharging of documents is very cumbersome. Operational efficiency has improved a lot after using the barcode technology as barcodes permit faster recording of information. Accuracy: In the manual system, the writing of accession number and member code may result in charging/discharging a wrong book to a wrong member. But barcode scans accession number and member code at the time of charging/discharging to ensure the accuracy in transactions. It leads to an error free data entry. With the help of barcode issue/return of documents can be done faster, which helps in saving the time of both the user as well as library staff. Barcode helps reducing in cost of preparing duplicate borrowers card.
A barcode is an optical machine-readable representation of data, which shows certain data on certain products. Originally, barcodes represented data in the widths (lines) and the spacings of parallel lines, and may be referred to as linear or 1D (1 dimensional) barcodes or symbologies. They also come in patterns of squares, dots, hexagons and other geometric patterns within images termed 2D (2 dimensional) matrix codes or symbologies. Although 2D systems use symbols other than bars, they are generally referred to as barcodes as well. Barcodes can be read by optical scanners called barcode readers, or scanned from an image by special software. Barcode technology is fast and user-friendly. Barcode will help in stock verification expeditiously and easily. Barcode will help in maintaining duplicate borrowers’ card, which were occupying more space on the issue counter. Issuing of no dues certificate will become easy; it was very cumbersome to verify from a manual system. It will facilitate preparation of reminders and fine lists for overdue books. It provides reliable statistics. It adds to elegance and aesthetics of the front office and its activities.
Benefits
In point-of-sale management, the use of barcodes can provide very detailed up-to-date information on key aspects of the business, enabling decisions to be made much more quickly and with more confidence. For example:
Arrow Fast-selling items can be identified quickly and automatically reordered to meet consumer demand,
Arrow Slow-selling items can be identified, preventing a build-up of unwanted stock,
Arrow The effects of repositioning a given product within a store can be monitored, allowing fast-moving more profitable items to occupy the best space,
Arrow Historical data can be used to predict seasonal fluctuations very accurately.
Arrow Items may be repriced on the shelf to reflect both sale prices and price increases.
Arrow This technology also enables the profiling of individual consumers, typically through a voluntary registration of discount cards. While pitched as a benefit to the consumer, this practice is considered to be potentially dangerous by privacy advocates.
Besides sales and inventory tracking, barcodes are very useful in shipping/receiving/tracking.
Arrow When a manufacturer packs a box with any given item, a Unique Identifying Number (UID) can be assigned to the box.
Arrow A relational database can be created to relate the UID to relevant information about the box; such as order number, items packed, qty packed, final destination, etc.
Arrow The information can be transmitted through a communication system such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) so the retailer has the information about a shipment before it arrives.
Arrow Shipments that are sent to a Distribution Center (DC) are tracked before being forwarded to the final destination. When the shipment gets to the final destination, the UID gets scanned, so the store knows where the order came from, what's inside the box, and how much to pay the manufacturer.
The reason barcodes are business-friendly is that the scanners are relatively low cost and extremely accurate compared to key-entry, with only about 1 substitution error in 15,000 to 36 trillion characters entered.[14] The exact error rate depends on the type of barcode.
Use
Barcodes—especially the UPC—have slowly become an essential[citation needed] part of modern civilization. Their use is widespread, and the technology behind barcodes is constantly improving. Some modern applications of barcodes include:
Arrow Almost every item purchased from a grocery store, department store, and mass merchandiser has a UPC barcode on it. This greatly helps in keeping track of a large number of items in a store and also reduces instances of shoplifting involving price tag swapping, although shoplifters can now print their own barcodes. Since the adoption of barcodes, both consumers and retailers have benefited from the savings generated.
Arrow Barcodes are widely used in shop floor control applications software where employees can scan work orders and enter the time spent on a job.[10]
Arrow Retail chain membership cards (issued mostly by grocery stores and specialty "big box" retail stores such as sporting equipment, office supply, or pet stores) use bar codes to uniquely identify a consumer. Retailers benefit by being able to offer customized marketing and greater understanding of individual consumer shopping patterns. Shoppers typically get special offers at the point of sale (coupons, product discounts) or special marketing offers through the address or e-mail address provided at registration.

The increasing speed pace of change requires more flexible and adaptive organizations. The ballooning need for the interdependence of organizational structure to IT in managing competitive pressures that included globalization, time-based competition, increased market risk, and a greater emphasis on customer service and cost reduction. The organization's response to the environment will continue to be the crucial determinant for its effectiveness. As organizations use information, effective usage of Information Technology likely results to the organizations development and growth. It is apparent that IT has great impact in the university, and whatever changes in IT has the university as an IT-reliant organization has to go with the changes in order not to be behind. Through the help of information technology, university services will be faster and accurate. As the University adopts the fast changing environment involving information technology, such as the combination of the two changes above, having a full automation (computerize system), and advance and enough technology resources this changes will be achieve. It is noted that IT increasingly and continuously affects the organizations operations as well as its behavior including issues as on how the organization organize, transact business, and contend with other organization.


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: February 12, 2010, before 01:00pm)   Thu Jul 08, 2010 11:27 am

Question:

The pace of change seems to increase relentlessly, especially changes involving information technology. Using your crystal ball, identify and discuss three changes likely to have substantial impact on your school services in the next three years.


Technology isn’t just changing, there seems to be an ever accelerating rate of change. Things are changing so quickly that it’s almost impossible to keep up with all of the developments. And it’s even harder to grasp the significance of this exponential growth in the speed and power of electronic devices. More and more colleges and universities have begun to embrace technology and incorporate it into the classroom. From class scheduling to homework assignment submission, new technology is changing the way that schools handle most traditional aspects of the educational experience. At the most basic level, more teachers are embracing new tools, whether it’s an e-book lecture for their courses. Even more so, students are using these tools to thrive in their educational environment. The development of technology is really increasing as the days pass by. New discoveries, inventories and of course new technology are coming and approaching. It is like a population in which everyday the number of people are multiplying due to new born babies. Information technology plays a big role in the IT industry. It is the heart of the company. Why? Its because without the system in it, there's no company at all. Its system gives the company the way it is to be done and gives a certain company and organization the simple way to the complicated things to do. And also it makes all the processes and transactions to be made easy, reliable and relevant. I did say it that way because I am one of the witnesses about the changes today. I know that we are all witness to that every change made and brought by the technology in our lives. Everyone can determine the difference before and now. Almost were automated. And that's why a name called “resistance” is present always if ever there's a change even in a little and big thing.
In the library system of the University of Southeastern Philippines is not all automated. Just like when you are going to enter and leave the library. From entering to leaving of the university library, it is not automated. Just not like in any universities here in the Philippines, for example in Silliman University, as you entered to the room, you cannot easily entered into it without a specialized card that will be scanned by a machine. This card contains profile of the student so that the computer will store all the data of the students who were visited the university library. This kind of technology is good so that it easy for the library personnel to conduct a survey of what course has the most number of students who visits in the library. Not just like that, this kind of technology will help also the library personnel to detect those students who are fond of collecting books without in the proper borrowing methods. Once the machine detects a book that was not yet confirmed as a borrowed book, the machine will just alarm so that the librarian will alarmed his or her self to hold the student from snatching it.
1.RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology is proven to be a promising alternative in relieving the library staff from time-consuming routines. What is meant by RFID? According to Wikipedia, Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the use of an object (typically referred to as an RFID tag) applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader. Radio-frequency identification comprises interrogators (also known as readers), and tags (also known as labels). Most RFID tags contain at least two parts. One is an integrated circuit for storing and processing information, modulating and demodulating a radio-frequency (RF) signal, and other specialized functions. The second is an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. There are generally three types of RFID tags: active RFID tags, which contain a battery and can transmit signals autonomously, passive RFID tags, which have no battery and require an external source to provoke signal transmission, and battery assisted passive (BAP) RFID tags, which require an external source to wake up but have significant higher forward link capability providing greater range.RFID is an innovative automated library system for automatic identification and tracking of library material. An automated library with the support of RFID technology would be a Book smart library and a self service station that insists least intervention by library personnel. RFID technology is helpful in taking inventory. Finding missing items and identifying misfiled items. Tags or transponders, the vital components of RFID, are the electronic chips consisting of an integrated circuit and antenna coil that communicate with a reader by means of radio frequency signal. Since RFID does not require line of sight between the transponder and the reader, it surmounts the limitations of other automatic identification devices such as bar coding. The automation of libraries and information centers that was centered around the use of computers just like for example in the place of India. It is for housekeeping operations and information services by individual libraries. There will be many factors responsible in the automation of libraries. Information explosion increased user’s demand, labour intensive nature of work, changing concepts of documents. Application of modern management techniques reduced response time and need for resource sharing are important elements With the tremendous capabilities of computer, libraries started using computers for the in-house operations. Emerging technologies that relieve the personnel from time consuming library operations, have always been of interest to libraries. When libraries of all kinds be in public, academic, special are facing budget crunches, considering new technologies as the potential alternatives for cost saving and hassle free management of library operations is imperative. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) system is such a promising alternative that aid in the efficient flow of library material. Currently, RFID applications range from book tracking and stock management, to theft detection and automatic book sorting. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is a dynamic link between people, objects and processes and in the near future it plays a prime role in data collection, identification as well as analysis necessary for specific library operations. Efforts are being made to introduce self-service check-in and check-out that avoid the long delay in the delivery of library material and also for achieving better efficiency in operations. RFID is used in libraries primarily to automate the book handling process including checkout, inventory control, check-in and anti theft. When combined with computer assisted sorting equipment, RFID facilitates and speeds up even book sorting. Automating the library material handling process allows librarians to spend more time with the clientele, thus, increasing the user satisfaction. One of the major benefits of an RFID system in a library is the ease of check-in and checkout of library items. In a library, an RFID system consists of a smart label, a reader or hardware for interrogating the smart label and a software for controlling the hardware and decoding the responses from smart labels. RFID was introduced in the early 1980s for item tracking and access control applications. Tracking of materials is done using radio frequency based technology combined with microchip technology, hence designated as RFID. These contact less and wireless automatic identification data capturing systems are highly effective in hostile environments such as industry and logistics, textile and libraries, where barcode labels cannot survive and need for inventory control and waste management. Owing to its ability to track moving objects RFID has been established itself in livestock identification and automated vehicle identification systems. In recent times, its use has raised to track books, audio/video tapes and other multimedia collection in a library. After realizing the advantages of RFID technology, libraries are considering it, the more productive tool for flow management sooner than barcodes and other identification technologies. RFID is a technology that is sparking interest in the library community because of its applications that promise to increase efficiency, productivity and enhance user satisfaction. Globally emerging knowledge based societies of the twenty-first century will need information to sustain their growth and prosperity. With intellectual capital as investments, knowledge and information have become wealth generators. A library stacked with books and other information dissemination processes, has a physical presence. A library is an institution of knowledge acquisition and learning it provides invaluable service to its members. Current library management systems use barcode technology and RFID also. The library has dual systems barcode as well as RFID. Using barcodes, a library management system can keep records of lending, borrowing and shelving status of items such as books, audio or video tapes, CDs, DVDs, etc. Security strips on library items tag their movements. But barcodes and security strips which are the electronic article surveillance or EAS have their limitations. They are slow to read and are prone o sabotaging by thieves. All this lead to irreparable loss to a library and its valuable inventory stock. This is where RFID technology can come to the aid of library managers and users. It is expected that by adopting an RFID solution for University of Southeastern Philippines will be able to control misuse of its library and at the same time provide its users the best possible facilities access to rare manuscripts. This is from the manual system to electronic. By this, transactions are made easier and faster which gives students benefits and hassle free. It also gives students satisfaction in a way that they don’t have to waste their time to just fill-up lots of paper so that they can borrow books. Automation of book borrowing gives substantial impact since it is one of the schools services that need to be in accordance to what the students’ needs and wants without any wasting of time and etc. By this automated book borrowing, the university will also be proud of since IC students will be the one to make it. It also gives a good feeling because this will be one of the results of studying in the university. It shows that the university is slowly coping with all the technology development that is going through these days. Since the technology is fast changing.

2.
2.) Free Wi-Fi spots in all area of USeP
Since the school recently have Wi-Fi spots but there are some area are exclusive for personnel only. But I do believe that this coming 3 years, the University has a Wi-fi connection. This is very helpful to the students and visitor also to access the net even they are in school. Wi-Fi, which stands for wireless fidelity, in a play on the older term Hi-Fi, is a wireless networking technology used across the globe. Wi-Fi refers to any system that uses the 802.11 standard, which was developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and released in 1997. The term Wi-Fi, which is alternatively spelled WiFi, Wi-fi, Wifi, or wifi, was pushed by the Wi-Fi Alliance, a trade group that pioneered commercialization of the technology. In a Wi-Fi network, computers with wifi network cards connect wirelessly to a wireless router. The router is connected to the Internet by means of a modem, typically a cable or DSL modem. Any user within 200 feet or so (about 61 meters) of the access point can then connect to the Internet, though for good transfer rates, distances of 100 feet (30.5 meters) or less are more common. Retailers also sell wireless signal boosters that extend the range of a wireless network.

Wifi networks can either be "open", such that anyone can use them, or "closed", in which case a password is needed. An area blanketed in wireless access is often called a wireless hotspot. There are efforts underway to turn entire cities, such as San Francisco, Portland, and Philadelphia, into big wireless hotspots.
Since most of the corners of the school campus does have wireless or internet or the simply so-called WiFi and wireless network connections that do not require via cables and other mediums, the WiFi technology will be strengthen more. If whole campus of USEP will be WiFi there will be advtanges and challenges. Wikipedia.com stressed some operational advantages; Wi-Fi allows the deployment of local area networks (LANs) without wires for client devices, typically reducing the costs of network deployment and expansion. Spaces where cables cannot be run, such as outdoor areas and historical buildings, can host wireless LANs.

As of 2010 manufacturers build wireless network adapters into most laptops. The price of chipsets for Wi-Fi continues to drop, making it an economical networking option included in even more devices. Wi-Fi has become widespread in corporate infrastructures.

Different competitive brands of access points and client network-interfaces can inter-operate at a basic level of service. Products designated as "Wi-Fi Certified" by the Wi-Fi Alliance are backwards compatible. "Wi-Fi" designates a globally operative set of standards: unlike mobile phones, any standard Wi-Fi device will work anywhere in the world.
Wi-Fi operates in more than 220,000 public hotspots and in tens of millions of homes and corporate and university campuses worldwide. The current version of Wi-Fi Protected Access encryption (WPA2) as of 2010 is considered secure, provided users employ a strongpassphrase. New protocols for quality-of-service (WMM) make Wi-Fi more suitable for latency-sensitive applications (such as voice and video); and power saving mechanisms (WMM Power Save) improve battery operation.

In Data Security Risks, according to Wikipedia.com the most common wireless encryption-standard, Wired Equivalent Privacy or WEP, has been shown to be easily breakable even when correctly configured. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2) encryption, which became available in devices in 2003, aimed to solve this problem. Wi-Fi access points typically default to an encryption-free (open) mode. Novice users benefit from a zero-configuration device that works out-of-the-box, but this default does not enable any wireless security, providing open wireless access to a LAN. To turn security on requires the user to configure the device, usually via a software graphical user interface (GUI). On unencrypted Wi-Fi networks connecting devices can monitored and record data (including personal information), but such networks may use other means of protection, such as a virtual private network or secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS) and Transport Layer Security.
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encryption was designed to protect against casual snooping, but is now deprecated. Tools such asAirSnort or Aircrack-ng can quickly recover WEP encryption keys. Once it has seen 5-10 million encrypted packets, AirSnort can determine the encryption password in under a second; newer tools such as aircrack-ptw can use Klein's attack to crack a WEP key with a 50% success rate using only 40,000 packets.
To counteract this in 2002, the Wi-Fi Alliance approved Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) which uses TKIP as a stopgap solution for legacy equipment. Though more secure than WEP, it has outlived its designed lifetime, has known attack vectors and is no longer recommended.
3. Virtual Library

What is a virtual library? The term has been defined by many different people in many different ways. It is a library in which the holdings are found in electronic stacks. It is a library that exists, without any regard to a physical space or location. It is a technological way to bring together the resources of various libraries and information services, both internal and external, all in one place, so users can find what they need quickly and easily.

Sounds great, right? Well, the virtual library also has its drawbacks and limitations. Michael Schuyler makes this point very clearly with his definition of the virtual library. He likens the virtual library to a popsicle, stating that "…[i]f the electricity goes off, the cold goes away - and so does the popsicle, leaving a soggy smear on the shelf where something substantial once resided. The virtual library suffers the same vulnerability and the same precarious existence." 2

However, when they work, virtual libraries can be very useful and very diverse in what they contain. The options for what they can include are virtually endless, and become more and more boundless as technology advances. Some of the content of a virtual library may include, but certainly is not limited to, CD-ROM, Internet subscriptions, lists of annotated web links, internal work products (such as brief banks), proprietary databases (such as LexisNexis or Westlaw) and even web spiders or push technology that deliver targeted research to the user.

So, what does the future hold? What will the law library of the future look like? Or will it even exist at all? The simple answer is yes, it will exist. It will most likely still be similar to what it is today - a carefully thought out mix of electronic and paper resources. Over time, products will find their own niche, or more precisely, librarians will figure out what products are better in print and what products are better electronically, striking the appropriate balance between the two. So, the future doesn't look too much different from the present. And, surely, we are not moving any closer to the"paperless society" that everyone was talking about. In fact, I think we're moving farther in the opposite direction every day.

What will the role of the librarian be in all of this? Will librarians even exist at all? The simple answer, again, is yes, definitely. Librarians will continue to be able to do and provide more for users than ever before with the advantages provided by virtual libraries. We will continue to work towards providing users with seamless, organized access to virtual library resources. Perhaps we will even start to push the envelope and become innovators in the use of nontraditional training and reference services. Who knows? As long as librarians continue to share with one another, both informally and on Internet discussion lists, and at conferences, the opportunities and possibilities are ours for the taking.
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 9 (Due: February 12, 2010, before 01:00pm)   

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Assignment 9 (Due: February 12, 2010, before 01:00pm)
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